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Hi, one day if I grow up I plan on doing an interrupted bio of Thomas Dodd. Any good sources on this exuberant citizen would be greatly appreciated. As for what aspect of his life, I am all too open-minded; experience has taught me if it's Thomas Dodd its gotta be weird.
Thomas Joseph Dodd (May 15, 1907 – May 24, 1971) was a United States Senator and Representative from Connecticut, He was the first Senator censured by the US Senate since Joseph McCarthy in 1954, and was one of only six people censured by the Senate in the 20th century. He is the father of U.S. Senator Christopher Dodd and Thomas J. Dodd, Jr., who served as the United States Ambassador to Uruguay from 1993–1997 and to Costa Rica from 1997-2001 .Contents [hide]
1 Early life
2 Nuremberg Trials
3 Congress
4 Senate censure and loss of office
5 Death and Legacy
6 Portrayal in popular culture
7 Footnotes
8 External links

Early life

Dodd was born in Norwich, New London County, to Abigail Margaret O'Sullivan and Thomas Joseph Dodd, a building contractor; all four of his grandparents were immigrants from Ireland.[1] He graduated from Saint Anselm College's preparatory school, run by Benedictine monks in Manchester, New Hampshire, in 1926[2]. He graduated from Providence College in 1930 with a degree in philosophy, and from Yale University Law School in 1933. In 1934, Dodd married Grace Murphy of Westerly, Rhode Island. They had six children.[3]

He served as a special agent for the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1933 and 1934, the highlight of his career there being his participation in an unsuccessful trap set for famed gangster John Dillinger.[4] He was then Connecticut director of the National Youth Administration from 1935 to 1938. He was assistant to five successive United States Attorneys General (Homer Cummings, Frank Murphy, Robert Jackson, Francis Biddle and Tom Clark) from 1938 to 1945.[5]

As a special agent for the Attorney General, Dodd was basically a trial-level federal prosecutor. He worked primarily on criminal and civil liberties cases, including the prosecution of the Ku Klux Klan in the 1930s.[5] In 1942 he was sent to Hartford to prosecute a major spy ring case in which five men were accused of violating the Espionage Act of 1917 by conspiring to gather and deliver U.S. Army, Navy, and defense information to Germany or Japan. Four of the five pled guilty; Dodd tried and won the conviction of the fifth, Reverend Kurt Emil Bruno Molzahn.[6]

Dodd became vice chairman of the Board of Review and later executive trial counsel for the Office of the United States Chief of Counsel for the Prosecution of Axis Criminality at Nuremberg, Germany, in 1945 and 1946. He practiced law privately in Hartford, Connecticut, from 1947 to 1953.
Nuremberg Trials

Both Supreme Court Justice Robert H. Jackson, chief prosecutor for the U.S., and Dodd insisted upon a fair and legal trial to prosecute the Nazi war criminals. Dodd accepted Jackson's offer to join him in Germany. Dodd expected the position to last only several months, but he wound up spending 15 months there. Dodd suggested Heidelberg as the location for the International Military Tribunal, since it had survived the war almost completely unscathed, but Nuremberg was eventually chosen.[7] In October 1945, Jackson named Dodd to his senior Trial Board for the Nuremberg Trials, and later in 1946, named him Executive Trial Counsel, putting him in the number-two position at the trials. In the summer of 1946, Jackson appointed Dodd as the acting Chief of Counsel while he returned to DC. Dodd finally returned to the U.S. in October 1946.[5] He described the delegation as "an autopsy on history's most horrible catalogue of human crime."[8]

Dodd cross-examined defendants Wilhelm Keitel, Alfred Rosenberg, Hans Frank, Walther Funk, Baldur von Schirach, Fritz Sauckel and Arthur Seyss-Inquart. In addition to cross-examining, Dodd drafted indictments against the defendants, showed films of concentration camps, provided evidence of slave labor programs, and presented evidence of economic preparations by the Nazis for an aggressive war.[5]

Dodd showed through his evidence that Ukrainian Overlord Erich Koch and defendant Polish Overlord Hans Frank were responsible for the plans to deport one million Poles for slave labor.[9] Dodd also showed evidence that defendant Walther Funk turned the Reichsbank into a depository for gold teeth and other valuables seized from the concentration camp victims. Dodd showed a motion picture of the vaults in Frankfurt where Allied troops found cases of these valuables, containing dentures, earrings, silverware and candelabra.[10] Dodd showed many gruesome items of evidence, such as a shrunken, stuffed and preserved human head of one of the concentration camp victims that had been used as a paperweight by the commandant of Buchenwald Concentration Camp.[11]

Final pleas were made on August 31, 1946, and the Tribunal announced its judgment in September 1946. Dodd assisted the Allied prosecuting team of convicting all but three of the defendants.[5] All but one of the defendants had claimed innocence, including Hermann Göring, whom Dodd had charged with ordering Reinhardt Heydrich to set the Holocaust in motion.[12] In addition to prosecuting the individual defendants, Dodd demanded in his summation to the Tribunal that all six of the indicted Nazi organizations be convicted of crimes against humanity, on the same grounds of the crimes against humanity ascribed to the individual defendants. These six organizations are the Leadership Corps, the Reich cabinet, the Gestapo, The Storm Troops (SA), the Armed Forces, and the Elite Guard (SS). Dodd said that these organizations should not escape liability on the grounds that they were too large, part of a political party, etc.[13]

Dodd was given several awards in recognition of his work at the Nuremberg trials. Jackson awarded him the Medal of Freedom in July 1946 and President Harry Truman awarded him the Certificate of Merit, which Jackson personally delivered to him in Hartford in the fall of 1946.[5] Dodd also received the Czechoslovak Order of the White Lion.[3] In 1949, the Polish government had intended to award Dodd with a badge of honor called the Officer's Cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta, but Dodd rejected the medal due to his commitment to human rights and views that the Polish government was imposing a tyranny similar to that imposed by the Nazis, and accepting an honor from the President of Poland would be like accepting one from the Nazis.[14][15]

Dodd was elected as a Democrat to the House of Representatives in 1952, and served two terms. He lost a Senate election in 1956 to Prescott S. Bush, but was elected in 1958 to Connecticut's other Senate seat and then re-elected in 1964.

Before becoming a U.S. senator, Dodd was hired to lobby for Guatemala in the United States for $50,000 a year by dictator Carlos Castillo Armas.[16] According to the North American Congress on Latin America, Dodd "had perhaps the coziest relationship with the Castillo Armas government."[17] After a short trip to Guatemala in 1955, Dodd urged the House of Representatives to increase aid to the Central American country. Dodd's amendment passed and Guatemala received $15 million of US aid in 1956.[18]

As chairman of the Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency, Dodd worked to restrict the purchase of mail order handguns, and later shotguns and rifles. These efforts culminated in the Gun Control Act of 1968, which Dodd introduced.[19]
Senate censure and loss of office

In 1967 Dodd became the first Senator censured by the US Senate since Joseph McCarthy in 1954,[20] and was one of only six people censured by the Senate in the 20th century. The censure was a condemnation and finding that he had converted campaign funds to his personal accounts and spent the money.[21][22] Beyond the Senate Ethics Committee's formal disciplinary action, other sources (such as investigative journalist Drew Pearson and Jack Anderson's Congress in Crisis) suggest[23] Dodd's corruption was far broader in scope, and there were accusations of alcoholism.[23][24] In response to these accusations, Dodd filed a lawsuit against Pearson claiming that Pearson had illegally interfered with his private property. Although the district court granted a partial judgment to Dodd, the appellate court ruled in favor of Pearson on the grounds that Dodd's property had not been physically abused.[25] For 1970 the Democrats endorsed for his seat Joseph Duffey, who won the nomination in the primary. Dodd then entered the race as an independent, taking just under a quarter of the vote, in a three-way race which he and Duffey lost to Lowell Weicker.
Death and Legacy

Months after his defeat, Dodd died from a heart attack at his home. His son Christopher Dodd was elected to the Senate as a Connecticut Democrat in 1980.

Thomas J. Dodd Memorial Stadium in Norwich was named in his honor.

In 1995, The Thomas J. Dodd Research Center was established at the University of Connecticut. The Thomas J. Dodd Research Center or Dodd Research Center houses the Human Rights Institute, Archives & Special Collections for the University of Connecticut Libraries, and the Center for Judaic Studies at the University of Connecticut.[26]

In 2003, the University of Connecticut established the Thomas J. Dodd Prize in International Justice and Human Rights.[27]

In 2008, Saint Anselm College in Manchester, New Hampshire established the Senator Thomas J. Dodd Center for the Study of International Affairs and Law. The center seeks to promote understanding of the forces that drive politics and the political economy in the global world; to sensitize students to the cultures of other countries, and to spur interest in the needs and problems of other nations and countries.[28]
Portrayal in popular culture

Thomas J. Dodd has been portrayed by the following actors in film, television and theater productions;
Hrothgar Mathews in the 2000 Canadian/U.S. T.V. production Nuremberg.[29]
Rupert Vansittart in the 2006 British television docudrama Nuremberg: Nazis on Trial.[30]
Protest singer Phil Ochs references Dodd in his song "Draft Dodger Rag": "I believe in God and Senator Dodd and keeping old Castro down."
Footnotes Constructs such as ibid. and loc. cit. are discouraged by Wikipedia's style guide for footnotes as they are easily broken. Please improve this article by replacing them with named references (quick guide), or an abbreviated title.

^ Battle, Robert. "The Ancestors of Chris Dodd". Retrieved 2007-09-04.
^ a b "Thomas J. Dodd, 1907-1971". Thomas J. Dodd Research Center. University of Connecticut. 2006-12-23. Retrieved 2007-09-04.
^ Dodd, Thomas in American National Biography, American Council of Learned Societies, 2000.
^ a b c d e f Barrett, John Q. (March 2005). "From Justice Jackson to Thomas J. Dodd to Nuremberg" (pdf). Retrieved 2007-09-04.
^ Associated Press (1942-08-15). "Prosecutor Calls Kunze Liar and Nazi at Molzahn Trial". p. 4.
^ Dodd, Chris. "Prosecuting The Peace Of The World: The Experiences Of Thomas J. Dodd At The International Military Tribunal, Nuremberg, Germany, 1945-46" United States Supreme Court, Washington, D.C. (2005-02-15). Retrieved on 2007-09-04.
^ Boyd, James (1968). Above the Law. The Rise and Fall of Senator Thomas J. Dodd. New York: The New American Library. p. 12. OCLC 233961.
^ "Ukraine Murder Chief Still Hunted by Allies". Los Angeles Times: p. 4. 1945-12-12.
^ "Funk Claims Aides Handled ‘Stained’ Gold". The Washington Post: p. 2. 1946-05-08.
^ "[Nuremberg Trials]". American Experience. PBS. 2006-01-30. No. 6, season 18. Transcript.
^ McLaughlin, Kathleen (1946-09-01). "20 of 21 Nazis Claim Innocence As Nuremberg Trial Is Concluded". The New York Times: p. 1.
^ "Convictions Asked for 6 Nazi Groups". The New York Times: p. 5. 1946-08-30.
^ "Rejects Polish Badge of Honor as a Dishonor". Chicago Daily Tribune: p. 8. 1949-04-26.
^ "Nazi Trial Prosecutor Rejects Polish Medal". The Washington Post: p. 13. 1949-04-26.
^ Gerassi, John (1966) [1965]. The Great Fear in Latin America. New York: Collier Books. p. 183. OCLC 17447442.
^ North American Congress on Latin America. "Guatemala", North American Congress on Latin America, Berkeley, 1974, p. 84-85.
^ Ibid, 84-85.
^ Zimring, Franklin E. (1975). "Firearms and Federal Law: The Gun Control Act of 1968". The Journal of Legal Studies 4: 133. doi:10.1086/467528. OCLC 1754648. ISSN 0047-2530. Retrieved 2007-03-13.
^ [1]
^ "1967 Year In Review,"
^ a b Martin, Douglas (April 17, 2009). "Michael O’Hare, Figure in Ethics Case, Dies at 73". New York Times.
^ Pearson, Drew; Anderson, Jack (1968). The Case against Congress: A Compelling Indictment of Corruption on Capitol Hill. New York: Simon and Schuster.
^ Pearson v. Dodd. 11 Prosser, Wade and Schwartz's Torts Cases and Materials 81-84. United States Court of Appeals, District of Columbia Circuit. 1969. Print.
^ Dodd Center Website,
^ Dodd Prize website,
^ "Nuremberg (2000) (TV)". Retrieved May 20, 2008.
^ "Nuremberg: Nazis on Trial (2006) (TV)". Retrieved May 20, 2008.

From the Dodd Center: "Upon his return to the United States in 1947, Dodd began the private practice of law in Hartford and became active in Connecticut Democratic politics. He contemplated a run for governor in 1948, but concentrated instead upon civic, charity and service work. In 1950, Dodd campaigned vigorously on behalf of Connecticut Senator Brien McMahon against Senator Joseph McCarthy’s efforts to unseat him.

Dodd was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives from the First District in 1952, a position to which he was re-elected in 1954. He sat on the Government Operations and Foreign Affairs Committees, as well as the Select Committee to Investigate Communist Aggression. After running unsuccessfully for the U.S. Senate in 1956 against incumbent Prescott S. Bush, Dodd ran again and defeated Republican William A. Purtell in 1958.
Grace Dodd, Thomas Dodd and President Kennedy

Dodd served on the Foreign Relations Committee, co-chairing its Internal Security Subcommittee; the Judiciary Committee, chairing its Juvenile Delinquency Subcommittee; and the Aeronautical and Space Sciences Committee. He championed the overhaul of the nation’s gun control legislation even before the assassination of President Kennedy. Dodd ardently supported the civil rights legislation of Presidents Kennedy and Johnson, particularly anti-lynching and voting rights laws. He also strove to protect children through such measures as curbing violence on television and stemming the traffic of illegal drugs. Dodd vigorously opposed Soviet Communism, which he considered the moral equivalent of German Nazism. Although an early and enthusiastic supporter of the United Nations, Dodd grew disillusioned with the organization as it came more and more to represent Third World interests. He won a second Senate term in 1964 and became President Johnson’s leading foreign affairs spokesman in the Senate."
See Evica's And We are All Mortal.
Peter Lemkin Wrote:...
Dodd served on the Foreign Relations Committee, co-chairing its Internal Security Subcommittee; the Judiciary Committee, chairing its Juvenile Delinquency Subcommittee; and the Aeronautical and Space Sciences Committee. He championed the overhaul of the nation’s gun control legislation even before the assassination of President Kennedy. Dodd ardently supported the civil rights legislation of Presidents Kennedy and Johnson, particularly anti-lynching and voting rights laws. He also strove to protect children through such measures as curbing violence on television and stemming the traffic of illegal drugs. ...

He appears absent from the subcommittee's famous inquest on comic books and their relation to juvenile delinquency.

EDIT: Weirdness detected. As soon as I posted that, someone mentioned the current senator Dodd from CT on the internet radio stream.
A 1965 article about Thomas Dodd that makes us wonder how many agents the Senator had under his control:

"A Senate subcommittee said today that one of its agents had infiltrated the Minutemen, a militant nationalist organization that says it is preparing for guerrilla warfare in this country. Senator Thomas J. Dodd, chairman of the Juvenile Delinquency
subcommittee, made the disclosure at a hearing on proposed legislation to restrict sales of guns."
Sen. Thomas Dodd (father of Sen. Chris Dodd) was a conservative Democrat from Connecticut (of all places). He was closely allied with LBJ and didn't like most of JFK's policies. Watching at his Georgetown residence on television the tributes being paid to Mr. Kennedy, Mr. Dodd offered his assessment of the Kennedy administration: "I'll say of John Kennedy what I said of Pope John the day he died. It will take us fifty years to undo the damage he did to us in three years."

In 1963, as head of the Senate's Juvenile Delinquency Subcommittee, Dodd was experimenting with ordering arms from mail order houses in an attempt to gather information allowing Congress to stem unregulated traffic. Dodd instituted the program on behalf of Colt and other small firearms producers in Connecticut who complained of foreign imports. Dodd, a former FBI agent and long-time J. Edgar Hoover loyalist, was also a leading member of the Cuba Lobby (which grew out of the right-wing, red-hunting, China Lobby) through which he was in touch with some of the same Cuban-exile mercenaries as Lee Harvey Oswald. He was also investigating the Fair Play for Cuba Committee (FPCC) in which Oswald may have been an infiltrator.

Two of the gun mail-order houses Dodd's subcommittee was investigating were the ones from which Oswald allegedly ordered his Smith and Wesson .38 revolver (Seaport Traders of Los Angeles) and his Mannlicher-Carcano carbine (Klein's of Chicago). Oswald ordered his pistol two days before Dodd's subcommittee began hearings on the matter on January 29, 1963. The subcommittee's sample statistics later showed a purchase in Texas made from Seaport Traders. One of the groups being investigated for firearm purchases was one whose members Oswald had in his address book, the American Nazi Party. One of the investigators looking into interstate firearms sales at this time was Manuel Pena, the Los Angeles police lieutenant who was later one of the pivotal officers investigating Robert Kennedy's assassination. It was Pena who traced Oswald's telescopic sight to a California gun shop. And one of the primary culprits, robbing domestic manufacturers of profits, was the Carcano.

There are many problems with the official story of Oswald's ordering of the weapons, chiefly that on the days he allegedly went to the post office to mail the orders and pick up the guns, time-cards show he was at work all day. Oswald did not drive or own a car.

Author George Michael Evica claimed that, "Beyond speculation...I have learned that according to two unimpeachable sources, Senator Thomas Dodd indeed caused at least one Mannlicher Carcano to be ordered in the name of Lee Harvey Oswald (or in the name of 'Alek Hidell') sometime in 1963." "Whether that rifle was ordered before November 22nd, 1963, ... a left-wing former Marine defector buying mail-order weapons to support concretely Senator Dodd's gun control position, or ordered immediately after the JFK assassination to make the same point (but even more chillingly), the same post-assassination effect was apparently achieved."

In August 1963, Dodd introduced the first version of what would eventually become the Gun Control Act, passed after Robert Kennedy's assassination in 1968.

In the summer of 1963, Dodd presided over a Senate Internal Security subcommittee investigation of the Fair Play for Cuba Committee. Oswald was the only member of the New Orleans branch. In 1963, Dodd called the Fair Play for Cuba Committee a chief public relations instrument for Castro.

After the assassination, Dodd, using CIA sources, helped the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee publish a story that Oswald had been trained at a KGB assassination school in Minsk. At the time, Dodd was on the payroll of the American Security Council, "the leading public group campaigning to use U.S. military force to oust Castro from Cuba, and to escalate the war in Vietnam." Spy'man-be...ey-oswald/

FTR #158 The Life and Times of Senator Thomas Dodd

[Image: Thomasjdodd.jpg]MP3 Side 1 | Side 2
Flash Audio

In the wake of the Columbine High School mas*sacre in Lit*tle*ton, Col*orado, the pop*u*lar sen*ti*ment in favor of gun con*trol was greater than ever. Gen*er*ally per*ceived as part of the lib*eral polit*i*cal agenda, gun con*trol actu*ally has its roots in the depths of inter*na*tional fas*cist intrigue. This broad*cast doc*u*ments con*nec*tions between the assas*si*na*tion of Pres*i*dent Kennedy and the world of Sen*a*tor Thomas Dodd (right) of Con*necti*cut.
A mem*ber of the U.S. pros*e*cu*to*r*ial staff at Nurem*berg., this for*mer FBI agent (Dodd) was close to the Amer*i*can Secu*rity Coun*cil (ASC), a domes*tic fas*cist group. With its roots in the Hitler-Goebbels Anti*Com*intern, the Amer*i*can Secu*rity Coun*cil was a key Amer*i*can link to the for*mer World Anti-Communist League or WACL. Cre*ated by for*mer FBI agents dis*grun*tled at the demise of Sen*a*tor Joseph McCarthy's "inves*ti*ga*tions," the Amer*i*can Secu*rity Coun*cil coa*lesced around the files of Harry Jung's Amer*i*can Vig*i*lance Intel*li*gence Fed*er*a*tion. Vir*u*lently anti-Semitic, Jung's orga*ni*za*tion was part of the Anti-Comintern prior to World War II.
Count*ing among its ranks some of the most promi*nent names on the far right, the orga*ni*za*tion kept track of peo*ple it con*sid*ered "sub*ver*sive," shar*ing polit*i*cal intel*li*gence with prospec*tive employ*ers (par*tic*u*larly defense con*trac*tors). The ASC hated Kennedy and it is not, there*fore, alto*gether sur*pris*ing that Dodd helped to dis*sem*i*nate the dis*in*for*ma*tion that Lee Har*vey Oswald had been trained in assas*si*na*tion by the KGB. With CIA assis*tance, Dodd inserted this dis*in*for*ma*tion into a Sen*ate Sub*com*mit*tee report. This dis*in*for*ma*tion, with roots in the same WACL milieu as the ASC, led lib*er*als to cover-up the assas*si*na*tion out of fear that pub*lic per*cep*tion that a com*mu*nist killed the Pres*i*dent would lead to a Third World War.
Dodd's role in this affair is all the more inter*est*ing when one con*sid*ers the pos*si*bil*ity that Oswald may have ordered his weapons while work*ing for Dodd's Sub*com*mit*tee. Inves*ti*gat*ing the mail-order firearms busi*ness, the Dodd com*mit*tee focused on the two firms from which Oswald allegedly pur*chased his weapons. Oswald was appar*ently extra*or*di*nar*ily inter*ested in mail-order guns, a strange way for a prospec*tive assas*sin to acquire weaponry. In 1963, he could have pur*chased his guns over the counter with no trace of the transaction.
Manuel Pena, an intelligence-connected Los Ange*les Police offi*cer involved with the "inves*ti*ga*tion" of Robert Kennedy's assas*si*na*tion, also worked with the Dodd Sub*com*mit*tee. Pena helped to trace Oswald's mail order gun pur*chases. Dodd was instru*men*tal in craft*ing 1968 gun con*trol leg*is*la*tion that bor*rowed from the Nazi weapons con*trol act of 1938. It should be remem*bered that the assas*si*na*tions of the Kennedys and Dr. Mar*tin Luther King gen*er*ated pop*u*lar and leg*isla*tive sup*port for gun control.
The pro*gram also sets forth Dodd's rela*tion*ship with the Julius Klein pub*lic rela*tions firm and, through it, key Ger*man cor*po*ra*tions. When Sen*ate inves*ti*ga*tions of Klein's con*nec*tions to those Ger*man cor*po*ra*tions threat*ened that rela*tion*ship, Dodd trav*eled to Ger*many in a vain attempt to con*vince Klein's Ger*man clients that the Sen*ate inves*ti*ga*tion should not stand in the way of their rela*tion*ship to Klein. (They feared the pub*lic*ity Klein was an appar*ently unreg*is*tered for*eign agent.) In Ger*many, Dodd met with Dr. Ludger Westrick. An eco*nomic adviser to Ger*man Chan*cel*lor Kon*rad Ade*nauer, Westrick had been a key Nazi bureau*crat, liai*son between indus*try and the SS and eco*nomic adviser to Mar*tin Bor*mann. (Recorded on 6/6/99.)
Off topic but an interesting find:
[TABLE="width: 100%"]
[TD="colspan: 2"]

Overview of the Collection

[TD]Archives & Special Collections at the Thomas J. Dodd Research Center.[/TD]
[TD]Bush, Prescott Sheldon.[/TD]
[TD]Prescott S. Bush Papers.[/TD]
[TD]undated, 1952-1962.[/TD]
[TD]22 linear feet.[/TD]
[TD]Prescott S. Bush was born on 15 May 1895 to Samuel Prescott Bush and Flora Sheldon Bush and was raised in Columbus, Ohio. He received a B.A. from Yale University in 1917 and completed his Army career in 1919. Bush joined the firm of Brown Brothers and Company became a partner in 1930. In 1930. In 1921 he married Dorothy Walker. The couple had five children. A resident of Greenwich, CT, Bush was elected as a member of its representative town meeting. In 1933 he was elected as moderator, a post to which he was re-elected until his election to the United States Senate in 1952. Bush announced his intention not to run for re-election in 1961. He died in 1972.[/TD]