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The History of AIG (Part I)
What unit did Starr serve with? Could it have been one of the units that went to Siberia - the 27th and 31st infantry regiments? The Northern California unit of AEF Siberia had about 165 members, when it held its first reunion. (Siberia A.E.F. To Hold Reunion. Oakland Tribune, Nov. 27, 1940.)
Edmund Frank Green, Skull & Bones 1880 - organizer of the Pacific Coast Casualty Company in 1902 - Born 1857 in Michigan, died in San Francisco, 1942. Page 17:
The Secret (Insurance) Agent Men of WWII
Friday, September 22, 2000 The Secret (Insurance) Agent Men
A WWII unit gathered underwriters' data, such as bomb plant blueprints, from warring nations, declassified U.S. files show.
By MARK FRITZ, Times Staff Writer
COLLEGE PARK, Md.--They knew which factories to burn, which bridges to blow up, which cargo ships could be sunk in good conscience. They had pothole counts for roads used for invasion and head counts for city blocks marked for incineration.
They weren't just secret agents. They were secret insurance agents. These undercover underwriters gave their World War II spymasters access to a global industry that both bankrolled and, ultimately, helped bring down Adolf Hitler's Third Reich.
Newly declassified U.S. intelligence files tell the remarkable story of the ultra-secret Insurance Intelligence Unit, a component of the Office of Strategic Services, a forerunner of the CIA, and its elite counterintelligence branch X-2.

Though rarely numbering more than a half dozen agents, the unit gathered intelligence on the enemy's insurance industry, Nazi insurance titans and suspected collaborators in the insurance business. But, more significantly, the unit mined standard insurance records for blueprints of bomb plants, timetables of tide changes and thousands of other details about targets, from a brewery in Bangkok to a candy company in Bergedorf.

"They used insurance information as a weapon of war," said Greg Bradsher, a historian and National Archives expert on the declassified records. That insurance information was critical to Allied strategists, who were seeking to cripple the enemy's industrial base and batter morale by burning cities.

"Within a few days, a conference on the burning possibilities of some important cities will be held," unit chief Robert "Lucky Luke" Rushin wrote a colleague in February 1944, when he was sending data to an Allied bombing-target committee. "I have reproductions of approximately 150 plans covering Jap plants about ready to ride."

The files, at the National Archives office in College Park, are among the latest U.S. intelligence documents ordered declassified by President Clinton last year to speed the identification of Nazi assets. Most of the research attention there has focused on what U.S. intelligence knew about the Holocaust, the whereabouts of Nazi loot, the migration of Nazi war criminals and how much important information never made it to the Oval Office.
But the documents suggest that insurance played an important, if less- noticed, role in the war.

The OSS insurance unit was launched in early 1943, long after it had become alarmingly clear that the Nazis were using their insurance industry not only to help finance the war but also to gather strategic data.
American insurance companies had been competing furiously for overseas business even after the United States entered the war, and the OSS files suggest that details about U.S. factories and cities were falling into enemy hands because of the interlocking international relationships among insurance companies.

Germany had 45% of the worldwide wholesale insurance industry before the war began and managed to actually expand its business as it conquered continental Europe. As wholesalers, or "reinsurers," these companies covered other insurers against a catastrophic loss that could wipe out a single company. In the process, the wholesaler learned everything about the lives and property they were reinsuring.

Unit's Efforts Are More Than Altruistic
The motives of the OSS unit's founders were both pragmatic and patriotic.
"This story is incredible because the unit begins as part of the desire of American [insurance] interests to contribute to the war effort and exploit it for future economic gain," said historian Timothy Naftali, a consultant to the Nazi War Criminals Interagency Working Group that was created by Congress last year.

The men behind the insurance unit were OSS head William "Wild Bill" Donovan and California-born insurance magnate Cornelius V. Starr. Starr had started out selling insurance to Chinese in Shanghai in 1919 and, over the next 50 years, would build what is now American International Group, one of the biggest insurance companies in the world. He was forced to move his operation to New York in 1939, when Japan invaded China. In the early years of the war, the German insurance industry expanded its business as it conquered continental Europe. Nazi insurance brokers who traveled with combat troops during invasions also scoured local insurance files for strategic data.

German-owned companies were blacklisted by the Allies, but the Insurance Intelligence Unit found that the Nazis did business through countries such as Switzerland and laundered transactions through South American affiliates, particularly in Argentina.

"The blacklist is of no good use because the firms not blacklisted are full of Germans," one of the Insurance Intelligence Unit's reports complained in 1943. Starr's people and other insurance executives had intimate knowledge of the people involved in the global insurance business, so they were able to track potential collaborators. Among those they investigated was Carl Theodore Endemann, a naturalized American from Germany who was assigned by the American Foreign Insurance Assn. to Paris in the 1930s. When war broke out, Endemann sided with the Nazis. When France capitulated, Endemann contacted the Germans and gave them exceptionally detailed blueprints, maps and other information to aid Erwin Rommel's war in North Africa.

The report makes a dry reference to Endemann's British wife, the mother of their 7-year-old son, as a "staunchly pro-British" woman who, as a result, "was interned from time to time." The Insurance Intelligence Unit also investigated Americans, which in some cases included an agent's boss. One report showed that an Argentine company owned by the American Foreign Insurance Assn. had a known Nazi collaborator on its board and reelected him after it promised it wouldn't.

The documents also said that two New York insurance executives, Cecil Stewart and Stewart Hopps, also came under scrutiny for selling war insurance to strategic U.S. industries and reselling some of the risk to Latin American affiliates linked to Nazi insurers. The men also ran a steamship company that chartered tankers for Royal Dutch Shell, a Nazi collaborator that used Hitler's slave laborers.

"It's very possible that details of American insurance properties could reach the enemy via this sequence of reinsurance transactions," the report said.
Stewart and Hopps were not unknown to the unit investigators--they had been part of the original OSS committee convened to design the Insurance Intelligence Unit, Naftali said. Such convoluted business dealings were traced largely through the work of Ernest Stiefel, a member of the intelligence unit who diagrammed the way insurance companies pooled their risks, invested in and insured each other and, as a result, willfully or witlessly shared data about nations at war.

"Stiefel mapped the entire system," said Naftali, a historian at the University of Virginia's Miller Center of Public Affairs. "Each time I take a piece of your risk, you've got to give me information. I am not going to reinsure your company unless you give me all the documents. That's great intelligence information."

Naftali came across the first evidence of the unit when the CIA began to release OSS files in the 1980s. He interviewed some members--all now believed dead--for his 1993 doctoral dissertation. Though the earlier files contained references to the insurance unit's work, the recent release adds details about how sensitive data was gathered and shared and how the unit operated.

Though a wiz with records, the unit had problems in the field, where agents operated without the knowledge of local American embassies. Information arrived months after it was requested, particularly from the Far East and North Africa, and in places such as Singapore and Morocco, where expatriates of all types mingled uneasily while the war's battles crept closer.

"They went into the field and the State Department didn't know who they were. The military didn't know who they were. They were largely in neutral zones. These fellows sat in backwaters for months, collecting material and sending it nowhere," Naftali said.

One operative, a Starr insurance man named Bob Smith, traveled throughout China and appeared in several local newspaper accounts as--what else?--a traveling insurance executive named Bob Smith.

Strategic Data Welcomed Back Home
The cables he sent back--still heavily censored by the CIA--showed a man who was under heavy suspicion, often anxious to leave his post and uncertain of how to deliver his information. At one point, posing as an insurance man on a humanitarian visit to a leper colony, he stumbled on Japanese positions in South China. He speculated that he wasn't shot at because the enemy was too busy laughing at Smith's pratfall-plagued attempts to flee through the thicket on a bicycle.

The strategic information was welcomed back at headquarters.
"Our thanks . . . for the gradient profile of the Chinese section of the Canton/Kowloon Railway," chirped the chatty but highly secret OSS newsletter ("Extra! Extra! It's twins for Al Booth!").
"Thank you for the Tokyo Water Supply data! We appreciate it very much," raved yet another edition.
Much information came from unit chief Rushin, a Home Insurance Co. executive who rose to U.S. Army major because of his work. Rushin was sent to London in late 1943 after it became clear that OSS and British intelligence had failed to tap London-based insurers for information about the Pacific theater.

In fact, Rushin found that a U.S. Embassy official assigned to collect such data had set up shop at Swiss Re, an insurance wholesaler still in business with the Nazis. But, through inexperience or incompetence, the embassy official had learned little of value. Rushin was able to gather material that was even in demand by the British. It ranged from Chinese railway inspection reports to photos of the Mitsukoshi department store in downtown Tokyo to blueprints of the chemical company that made the poison gas Hitler used to kill Jews.

Rushin's biggest obstacle appeared to have been the war's own bureaucracy. "I don't have but two legs, no one to help and the job of reproducing is terrific," he complained in a March 1944 memo. "I have material now which has been in the hands of reproduction for six weeks."

Insurance unit spies also came across bits of juicy data that had nothing to do with insurance. They passed along news, for example, that the desperate Nazis had banned the "mourning ribbons" worn by families of the growing numbers of dead. They found a German newspaper obituary of "a collaborator" killed in a "cowardly" attempt by some of Hitler's men to blow up der Fuehrer.

When the tide of the war began to turn and German insurers began losing money, the U.S. insurance agents learned that Nazi insurers were pleading for peace. A source in Stockholm revealed in late 1943 that insurers advised Hitler's people that "ruin threatens all life and fire insurance companies in Germany." As Germany was heavily bombed and casualties mounted, the Nazis prohibited insurance companies from selling new policies--a drastic measure that even prompted complaints in the newspapers. Life insurance and the interest it earned had been viewed as stable investments for Germans who still remembered the hyperinflation that followed World War I.
With the Axis defeat imminent, U.S. intelligence officials focused greater attention on ways the Nazis would try to use insurance to hide and launder their assets so they could be used to rebuild the war machine. It's a task that continues today.

Panel Investigates Life Insurance Claims
A commission headed by former U.S. Secretary of State Lawrence S. Eagleburger is investigating whether five mostly German-owned insurance companies operating today ever paid off all the life insurance policies they sold to Jews, a target market as the Nazis were ascendant. The insurance unit's reports gave at least one chilling glimpse of how Jewish policies were processed: "You might be interested in the enclosed Dutch Decree of June 11, 1943 ordering the reporting and liquidating of all insurance policies on behalf of the Jews. . . ."

The newly released OSS files show just how hard it is to track a paper trail through 50 years of mergers, acquisitions, secret deals and silent partnerships. The files show that American insurance premiums almost certainly wound up in Nazi banks, and German brokers were secretly covering London establishments under attack by the Luftwaffe.
"It makes you wonder if a German insurer insuring an American ship went to the German military and said: 'Don't bomb this ship!' " Bradsher said.

Axis Insurance Firms Resumed After the War
Though the Treasury Department wanted to keep harsh economic restrictions on the defeated Axis powers, the State Department prevailed, and German and Japanese insurance industries resumed operations after the war. Today, for example, Munich Re and Swiss Re are, once again, the two biggest insurance wholesalers in the world. Rushin was promoted to the X-2 branch in Washington after his London mission and then returned to Home Insurance after the war. He retired from the company, which eventually was crushed by asbestos claims from cancer victims in the 1970s. In the end, Home itself didn't have enough insurance to cover its losses.

Starr sent insurance agents into Asia and Europe even before the bombs stopped falling and built what eventually became AIG, which today has its world headquarters in the same downtown New York building where the tiny OSS unit toiled in the deepest secrecy. Starr died in 1968, but his empire endures. AIG is the biggest foreign insurance company in Japan. More than a third of its $40 billion in revenue last year came from the Far East theater that Starr helped carpet bomb and liberate.

Though the OSS files shed light on a little-known operation, there is no good way to fully read the moods and motivations of the people who were part of it. By all accounts, though, Rushin was proud of his spy service.
"He was delighted to talk about this," said Naftali, who talked with Rushin before he died. "He was in his 80s. I was lucky. This latest release [of documents] comes too late. These people are no longer alive."
"History records that the Money Changers have used every form of abuse, intrigue, deceit and violent means possible to maintain their control over governments by controlling money and its issuance." --James Madison
Yes yes yes.

It's the planned and deliberate survival of IG Farben all over again.

The war as theatre.

The puppetmasters maximising profit opportunities, knowing that trading with the enemy was an empty joke meant for preterite consumption, because there was no enemy... Just trading... Just creating and conquering markets, scarce resources, not cheap labour but slave labour.... no need to worry about unions or contracts of employment... Business as usual taken to its ultimate corrupt platonic archetypal form... Business rewarding a tiny few at the expense of the preterite and Pachacamac herself....
"It means this War was never political at all, the politics was all theatre, all just to keep the people distracted...."
"Proverbs for Paranoids 4: You hide, They seek."
"They are in Love. Fuck the War."

Gravity's Rainbow, Thomas Pynchon

"Ccollanan Pachacamac ricuy auccacunac yahuarniy hichascancuta."
The last words of the last Inka, Tupac Amaru, led to the gallows by men of god & dogs of war
Mrs. Frank J. Raven was the sister of Frederick R. Sites. "Born in Foochow, China, the son of missionaries, Mr. Sites joined the steel corporation in Cleveland, and two years later was sent China as a resident engineer. He returned in 1918 and became treasurer of the Federal Shipbuilding Company, Kearny, N.J., a subsidiary of United States Steel." He was manager of the Shanghai office of US Steel Products Co., and then was named secretary to Judge Elbert H. Gary, chairman of US Steel. "Frederick R. Sites, Steel Ex-Official. New York Times, Apr. 30, 1947.)

Another brother, Rev. Clement Moore Lacey Sites (Ohio Wesleyan 1887, PhD Columbia 1899), also born in Foochow, went to China in 1899 with the Methodist Mission Board, and taught at Fukien Christian University and Technical University in Shanghai. He retired in 1941 and returned to New York City. (Dr. Clement Sites Dies. New York Times, Feb. 19, 1958.)

Their father, Rev. Nathan Sites (O.W.U. 1859) was the first alumnus to become a missionary. He arrived in Foochow in 1861. (Ohio Wesleyan Sets Record in Mission Work. Lima News, Nov. 17, 1925.) He brought his wife and children back to Delaware, Ohio, to attend school in 1885. (Piqua, Ohio, Miami Helmet, Mar. 26, 1886.) He died in China in 1895.
The charges of embezzlement against Edmund Frank Green may have been made by his ex-wife-to-be. She shot and killed her first husband, millionaire Henry W. King Jr., in Omaha 25 years before. (Tells How She Killed Husband. Oakland Tribune, Jul. 22, 1913.) Here's Green's book of poetry.
Maurice R. Greenberg

Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, AIG
76 years old
#106 on Forbes Worlds Richest People
Net Worth: $3.4 bil
Mr Greenberg is Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of American International Group, Inc. (AIG), a leading global insurance and financial services organization operating in 130 countries and jurisdictions worldwide (click here for history of the company). He was President and Chief Executive Officer of AIG from 1967 to 1989, when he became Chairman and Chief Executive Officer. Mr Greenberg joined AIG in 1960 and was elected President of its American Home Assurance Company subsidiary in 1962.
Mr Greenberg served in the U.S. Army in Europe during World War II and in the Korean conflict, rising to the rank of Captain. He is a recipient of the Bronze Star. He received his pre-law certificate from the University of Miami and an LL.B. from New York Law School in 1950. He was admitted to the New York Bar in 1953. He has been granted honorary degrees from a number of institutions, including New York Law School, Brown University and Middlebury College.
He is the Former Chairman, Deputy Chairman and Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York
Within the AIG Group, he is President, Chief Execurtive Officer and Director of C.V. Starr and Co., Inc. He is also a Director of Starr International Company, Inc. ('SICO'), private holding companies, and a Director of International Lease Finance Corporation ('ILFC') (a wholly owned subsidiary of AIG).
Chairman of the Board for Transatlantic Holdings
Member of the President's Advisory Committee for Trade Policy and Negotiations (ACTPN)
Member of the Corporate Accountablility & Listing Standards Committee of the NYSE

Honorary Vice Chairman of the Council on Foreign Relations
Member of the Trilateral Commission
Member of The Bilberberg Group (attendee of 1991 meeting)
Former Vice Chairman, Center for Strategic and International Studies
Chairman of The Nixon Center
Chairman of The Starr Foundation
Vice Chairman of the US-ASEAN Business Council
Founding Chairman of the US - Phillipine Business Committee
Director of the United Nations Association of the United States of America (UNA-USA)
Director of the Institute for International Economics
Director of the Atlantic Council of the United States
Trustee of the United States Council for International Business
Trustee Emeriti of the Rockefeller University
Member of the Hong Kong Chief Executive’s Council of International Advisors
Director of The National Committee on United States-China Relations
Director of the US-China Business Council
Member of the Business Roundtable
Trustee of the Manhattan Institute
Trustee of the Asia Society
Chairman of the Congressional Economic Leadership Institute
Chairman of the Starr Foundation
Director of the John F Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts
Honorary Trustee of the Business Council for International Understanding
Member of CECP (Corporate Philanthropy for a New Century)
Member of The National Coalition on Asia and International Studies in the Schools
Patron of the American Australian Association
Board of Overseers of Weill Medical College of Cornell University
Chairman Emeritus of the Board of Trustees of New York-Presbyterian Hospital
Life Trustee of the New York University
Director of Project HOPE

Bush “Pioneer” (raised $100,000 + for his 2000 Presidential election campaign)
Sept. 19th 2002: Awarded “Civil Society Vision Award” from the American Friends of the Czech Republic.
2001: Awarded “Person of the Year” by the Brazilian-American Chamber of Commerce
Awarded `The Eisenhower Service to Democracy Awards’ from The American Assembly
2002: Awarded the “Albert Gallatin Medal” by New York University

Sons: Evan and Jeffrey


Howard I. Smith

Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer & Vice-Chairman of the Board, American International Group

Mr. Smith joined AIG in 1984 as Vice President and Comptroller from Coopers & Lybrand, where he had been the partner in charge of the firm's New York office insurance practice. He was named Senior Vice President and Comptroller in 1987, and Executive Vice President and Comptroller in 1995. Mr. Smith became AIG's Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Comptroller in 1996, and at that time also assumed responsibility for AIG's Treasury, Investor Relations, Credit and Market Risk Management functions.
Director of Transatlantic Holdings
Director of 21st Century Insurance
Also serves as a director of Starr, SICO and ILFC
He is on the Advisory Board of The Merrill Lynch Center at Hofstra University


M. Bernard Aidinoff

M. Bernard Aidinoff is Senior Counsel to the firm of Sullivan & Cromwell, from which he retired as a partner on December 31, 1996. Prior to joining Sullivan & Cromwell, he served as Law Clerk to Judge Learned Hand of the United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit. He is a director at AIG, a member of the Advisory Board of BNA Tax Management, Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Foundation for a Civil Society and serves as Treasurer and a Director of the Lawyers Committee for Human Rights. He is a graduate of the University of Michigan and the Harvard Law School, where he was an editor of the Harvard Law Review.
President of the Association of the Bar of the City of New York from 1977-1978
He is also a member of the Council on Foreign Relations


Eli Broad

#26 on Forbes Richest Americans
#51 on Forbes Worlds Richest People
Net Worth: $5.2 billion
Eli Broad is a renowned business leader, "venture philanthropist" and supporter of higher education and the arts. He is chairman of SunAmerica Inc., a leading financial services company specializing in retirement savings, and serves on the board of SunAmerica's parent company, American International Group, Inc. He sold SunAmerica to AIG in 1998 for $18 billion. He is founder- chairman of KB Home (formerly Kaufman and Broad Home Corporation).
Mr. Broad was the founding chairman of the board of trustees of The Museum of Contemporary Art (MOCA), and is currently a trustee and member of the executive committee of the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA). In 1984, he established The Broad Art Foundation to foster the study and appreciation of art created in the last quarter of the 20th century. Through an active lending library program, works from its collection have been loaned to more than 400 museums and university galleries worldwide. He setup The Broad Foundation with his wife in 1999.

An avid supporter of higher education, Mr. Broad recently made a major contribution to the School of Arts and Architecture at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), toward the construction of a new visual arts facility, to be named the Edythe and Eli Broad Art Center. In 1991, Mr. Broad endowed The Eli Broad College of Business and The Eli Broad Graduate School of Management at Michigan State University, from which he was graduated cum laude in 1954. He is a member of the board of trustees of the California Institute of Technology, where he gave the cornerstone gift to create the Broad Center for the Biological Sciences. His commitment to higher education also includes prior service as chairman of the board of trustees of Pitzer College and vice chairman of the board of trustees of the California State University.


Pei-Yuan Chia

Mr. Chia was vice chairman of Citicorp and Citibank, N.A., its principal subsidiary, from 1994 to 1996 when he retired. From 1993 to 1996, he served as a director of Citicorp and Citibank, N.A., and assumed responsibility for their global consumer business in 1992. Between 1974 and 1992, Mr. Chia held various senior management positions in Citicorp and Citibank, N.A. and was Citibank, N.A.’s senior customer contact for corporate banking activities in Asia.
Role in the Salinas – Citibank affair
He also served as director of CNH Global Inc for several years.

Mr. Chia also serves as:
Director of American International Group
Director of Baxter International, Inc
Director of the Bank of China (Hong Kong) Ltd
Director of CNH Global Inc
Trustee of the Asia Society
Senior Fellow of the CSI Center for Advanced Studies in Management at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania

Marshall A. Cohen

Mr. Marshall Cohen O.C., Q.C., Cassels Brock & Blackwell LLP
67 years old
Mr. Cohen retired as President and Chief Executive Officer of The Molson Companies Limited in 1996. He served with the Government of Canada for 15 years, including appointments as Deputy Minister of Industry, Trade & Commerce, Energy, Mines & Resources, and Finance. He is a director of a number of public companies and a member of various non-profit boards and organizations.
Mr. Cohen is a former International Councillor for The Center for Strategic & International Studies, a member of the Executive Committee of The British-North American Committee and a former member of The Trilateral Commission. He was also the Chairman of the International Trade Advisory Committee for the Government of Canada and is Chairman of the Advisory Council of the Schulich School of Business at York University.
A graduate of the University of Toronto, Osgoode Hall Law School and York University, Mr. Cohen was called to the bar in 1960. Mr. Cohen received the Order of Canada in 1993. (source)
Director of Barrick Gold Corporation (since 1988)
Director of American International Group Inc
Director of Lafarge Corporation
Director of The Toronto-Dominion Bank
Director of Collins & Aikman Corporation
Director of Haynes International, Inc
Director of Metaldyne Corporation
Director of Premcor Inc, The Premcor Refining Group, Inc, Premcor USA Inc.

Member of the International Advisory Committee at The Blackstone Group

Dean's Advisory Council of Schulich School of Business at York University, Canada


Barber B. Conable, Jr

Barber Conable retired on September 1, 1991, after more than five years as President of the World Bank, headquartered in Washington, D.C. The World Bank is a multinational institution promoting economic growth in order to improve the quality of life of poor people in the developing world.
Mr. Conable was a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from 1965-1985. He served on the Ways and Means Committee for 18 years, the last 8 as its ranking minority member. For 14 years he served in various capacities in the House Republican leadership. He was also a member for shorter periods of time of the Joint Economic Committee, the House Budget Committee, and the House Ethics Committee.
On March 11, 1985 he was appointed by Reagan to the Chemical Warfare Review Commission, along with Brzezinski. At the time he was a senior fellow at the American Enterprise Institute.
In November 1985, President Reagan appointed him to be a member of the President's Blue Ribbon Commission on Defense Management.
Following his retirement from Congress he was on the boards of 4 multinational corporations and the Board of the New York Exchange. He was also named a Distinguished Professor of the University of Rochester.
Following his retirement from the World Bank, he has served on 4 corporate boards of directors. He was on the Executive Committee of the Cornell University Board of Trustees, the Boards of both the Museum of the American Indian and the American History Museum at the Smithsonian, the Commission on Global Governance (an independent UN-related Commission), and the Security and Exchange Commission's Advisory Committee on Capital Formation and Regulatory Processes. He was a member of the Senior Advisory Committee and the Global Environmental Facility. He also serves on the Board of the Genesee Country Museum, and on the New York State Commission on Student Aid.
Mr. Conable graduated from Cornell University (A.B., 1942; LL.B., 1948). He is married, has four children, and resides in Alexander, NY. He was born November 2, 1922, in Warsaw, NY.
Director of AIG
Director of AIG Global
Member of the Council on Foreign Relations
Director of the National Committee on US-China Relations
Member of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution
Emeritus Member of the Board of Trustees for Cornell University


Robert L. Crandall

The Wall Street Journal has called Robert L. Crandall, former Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of AMR Corporation and American Airlines, "the man who changed the way the world flies." During his 25-year tenure at American Airlines, Crandall was instrumental in introducing several changes which revolutionized the travel industry.
In 1973, Crandall sponsored a project to modernize American's SABRE computer reservations system, thus laying the groundwork for what eventually became The SABRE Group, now a leading provider of computing and communications services for airlines throughout the world. In 1975, Crandall created Super Saver fares, which introduced the concept of deep discounts for advance-purchase tickets. Subsequently, he led the development of the industry's first yield management system, a revenue-maximizing approach now used throughout the airline industry. In 1980, he created AAdvantage, the industry's first frequent flyer program, and in 1983, launched an expansion program which more than tripled American's size and transformed it from a medium-sized domestic carrier to one of the world's leading international airlines with revenues of more than $20 billion.
Mr. Crandall's experience as an airline executive also includes six years with TWA where he rose to vice president-data services and later vice president and controller. Earlier, he held finance management positions with Eastman Kodak in Rochester, New York, and Hallmark Cards in Kansas City.
“In 1982, former company president Robert L. Crandall was tape-recorded offering to increase prices if a competitor did. "Raise your goddamn fares 20 percent and I'll raise mine the next morning," he told Howard Putnam, president of now-defunct Braniff Inc., who was secretly recording the profanity-laden conversation. "You'll make more money and I will, too," Crandall said. Putnam declined the offer and promptly turned in Crandall.
After losing in the lower court, Justice convinced the 5th Circuit in 1984 that Crandall's offer to fix prices was illegal, even though the offer was declined. That's a key decision, because much of the government's case against Microsoft hinges on allegations that the company proposed dividing markets with rivals such as Apple Corp. -- offers that were rebuffed.” – Washington Post, November 20, 1998
Among the many national and trade publications that have honored Mr. Crandall for his achievements and executive leadership are Business Week, Industry Week, Aviation Week & Space Technology, Financial World, and Air Transport World. In April 1997, Mr. Crandall received the Horatio Alger Award, which honors individuals who have achieved success despite challenging life circumstances.
A native of Westerly, R.I., he is a 1957 graduate of the University of Rhode Island and received a master's degree in business administration from the University of Pennsylvania's Wharton School in 1960.
Mr. Crandall and his wife, Jan, live in Dallas. They have three adult children.
In July 2002 he was named in a lawsuit, along with the other directors of Halliburton (including current Vice President Dick Cheney) “for alleged fraudulent accounting practices which resulted in the overvaluation of the company’s shares, thereby deceiving investors and others.”

Director of Anixter, Inc
Director of Celestica, Inc (since 1998)
Director of Clear Channel Communications, Inc
Director of Halliburton Company (since 1986)
Director of i2 Technologies, Inc
Director of Allied World Assurance Company (a wholly owned AIG subsiduary)
Investor at Metapoint Partners
Senior Advisor to AirTV
Business Advisory Council to University of Rhode Island College of Business Administration
(he also served as director of American Express from 1998-2001)


Martin S Feldstein

Dr. Feldstein has been professor of economics at Harvard University since 1967 and holds the George F. Baker chair in economics. He is also president and chief executive officer of the National Bureau of Economic Research and, previously, chaired the Council of Economic Advisers. He advised the senior President Bush and aggressively supported the current President Bush's tax and Social Security proposals during the 2000 campaign. He has also been cited as a potential replacement for Alan Greenspan when he steps down as Chairman of the Federal Reserve.
At Harvard, Feldstein acted as advisor to Lawrence Lindsey. Lindsey was elected to the board of the Federal Reserve by Bush Sr, and after aiding Bush Jr’s economic proposals for his election campaign, was picked to be Bush’s top economic advisor.
He is the author of numerous papers and books on economic issues and policy, including Economic and Financial Crises in Emerging Market Economies; Inflation, Tax Rules, and Capital Formation; The United States in the World Economy; Reducing the Risk of Economic Crisis; and American Economic Policy in the 1980s.
He is married to Kathleen Feldstein. She is President of Economic Studies, Inc, and serves as a director of Bell South Corp, a director of the Bank of America, a director of John Hancock Financial Services, a director of Ionic Inc, a director of Knight Ridder and a director of Polaris Securities (Hong Kong) Ltd
President and CEO, National Bureau of Economic Research
George F. Baker Professor of Economics at Harvard University
Director of American International Group
Director of Eli Lily & Co
Director of TRW (since 1984)
Director of HCA
Member of the International Council of Advisors at JP Morgan Chase
Member of the International Advisory Board to DaimlerChrysler
Member of the Board of advisors to the Federal Reserve Bank of New York
Member of the International Advisory Board at Robeco
Director of the Council on Foreign Relations
Member of the Trilateral Commission
Member of the Bilderberg Group (attendee of the 1996, 1998, 1999 and 2002 conference)
Director of the Economics Research Network (where he is also an advisor to the `Public Economics’ wing)
Director of the National Committee on US-China relations
Member of the World Economic Forum
Member of the Board of Advisors to the Congressional Budget Office
President Elect of the American Economic Association
Member of the Scientific Advisory Board at the Kiel Institute of World Economics
National Officer of the Omicron Delta Epsilon fraternity
Fellow of the Econometric Society
Corresponding Fellow of the British Academy
Member of the American Philosophical society
Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences
Member of the Institute of Medicine at the National Academy of Sciences
Member of the China Economics Network
Member of the Austrian Academy of Sciences
Honorary Fellow at Nuffield College, Oxford
Daimler-Chrysler Advisory Board (unable to confirm) -


Ellen V. Futter

President of the American Museum of Natural History

Ellen V. Futter is President of the American Museum of Natural History. She previously served as President of Barnard College for thirteen years.
Ms. Futter was graduated Phi Beta Kappa, magna cum laude, from Barnard in 1971. She earned her J.D. degree from Columbia Law School in 1974. She was elected to the Board of Trustees of Barnard as a student representative in 1971 and was subsequently elected to full membership to complete the term of Arthur Goldberg, former Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court. She began her career as an associate at the Wall Street firm of Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy where she practiced corporate law. In 1980, Ms. Futter took a leave of absence from Milbank, Tweed to serve as Barnard's Acting President for one year. At the end of that period, she was appointed President of the College and served in that capacity until 1993 when she joined the Museum.
Born in New York City on September 21, 1949, Ms. Futter attended high school in Port Washington, New York. Before transferring to Barnard College, she spent two years at the University of Wisconsin, Madison.
Ms. Futter is a director of a number of corporations and not-for-profit organizations. She is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Advisory Board of the Yale School of Management, the steering committee of the Financial Services Volunteer Corps, director of the Gilder Lehrman Institute, National Institute of Social Sciences and the Academy of American Poets, as well as of the Association of the Bar of the City of New York and the New York State and American Bar Associations.
She formerly served as Chairman of the Board of New York Federal Reserve Bank and Chairman of the Commission on Women's Health of The Commonwealth Fund. She has received numerous honorary degrees, including from Yale, and awards.
She is currently:

Director of American International Group
Director of J.P. Morgan Chase & Co
Director of Bristol-Myers Squibb Company
Director of Consolidated Edison, Inc
Member of the Council on Foreign Relations
Board of Overseers of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
(and also a director of the American Museum of Natural History)


Carla A. Hills

Carla A. Hills is chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Hills & Company, International Consultants. The firm provides advice to U.S. businesses on investment, trade, and risk assessment issues abroad, particularly in emerging market economies of East and South Asia, Latin America, Eastern Europe, and the independent republics of the Former Soviet Union.

Hills co-founded the Los Angeles law firm of Munger, Tolles & Hills, where she was a partner from 1962-1974. She was an Adjunct Professor at the University of California at Los Angeles Law School, teaching antitrust law, and co-authored the Antitrust Adviser, which was published by McGraw-Hill. Among other offices, she was president of the National Association of Women Lawyers in 1965 and she also served as president of the Federal Bar Association
She was first offered an appointment as assistant US Attorney by Elliot L. Richardson in 1973, but he resigned shortly thereafter during the Watergate scandal. The offer was renewed by his successor, William B. Saxbe, in 1974. From 1974 to 1975, she was Assistant Attorney General, Civil Division, United States Department of Justice. In 1975, Carla Hills was named by Republican President Gerald Ford as Secretary of the Department of Housing and Urban Development, becoming the third woman in the US to hold a cabinet-level position. Her lack of relevant experience was somewhat controversial during the appointment hearings. In the same year she was named as on of Time Magazine’s Women of the Year. She was succeeded - when Democratic President Jimmy Carter took office - by Patricia Robert Harris, in 1977.
Hills was chairman of the Urban Institute from 1983 through 1988, and was a member of the Executive Committee of the American Agenda, co-chaired by Presidents Ford and Carter. In 1981-1982, she served as Vice-Chairman of President Reagan's Commission on Housing and in 1985-1986 as a member of the President's Commission on Defense Management. Hills has been active in the American Bar Association, serving as Chairman of the Antitrust Section 1982-1983, and as Chairman of the Conference of Section Chairmen in 1983-1984.
Hills served as United States Trade Representative from 1989-1993. As a member of President Bush's Cabinet, Hills was the President's principal advisor on international trade policy. She was also the nation's chief trade negotiator, representing American interests in multilateral and bilateral trade negotiations throughout the world. A free trade advocate, Hills was the primary US negotiator of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
Born in Los Angeles, California, Hills received her bachelor's degree from Stanford University and received her law degree from Yale University in 1958, marrying Roderick M. Hills in the same year. She has also studied at Oxford University.
She has previously served as a trustee of the Brookings Institution and the Rand Corporation, and as a director of AT&T, International Business Machines Corporation (IBM), Corning Glass Works, the Bechel Group, United Airlines and the Federal National Mortgage Association and for the US-China Business Council. She also served in 2000 as an advisor to the Presidents Appointee Initiative of the Brookings Institute and as a Co-Chair of the `U.S. National Interests and the Western Hemisphereproject for the American Assembly.
Director of AOL Time Warner
Director of American International Group
Director of AIG Global
Director of ChevronTexaco
Director of Lucent Technologies (since 1996)
Director of TCW Group

Vice-Chairman of the Council on Foreign Relations (where she co-chaired the `Independent Task Force on America's Response to Terrorism’)
Member of the Executive Committee of the Trilateral Commission
Member of the Bilderberg Group (attendee of the 2002 meeting)
Chairman of the National Committee on U.S.-China Relations
Director of the Institute for International Economics
Founding member and trustee of the Forum for International Policy.
Trustee & Co-Chair of the Advisory Board of CSIS
Member of the Inter-American Dialogue
Trustee of the Asia Society
Life Trustee of the Urban Institute
Trustee of International Commercial Diplomacy Project
Advisory Council of the Korea Society
Advisory Board of Americans for Humanitarian Trade with Cuba


Frank J. Hoenemeyer

Vice Chairman of the Investment Committee, Carey Institutional Properties Incorporated
Mr. Hoenemeyer has served as Vice Chairman and Chief Investment Officer of Prudential Insurance Company of America. He oversaw the company’s investments during a period in which it assembled the world’s largest real estate and securities investment portfolio and became a leader in real estate, leveraged buyout and venture capital investments. Mr. Hoenemeyer earned a BS in Economics from Xavier University in Cincinnati and an MBA from the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania. In 1947 he joined Prudential as a securities analyst where he rose to become Executive Vice President, Chief Investment Officer and a member of the Executive Office, then a Director and Vice Chairman of the Board.
Mr. Hoenemeyer serves on the Boards of American International Group and Cincinnati, Inc. He is also director (and ex-Chairman) of the Turrell Fund.
He is also a trustee emeritis of The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation


Richard C. Holbrooke

Richard C. Holbrooke is a Vice Chairman of Perseus. He most recently served as the U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations from 1999 until 2001 and was a member of President Clinton’s cabinet.
Ambassador Holbrooke began his career as a Foreign Service Officer immediately after graduating from Brown University in 1962. He was sent to Vietnam and in the following six years served in a variety of posts related to Vietnam -- first in the Mekong Delta as a provincial representative for the Agency for International Development (AID), and then as staff assistant to Ambassadors Maxwell Taylor and Henry Cabot Lodge. In 1966 he was re- assigned to the White House on President Johnson's staff, working on Vietnam. In 1967-69, he wrote one volume of The Pentagon Papers, served as a special assistant to Under Secretaries of State Nicholas deB. Katzenbach and Elliot Richardson, and simultaneously served as a member of the American Delegation to the Paris Peace Talks on Vietnam, headed successively by Averell Harriman and Henry Cabot Lodge.
Following these assignments, Ambassador Holbrooke spent a year as a Fellow at the Woodrow Wilson School at Princeton University. In 1970 he was assigned as Peace Corps Director in Morocco. In 1972, he left the Foreign Service to become Managing Editor of the quarterly magazine Foreign Policy, a position he held until 1976. During 1974-75, he also served as a consultant to the President's Commission on the Organization of the Government for the Conduct of Foreign Policy, and was a contributing editor to Newsweek International. In 1976 he coordinated national security affairs for the Carter-Mondale presidential campaign. In 1977, President Carter appointed him Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs, a post he held until 1981. (He is the only person ever to hold the position of Assistant Secretary of two different regional bureaus in the State Department.) During his tenure in the East Asia Bureau, among other events, the United States established full diplomatic relations with China.
In 1981, he became vice president of Public Strategies, a Washington-based consulting firm founded by him and James A. Johnson. He became a Managing Director at Lehman Brothers, a New York investment bank, in 1985. He also served as a member of the Carnegie Commission on America and a Changing World (chaired by Ambassador Winston Lord), and was chairman and principal author of the November 1992 bipartisan "Memorandum to the President-Elect" of the Commission on Government and Renewal, sponsored by the Carnegie Foundation and the Institute for International Economics.
He was the U.S. Ambassador to Germany from 1993-1994 before being appointed by President Clinton as Assistant Secretary of State for European and Canadian Affairs in 1994. During that time, he was also chief negotiator for the historic 1995 Dayton Peace Accords that ended the war in Bosnia.
He served as vice chairman of Credit Suisse First Boston, a New York based investment bank, from 1996-1999. During the same period he served on a pro-bono basis as the Special Presidential Envoy for Cyprus, and a Special Envoy in Bosnia and Kosovo, where he negotiated the October 1998 agreement, and, after it was violated, delivered the final ultimatum to Belgrade on March 23, 1999, prior to the NATO bombing campaign.
He has received twelve honorary degrees from U.S. and international universities and numerous awards (separate list attached). He is the author of To End a War, (published 1998, and selected as one of the eleven best books of the year by The New York Times) and co-author of Counsel to the President, (1991) the best-selling memoirs of Clark Clifford, as well as numerous articles on foreign policy. He was chairman of Refugees International from 1996 to 1999 and was twice a member of the board of the International Rescue Committee. He was the Founding Chairman of the American Academy in Berlin, a center for U.S.-German cultural exchange. He headed the National Advisory Council of the Harriman Institute. He was a director of the Citizens Committee for New York City, and twice has been a director of the Council on Foreign Relations. Other boards he has served on include the American China Society and the National Committee on U.S.-China Relations.
Ambassador Holbrooke was born on April 24, 1941 in New York. He has two sons. He is married to the author, Kati Marton.
In 1999 he was investigated by the Office of Inspector General for failure to disclose Financial Disclosure Information

He is also:

Director of AIG
Director of Human Genome Sciences
Director of the Council on Foreign Relations
Board of Advisors to Foreign Affairs Magazine (the magazine of the CFR)
Member of the Trilateral Commission
Chairman of the American Academy in Berlin
Director of The American Council on Germany
Director of the National Endowment for Democracy
Member of the World Economic Forum
Advisory Council of the Tanenbaum Center
President/CEO of the Global Business Council on HIV/AIDS
Director of Refugees International
Director of Telluride Foundation
Director of the Citizens Committee for NYC
He also spoke recently to the `McGraw-Hill Companies Homeland Security Summit’ along with other luminaries such as Brent Scowcroft and Paul Bremer III.


Edward E. Matthews

Senior Vice-Chairman, Investments & Financial Services, American International Group
He is also a director of Transatlantic Holdings, Starr, SICO and ILFC
He also serves on the International Capital Markets Advisory Committee to the directors of the NYSE.
He is also a trustee emeritus of Princeton University.


Martin J. Sullivan

Executive Vice President, Foreign General Insurance, American International Group, Inc
He joined the company in the Finance Department of AIG’s non- life company in the UK, AIU in 1971. In 1974, he joined the Property Department and held a succession of underwriting and management assignments in the U.K. and Ireland. In 1983, Mr. Sullivan was appointed Property Manager for the U.K. and later Regional Property Manager for the U.K./Ireland.
In 1988, he was named Manager of AIU’s London office and Regional Marketing Manager for the U.K./ Ireland. Mr. Sullivan was appointed Assistant Managing Director of AIG Europe (U.K.) Ltd. in 1989 and Chief Operating Officer in 1991. In 1993 he was named President of AIU’s U.K./Ireland Division and Managing Director of AIG Europe (U.K.) Ltd.
He was elected Senior Vice President, Foreign General Insurance in 1996 and Executive Vice President, Foreign General in 1998. In 1996 he was appointed Chief Operating Officer of AIU in New York and named President of AIU in 1997. He was elected to the Board of AIG and assumed his current responsibilities in May 2002.
Mr. Sullivan is an Associate Member of the Chartered Insurance Institute, a Fellow of the Institute of Supervisory Management, a Member of the British Institute of Management, a Director of the International Insurance Society and a director of the Geneva Association. He is also Deputy Chairman of British American Business Inc. He also serves as a director of Starr and SICO


Thomas R. Tizzio

Senior Vice Chairman, General Insurance, American International Group
Mr. Tizzio has served as a director of Transatlantic Holdings since 1990. He has also served as a director of TRC since 1979 and of Putnam since 1990. He serves as Senior Vice Chairman - General Insurance and Director of AIG and a Director of Starr and SICO.


Edmund S. W. Tse

Senior Vice Chairman, Life Insurance, American International Group
Mr. Tse was elected Senior Vice Chairman, Life Insurance in 2001 after serving as Vice Chairman, Life Insurance since 1997, overseeing AIG's worldwide Life operations. Mr. Tse is also Chairman of American International Assurance Company, Ltd.(AIA), AIG's flagship Southeast Asian life insurance company. Mr. Tse began his AIG career in 1961, when he joined AIA in Hong Kong. In 1970, he joined Nan Shan Life Insurance Company, Ltd., an AIG subsidiary in Taiwan, where he became President and Managing Director in 1975. He returned to Hong Kong in 1983 as President and Chief Executive Officer of AIA. Mr. Tse was named AIG Executive Vice President in 1991 and elected to the AIG Board of Directors in 1996. Earlier in his career Mr. Tse served as Chairman of the Hong Kong Federation of Insurers and was a member of the Hong Kong Government's Insurance Advisory Council. He also serves as a director of AIG’s subsiduaries Philamlife, Starr and SICO.


Jay S. Wintrob

Jay S. Wintrob is president and chief executive officer of AIG SunAmerica a member of American International Group, Inc. (AIG). Wintrob has served on the board of directors of AIG SunAmerica since 1997 and AIG since 1999. Wintrob joined AIG SunAmerica in 1987 as assistant to the chairman and later that year was elected a corporate vice president. He has served as senior vice president (appointed 1989), executive vice president (1991), vice chairman (1995), and chief operating officer (1998) prior to assuming his current position. From 1994 through 2000, Wintrob was president of AIG SunAmerica Investments, Inc., overseeing the company's invested asset portfolio. Prior to joining the company, Wintrob was with the law firm of O'Melveny & Myers in Los Angeles, specializing in mergers and acquisitions and securities law.
He received his juris doctor degree in 1982 from Boalt Hall School of Law at the University of California, Berkeley, where he was elected to the Order of the Coif and currently serves as a trustee. Wintrob is a 1979 summa cum laude graduate of the University of California, Berkeley
He is also a director of United Way of Los Angeles and as a director of AIG subsiduaries Starr and SICO


Frank G. Wisner

Vice Chairman, American International Group
Frank G. Wisner was sworn in as U.S. Ambassador to India on July 5, 1994 and presented his credentials in New Delhi on August 2, 1994, succeeding Thomas R. Pickering. Mr. Wisner holds the personal rank of Career Ambassador, the highest grade in the Senior Foreign Service. Before New Delhi, his most recent assignment was as Under Secretary of Defense for Policy, from January 1993 to June 1994. Prior to that, he served as Under Secretary of State for International Security Affairs from July 1992 until January 1993.
Mr. Wisner served as U.S. Ambassador to the Philippines from August 1991 until June 1992; served as Ambassador to Egypt from August 1986 until June 1991; and served as Senior Deputy Assistant Secretary for African Affairs from April 1982 to April 1986. He served as Ambassador to Zambia from August 1979 to April 1982.
Frank G. Wisner joined the State Department as a Foreign Service Officer in December 1961, and after Western Arabic Language training in Morocco, was assigned to Algiers. In 1964, he was detailed to the Agency for International Development in Vietnam. He remained in Vietnam until 1968, serving in succession as Staff Aide to the Deputy Chief of Mission, Special Assistant to the Director of the Office of Civil Operation, and Senior Advisor to the Vietnamese province of Tuyen Duc.
Returning to Washington in December 1968, Mr. Wisner was Officer in Charge of Tunisian Affairs in the State Department, where he remained until July 1971, when he was named chief of the EconomicCommercial Section at the American Embassy in Tunis. He then serviced as chief of the Political Section in Dhaka from July 1973 until March 1974. From March 1974 until April 1975, Mr. Wisner was Director of Plans and Management in the Bureau of Public Affairs in Washington. He then joined the President's Interagency Task Force on Indochina. He was Special Assistant to the Under Secretary for Political Affairs, Joseph Sisco, from August 1975 until July 1976. Mr. Wisner was named Director of the Office of Southern African Affairs in July 1976, then Deputy Executive Secretary of the Department of State in April 1977.
Frank Wisner was born in New York in 1938. He graduated from Princeton University with a B.A. degree in 1961. He is married to the former Christine de Ganay. They have four children.
He is also:
Director of EOG Resources (formerly Enron Oil & Gas Company)
Director of Ethan Allen Interiors Inc
Vice-Chairman of the Business Council for International Understanding
Director of the US-Saudi Arabian Business Council
Founding Chairman & presently Vice Chairman of the US Bangladesh Business Council
Director of the American-Iranian Council
Director (& past Chairman) of the US – India Business Council
Member of the Council on Foreign Relations
Trustee of International House
Member of the Bilderberg Group (attendee of 1994 meeting)
Member of the RAND Center for Asia Pacific Policy
Trustee of the American University in Cairo
Member of the International Advisory Board of the Center for the Advanced Study of India at the University of Pennsylvania
Wisner & Enron: “The US ambassador in New Delhi, Frank G. Wisner, put enormous pressure on India to stop Enron being thrown out of the country. He, too, got a seat on Enron's board when he retired.” (source)
“The state forces accused of abuses provided security to the Dabhol Power Corporation (DPC), a joint venture of Enron, the Bechtel Corp. and General Electric, overseen by Enron.
The U.S. State Department issued the DPC a human rights clean bill of health. Charged with the assessment was U.S. Ambassador Frank Wisner, who had also helped Enron get a contract to manage a power plant in Subic Bay in the Philippines in 1993. Shortly after leaving his post in India in 1997, Wisner took up an appointment to the board of directors of Enron Oil and Gas, a subsidiary of Enron.
Thanks in part to Wisner's positive rights review, Washington extended some $300 million in loan guarantees to Enron for its investment in Dabhol -- even though the World Bank had refused to finance the project, calling it unviable.” (source) (see also)

Wisner’s father & the CIA:
“Mr. Wisner's unique and courageous endeavors established the doctrine for the use of covert action in support of US national security objectives. He served as the Assistant Director of the Office of Policy Coordination, the Deputy Director for Plans (Operations), an overseas assignment as Chief of Station, and as Special Assistant to the DCI. His depth of knowledge in planning and directing clandestine operations contributed greatly to some of the most intricate and challenging undertakings in the early history of the Agency.” , , ,


Frank G. Zarb

Frank Zarb is a Managing Director and Senior Advisor at Hellman & Friedman. Mr. Zarb’s primary area of focus is the financial services industry.
Mr. Zarb is currently Chairman of NIFA (Nassau County Interim Finance Authority) and a Director at American International Group and a director of Lower Manhattan Development Corporation.
Prior to joining the firm in 2002, Mr. Zarb was Chairman of NASD, Inc. and the Nasdaq Stock Market.
Mr. Zarb became Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Nasdaq® and its parent organization, the National Association of Securities Dealers, Inc. (NASD®) in February 1997. He served as Nasdaq CEO until February 2001 and Chairman until September 2001. He served as NASD CEO until October 2000 and Chairman until September 2001. The NASD is the securities industry's largest self-regulatory organization and is the parent of the American Stock Exchange, NASD Regulation, Inc., and NASD Dispute Resolution, Inc.
From June 1994 through January 1997, Mr. Zarb was Chairman, Chief Executive Officer and President of Alexander & Alexander Services, ...
"The philosophers have only interpreted the world, in various ways. The point, however, is to change it." Karl Marx

"He would, wouldn't he?" Mandy Rice-Davies. When asked in court whether she knew that Lord Astor had denied having sex with her.

“I think it would be a good idea” Ghandi, when asked about Western Civilisation.

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