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The Brotherhood of Eternal Love
Richard ALPERT:lieutenant to Leary in early psychedelic movement
Bobby ANDRIST:major Brotherhood smuggler and organizer
Paul ARNABALDI:partner to Kemp and Solomon
Christine BOTT:Kemp's girlfriend
Peter BUCHANAN:tax adviser to Sand
Terence BURKE:Federal agent in Kabul
Brian CUTHBERTSON:major British LSD organizer
Michael DRUCE:chemicals supplier and businessman
Lester FRIEDMAN:university chemist who helped Sand
John GALE:extrovert salesman for Orange Sunshine
Sam GOEKJIAN:Stark's European lawyer
John GRIGGS:moving spirit in the creation of the Brotherhood
Billy HITCHCOCK:Leary's benefactor at Millbrook
Albert HOFMANN:Swiss research chemist who uncovered LSD
Michael HOLLINGSHEAD:writer, and friend of Leary
Aldous HUXLEY:writer, thinker and advocate of psychedelics for mankind's betterment
Dick KEMP:LSD chemist to Stark and Solomon
Ken KESEY:best-selling author, exponent of extrovert psychedelia with the Merry Pranksters
Doug KUEHL:Federal agent in California
Glen LYND:founder Brother and smuggler
Donald MUNSONConfusedmuggler and adviser to Scully and Sand
OWSLEY (Augustus Owsley Stanley III): first of the great underground LSD chemists
Neal PURCELL:Laguna Beach policeman and Brotherhood opponent
Michael RANDALL:founding Brother and major organizer
Richard RATHJEN:Federal tax agent
Nick SAND:New York bootleg chemist who joined Owsley and Scully
Tim SCULLY:apprentice to Owsley, chemist to the Brothers
David SOLOMON:drug book author, and founder of British LSD group
Ron STARK:international LSD entrepreneur and Brotherhood partner
TERRY the TRAMP:Owsley's Hell's Angels drug dealer
Gerry THOMAS:one of Solomon's early business partners
Henry TODD:marketing and organizational genius of British LSD group
The TOKHIS brothers:the Brotherhood's Afghan hashish source
George WETHERNConfusedecond in command of Hell's Angel drug dealing

Attached Files
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"The philosophers have only interpreted the world, in various ways. The point, however, is to change it." Karl Marx

"He would, wouldn't he?" Mandy Rice-Davies. When asked in court whether she knew that Lord Astor had denied having sex with her.

“I think it would be a good idea” Ghandi, when asked about Western Civilisation.
The Brotherhood of Eternal Love was an informal organization of psychedelic drug enthusiasts and dealers that operated in the late 1960s. The group was founded in Laguna Beach, California. The group was headquartered in the Mystic Arts bookstore on Pacific Coast Highway. At that time, Laguna Beach was a common stopping point for those traveling south from Haight Ashbury to Mexico. Timothy Leary, the excommunicated Harvard psychology professor and devotee of free love and author of "turn on, tune in and drop out," became the godfather of the group. One contributor writes that the group was composed of local surfers, drug users and rich kids from Orange County, Los Angeles and the Pasadena area. This is contested by another contributor, who points out that the genesis of the Brotherhood was a rag-tag crew of very young street toughs in Compton, California - in a poor neighborhood - who in the course of smoking multiple kinds of vegetation and swallowing random available pills for recreational purposes, accidentally encountered LSD. At least a half-dozen of them found their lives transformed by that experience and, in due time, moved south to modest bungalows in the little-known town of Laguna Beach. They tended to wear simple cotton garments, sometimes robes. Most were vegetarians, and they daily spent considerable time in prayer and simply doing good deeds. Many of them continued to practice their own version of Christianity while opening research into Hinduism, Vajrayana Buddhism, and indigenous and Eastern religions as Brotherhood members happened to find them.
For several years, their psychedelic activities were underwritten by selling high-quality marijuana. As business expanded, they decided to see if they could build a national distribution network. Farmer John and Chuck Scott bought a new station wagon, loaded it up with kilo bricks of marijuana and drove from Laguna Beach to the Holland Tunnel. They took almost six weeks to move the load because New York's hippie market for marijuana at the time of their arrival was small and informal. Distribution of the Brotherhood's first wholesale load began the creation of an entirely new market and sales pyramid.
After sales prospered, the Brotherhood began to send researchers around the world to look into purchasing opportunities. Red Lebanese and black Afghan hashish were favored because of their strength, perfumes, and popularity among buyers in the USA. Other varieties of hashish were also purchased and imported in volume. At a certain point, the cash flow was more than sufficient for them to set up their own laboratory in which to manufacture LSD. The elder chemist was the bright and quirky Owsley Stanley, nicknamed Bear, who favored "cocktails", mixtures of LSD and small amounts of amphetamine, though there was no amphetamine in Owsley's acid. It was pure, and much of it was actually made by Nick Sand.
By the late 1960s, what had begun as a brotherhood of idealistic young pacifists had been infiltrated and corrupted by cynical outsiders, some of them armed. The brotherhood of love was gone; the informal organization's name was arrogated by punks and crooks who soon became notorious and widely detested.
The Brotherhood operated originally as a psychedelics distribution network throughout the United States, most notably in California where the organization received large shipments of hashish from Pakistan and Afghanistan, helped by Welshman Howard Marks, now a prominent figure in the cannabis culture. Some of the best Hashish that was imported were the half circle 'Elephant Ears' in the early 1970s .With funds from their hashish smuggling, the organization produced and distributed large amounts of the legendary "Orange Sunshine" LSD. The organization was headquartered on a ranch in Garner Valley, near Idyllwild. Members paid the Weather Underground to break Timothy Leary out of prison.[1] The organization may have been inspired by, but did not evolve from, Timothy Leary's League for Spiritual Discovery or the International Foundation for Internal Freedom. Many of its members were interested in peace and in ending the Vietnam war. A 1972 Rolling Stone article dubbed them the "Hippie Mafia."
The Brotherhood also had a small vegetarian restaurant on Pacific Coast Highway, two blocks north of Mystic Arts, named "Love Animals, Don't eat them". This restaurant operated with volunteers, with much of the food donated. Menu items did not have a price and patrons left donations for the food ordered.
Members of the Brotherhood felt that the Vietnam War was not only illegal but that President Richard Nixon was using drug laws to imprison political opponents. Members Johnny Gail and Victor Forsythe advocated putting LSD in Nixon's punch. Grace Slick was recruited for that effort but the mission was not successful. Victor Forsythe was entrapped into sales of Brotherhood hashish in 1972 and after a year long trial, which resulted in a hung jury, he jumped bail and fled to Ecuador in 1973. In late 1974, Victor was arrested by US drug agents, and after three months of fighting extradition, was returned to the United States where he pleaded guilty in a plea bargain arrangement with the Orange County prosecutor. His book, Birth of an Angel, describes details of his arrest. During his imprisonment in Orange Country jail Victor was assaulted by a white supremacist prison gang and almost killed. After recuperating in the hospital, Victor completed the rest of his sentence in solitary confinement.
Timothy Leary had this to say about the Brotherhood: "The whole concept of the Brotherhood of Eternal Love is like a bogeyman invented by the narcs. The brotherhood was about eight surfer kids from Southern California, Laguna Beach, who took the LSD, and they practiced the religion of the worship of nature, and they'd go into the mountains. But they were not bigshots at all. None of them ever drove anything better than a VW bus. They were just kind of in it for the spiritual thrill."[2]
News Articles

Suspected LSD ring fugitive arrested in California THE ASSOCIATED PRESS September 30, 2009, 6:57 PM
A suspected member of an LSD distribution ring has been arrested in California after nearly four decades on the lam. San Francisco police Lt. Bill Darr said Brenice Lee Smith was taken into custody Saturday at San Francisco International Airport after arriving from Nepal. He was arrested on two, nearly 40-year-old warrants issued in Orange County related to the sale and possession of drugs. The 64-year-old Smith is suspected of being part of the Brotherhood of Eternal Love, which Rolling Stone magazine once dubbed the "Hippie Mafia." The group is suspected of smuggling large amounts of hashish from Pakistan and Afghanistan and producing and distributing "Orange Sunshine" LSD. The Brotherhood was also known for paying the Weather Underground to bust LSD guru Timothy Leary out of jail.


  1. ^ Jacobs, Ron, The Way the Wind Blew: A History of the Weather Underground, Verso Books, 1997
  2. ^ Timothy Leary

  • The Brotherhood of Eternal Love, From Flower Power to Hippie Mafia: The Story of the LSD Counterculture, Stewart Tendler and David May (1984) ISBN 1904879950
External links

"The philosophers have only interpreted the world, in various ways. The point, however, is to change it." Karl Marx

"He would, wouldn't he?" Mandy Rice-Davies. When asked in court whether she knew that Lord Astor had denied having sex with her.

“I think it would be a good idea” Ghandi, when asked about Western Civilisation.
Full text of "Hashish smuggling and passport fraud : ''the brotherhood of eternal love'' : hearing before the Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Ninety-third Congress, first session, October 3, 1973



"The Brotherhood of Eternal Love"










OCTOBER 3, 1973

Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary


23-638 WASHINGTON : 1973



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price $1.15

ibrary J franklin pierce law center

Concord, New Hampshire 03301





"The Brotherhood of Eternal Love"










OCTOBER 3, 1973

Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary

2»-638 WASHINGTON : 1973

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing OfBce
Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price $1.15



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JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman

SAM J. ERVIN, Jr., North Carolina HIRAM L. FONG, Hawaii

PHILIP A. HART, Michigan HUGH SCOTT, Pennsylvania

EDWARD M. KENNEDY, Massachusetts STROM THURMOND, South Carolina

BIRCH BAYH. Indiana MARLOW W. COOK, Kentucky


ROBERT C. BYRD, West Virginia EDWARD J. QURNEY, Florida

JOHN V. TDNNEY, California

Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration of the Intebnal
Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws
JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman
JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas STROM THURMOND. South Carolina

SAM J. ERVIN, Jr., North Carolina MARLOW W. COOK, Kentucky


J. Q. SouRWiNB, Chief Counsel

Raymond Sifly, Jr., Minority Counsel

John R. Norpel, Director of Research

Alfonso L. Tarabochia, Chief Investigator


Resolved, by the Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate
Committee on the Judiciary, that the testimony of John R. Bartels, Jr.,
Gene R. Haislip, Lloyd Sinclear, and Ernest Donald Strange, all of
the Drug Enforcement Administration; and the testimony of Miss
Frances G. Knight, AVilliam E. Duggan, and John O'DoAvd, all of the
Passport Office, Department of State, taken in executive session on
October 3, 1973, be released from the injunction of secrecy, be printed
and made public.

James O. Eastland, Chairman.
Approved December 10, 1973.


^ , Page

^^ John^R. Bartels, Jr., Acting Administrator, Drug Enforcement Ad-
ministration _

Lloyd Sinclair, group supervisor, DEA_ '

Ernest Donald Strange, special agent, DEA »

Gene R. Haislip, Counsel, DEA ^'^

Afternoon Session

Testimony of — „ , -^ _ --v ^ * *

Miss' Frances G. Knight, Director, Passport Office, Department of

QiX- ^ OiJ

William" E.' Duggan,' Chief,' Legal Division, Passport Office 43

John O'Dowd, attorney-adviser. Legal Division, Passport Office o^



"The Brotherhood of Eternal Love"


U.S. Senate,
SuBCX)MMi'rrEE To Investigate the
Administration of the Internal Security Act

AND Other Internal Security Laws
OF THE Committee on the Judiciary,

Washington^ D.C.

The subcommittee met, pursuant to notice, at 11 :30 o'clock a.m., in
room 1318, Dirksen Senate Office Building, Senator James O. East-
land, presiding.

Also present : J. G. Sourwine, chief counsel ; David Martm, senior
analvst: Ravmond Siflv, minority counsel; John R. Norpel, Jr., re-
search director; and Alfonso Tarabochia, chief investigator.

The Chairman. The purpose of this hearing is to look into the re-
lated problems of international drug trafficking and passport fraud—
both of which have a direct bearing on the internal security of our
country. .

It is my understanding that the testimony this mornms: will focus
primarily, but not exclusively, on the activities of the Brotherhood
of Eternal Love, an organization founded by Dr. Timothy Leary
which has combined a mystical fanaticism with criminal activities,
and which has been massively involved in passport fraud and in the
production, smuggling, and distribution of various drugs, LSD, and
hashish in particular.

The Senate Subcommittee on Internal Security held extensive hear-
ings last September and October. 1972, on the international drug
traffic and its impact on U.S. security. The subcommittee appointed
Gen. Lewis W. Walt, retired assistant commandant of the Marine
Corps, to head up a staff investigation. General Walt's investigation
covered some 20 countries, and the report which he made to the sub-
committee, I think it is fair to say, played a major role in bringing
about certain structural improvernents in our national drug control
machinery, and his recommendations are closely reflected in some of
the legislation now pending before Congress.

Our hearings last vear focused primarily on the heroin epidemic,
although General Walt's report did deal briefly with the interrelated
problems of cocaine, hashish, and marihuana. We also took the testi-
monv of Dr. Olav Braenden. the distinarished Director of the U.N.
Narcotics Laboratory in Geneva, on the current status of cannabis


In today's hearing we shall be dealing with the past activities of
Timothy t^ary's associates as the prime international manufacturers
and distributors of LSD, and with the role his organization, the
Brotherhood of Eternal Love, has played in the rapidly expanding
problems of hashish smuggling into the United States.

I anticipate that this hearing will provide us with some useful
information on the relationship between the increasingly widespread
use of hashish and the extensive use of marihuana--which is really
a weaker version of hashish — before the current hashish epidemic got

In addition to establishing the basic facts about the rapidly mush-
rooming problem of passport fraud, it is my hope that this hearing
will also i^roduce certain concrete recommendations pointing to im-
provements in passport security.

The witnesses we have with us today are divided into two groups.

From the Department of Justice, we have : John R. Bartels, Acting
Administrator, Drug Enforcement Administration ; Gene R. Haislip,
counsel. Drug Enforcement Administration; Lloyd Sinclair, group
supervisor, Drug Enforcement Administration; and Ernest Donald
Strange, special agent. Drug Enforcement Administration.

From the Passport Office of the Department of State, we have :

Frances G. Knight, Director, Passport Office, Department of State;
William E. Duggan, Legal Counsel. Passport Office (in charge of
investigation of passport fraud by brotherhood members) ; and John
O'Dowd, Attorney-Advisor, Legal Division, Passport Office.

I want to thank the witnesses for coming.

In order to expedite the hearing, I would like to ask that you all
rise and be sworn in simultaneously.

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give the
subcommittee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the
truth, so help you God ?

Mr. Bartels. I do.

Mr. Haislip. I do.

Mr. SixcLAiR. I do,

Mr. Straxge. I do.

Miss Knight. I do.

Mr. Duggan. I do.

Mr. O'Dowd. I do.

Mr. SouRwiNE. Mr. Chairman, we will begin, if it is agreeable with
you, with the testimony of Mr. John R. Bartels, Jr., the Acting Ad-
ministrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration of the Depart-
ment of Justice.


Mr. Bartels. Thank you, Mr. Chairman, distinguished members of
the subcommittee.

I am pleased to appear before you this morning in connection with
this subcommittee's continuing investigation into the illicit drug traf-

lie. In addition to other matters, you have asked that we inform you
of the particulai-s of our investigation of a drug-oriented cult known
as the Brotherhood of Eternal Love.

This is one of the most fascinating investigations of recent years,
and I have brought with me today for the pur^wse of recounting it,
two of the officers who were responsible for its success. These are the
gentlemen on my left, Mr. Lloyd Sinclair, presently a group super-
visor in our Los Angeles Eegional Office; and next to him. Mr. Donald
Strange, one of the resourceful agents who worked under Mr. Sin-
clair's direction. I would also like at this time to recognize Special
Agents Terry Burke, Douglas Kuehl, Gary Elliot, Donald Monier,
and William"^ McKelvey, who also played an important role in this
investigation, although they could not be with us today.

To avoid any subsequent confusion of terminolog}-, let me explain
from the outset that these gentlemen were at the time of this investi-
gation serving within the former BNDD. This agency has since been
merged with other units to form the new Drug Enforcement Adminis-
tration, or DEA, which I now head ; and this more current means of
identifying the Federal Government's enforcement arm will be used

Before Mr. Sinclair begins his narrative, I would like first to deal
with some of the broader implications of the case about which you
have also asked to hear. In many ways, the evolution of the drug
trafficking activities of the members of the Brotherhood of Eternal
Love is a tragic illustration of the cynicism into which the youthful
drug revolution of the mid-1960's has fallen. It also underlines the
development of new trends in the drug traffic of which the Nation
np^ds to be aware.

The Brotherhood of Eternal Love was founded on the basis of
Timothy I^ary's exhortations to "Tune in, turn on. and drop out"'
with LSD. Leary's preaching consisted of a combination of mysticism,
the use of dnigs, and the disapproval of our society expressed in the
phrases of rebellion which particularly appeal to youth. The novelty
of his doctrine and the growing drug rebellion in general, drew con-
siderable attention from the press, which merely extended the num-
bers of young people exposed to the message. Many thousands of
teenagers reacted to it with an idealistic and religious fer^'or.

Mr. SouRwixE. May I interrupt, sir ?

Mr. Bartels. Yes, sir.

Mr. SouRwixE. Is that perhaps a very conservative estimate? Do
you think it would be an exaggeration to suggest that at the height of
his influence Leary may have had as many as a million of our young
people paying attention to his rantings in one way or another?

Mr. Bartels. Xo ; I think that is quite right. That is quite possible.

Mr. SouRwixE. Go ahead, sir.

Mr. Bartels. Soon, California became the mecca for the new
"counter-culture;'' and in October 1966, Leary, with many of his
youthful followers, established the Brotherhood of Eternal Love as
a tax-exempt religious corporation under the laws of that State. Al-
though many thousands of young drug abusers were in the Berkeley
area at this time, the brotherhood was an exclusive organization to
which not all were admitted. High echelon brotherhood members were
already engaged in the manufacture and distribution of LSD, al-

though consideration of profits was probably a secondary motive in
the beginning. In time, the drug activities of the brotherhood ex-
panded and evolved new patterns of illicit traffic. By the time that
our investigation reached its peak in the spring of 1973, no less than
750 of its members had been positively identified as participants in
criminal activities that spanned the globe.

Mr. SouRwixE. Do you have a figure or a good estimate as to just
how many active members of the Brotherhood of Eternal Love there
were at the peak ?

Mr. Bartels. If I may, I would refer you to Mr. Sinclair but I
believe it is around 3.000 or so.

Mr. Sinclair. That is correct, sir.

Mr. SouRwixE. Go ahead, sir.

Mr. Bartels. During the late 1960's when the abuse of LSD began
to peak, brotherhood leaders undertook the development of an en-
tirely new trade in hashish. This is one of the stronger forms of
marihuana — normally about 10 times more potent than that smuggled
into the country from Mexico for the manufacture of the typical
marihuana cigarette. Earlier, in the debate on the legalization of
marihuana. Federal drug enforcement authorities warned that the
marihuana question could not be considered from the standpoint of
only the milder forms of the drug then predominating the traffic. They
predicted that a brisk trade in hashish was bound to develop from
the increased demands for cannabis products. The activities of the
brotherhood were, in large part, responsible for proving the accuracy
of this prediction. In 1968, shortly after it was founded. Federal au-
thorities seized no more than 534 pounds of hashish. By 1972, this
had increased to a figure of 30,094 pounds.

Mr. SouRwixE. Can I ask a question here ?

Mr. Bartels. Yes, sir.

Mr. SoLTiwiXE. Do you think that was because you were getting a
higher proportion of the total traffic or was the traffic increasing in
the same or greater proportion to your seizures?

Mr. Bartels. I think the traffic was increasing in greater proportion
rather than

Mr. SouRW^XE. It was outrunning your enforcement efforts.

Mr. Bartels. That is right. I would like to think that we were seiz-
ing more but I think a more realistic appraisal is that that traffic was
growing tremendously.

Mr. SouRWixE. Go ahead. Go ahead, sir.

Mr. Bartels. At some point late in 1967 or early 1968. members of
the brotherhood developed their most important foreign contact for
hashish. According to subsequent indictment, this was the Tokhi
brothers who reside in Afghanistan on the outskirts of Kabul, its
capital city. Brotherhood smugglers developed elaborate and success-
ful means of getting the hashish into the Ignited States. One of their
earlier techniques was to hide quantities of 15 to 20 pounds of the drug
within the interiors of fiberglass surfboards which they manufactured.
This was soon considered too small a quantity, however, and they grad-
uated to specially designed traps in Volkswagen campers or other ve-
hicles which could hold up to 1,300 pounds in a single shipment.

Their mode of operation placed heavy reliance on the use of false
passports; and with their financial resources and false documents, they

achieved complete international mobility. Dunno: the period of their
successes, we have estimated on the basis of hard intelligence that
approximately 24 tons of hashish Avas smiiofjrled into this country.
Although most of this drug came from their dealings withm Af-
trhanistan. we also know that shipments were brought m from both
Lebanon and India.

Mr. SouRwiXE. Do vou mean that statement to be exclusive, that
is, that the only places it came from were Afghanistan, Lebanon and
others or were there other minor sources ? i • i i

;Mr. Bartels. There may have been other sources of which we have
no knowledge.

Mr. SouRWiNE. Thank vou.

Mr. Bartels. Moreover, the brotherhood was not content merely
to smuggle and market hashish. Under the guidance of one of its chief
chemists, the brotherhood developed the manufacture of an even more
potent product called marihuana or hashish oil. In the course of our
investigation, six such hashish oil laboratories were seized.

Mr. Sourwixe. Is that the same commodity that is sometimes re-
ferred to on the street as pot oil ?

Mr. Bartels. Yes. sir.

The marihuana product resulting from their operation m some
cases may have achieved a THC content of up to 90 percent.

Mr. SouRwixE. "Was that

Mr. Bartels. Tetrahydrocannabinol. That is the percent of the
active product within marihuana which gives the— —

Mr. SouRWixE. That is the hallucinitory drug is it not ?

Mr. Bartels. That is right, and in normal marihuana it would run
2 to 3 to 5 percent. . . ,

Mr. Soi-RwixE. Ninety percent purity is extremely high, is it not (

Mr. Bartels. That is right.

Mr. SouRwixE. As an oil, vou cannot get it much higher, can you i

Mr. Bartels. I do not believe so. We have never seen it any higher.

A typical laboratorv such as that seized at Escanaba. Mich., could
produce approximatelV 21/2 quarts of hashish oil per day. Normally,
a single drop placed within a regular cigarette would constitute one
dose, and approximately 15,000 doses could be derived in this way

from 1 quart. • -r. 1 ■, nnn

Marihuana— or hashish— oil was first encountered in February 1972.
Since then the number of exhibits received has increased and so has
the potencv as measured bv the i>ercentage of tetrahydrocannabinol
(THC) present. During fiscal year 1973, 49.3 pounds of the drug were
seized with an average THC content of 46 percent. This is a highly
potent and concentrated hallucinogenic substance which can be manu-
factured with relatively simple equipment. As such, it must be regard-
ed as a novel and threatening shift in marihuana abuse which should
give those who advocate its legalization cause to re-think their posi-

In the meantime, they continued their manufacture and distribution
of LSD under the trade name of "Orange Sunshine." Until the recent
enforcement successes, this product, which has now disappeared en-
tirelv. was found in quantitv all over the world.

The first concentrated effort to eliminate this clandestine LSD op-
eration resulted in the seizure of a mobile laboratory facility concealed


inside a truck in Denver in 1967 and the arrest of Xicholas Sand.
Reportedly, this was the most productive LSD laboratory in the west-
em United States. Unfortunately, the arrest was found to have been
legally inadequate; and therefore, the case against Sand had to be
dropped. Under the exclusionary rule of evidence, the seized labora-
tory equipment could not be placed in evidence and, in fact, was re-
turned to Sand.

Almost 6 years later, some of the same laboratory equipment, still
bearing the evidential labels applied by Federal agents, was again
seized when Sand's laboratory was discovered by St. Louis police in
a warehouse which had been leased for the manufacture of LSD. Sand
had moved to St. Louis because of the mounting police pressure being
brought to bear on the brotherhood in California at that time.

There are several lessons to be gained from this investigation, and
I should like to mention them briefly, although not necessarily in
order of importance.

First, this case has taught us the necessity of being flexible in our
enforcement strategy and mode of operation. For many years, the
concept of organized crime in drugs has always meant the Mafia, or
the Cosa Nostra, or the Union Corse — traditional and reasonably well
identified criminal groups with specific ethnic connotations. The
Brotherhood of Eternal Love represents one of the new recently-
emerged forms of organized crime totally different from our past
notions in terms of membership, motivations, lifestyles, and drugs of

Mr. SouRwiNE. You mentioned the Mafia, the Cosa Nostra and
Union Corse. Is one of those the same as the Unione Siciliano ?

Mr. Bartels. I do not know. I get frankly confused, Mr. Chairman,
over the extent to which the Siciliano group form in with the Mafia
or Italian organized crime. They overlap and the history of it

Mr. SouRwiNE. It is our understanding — I would like to be cor-
rected if this is wrong so that the record would so reflect— tliat the
Mafia or Cosa Nostra which are interchangeable names is controlled,
supposedly, at least by the Unione Siciliano or the Union Corse is a
Corsican branch or similar Corsican organization which is smaller
and some people say tougher.

Mr. Bartels. That is right. I think there are changes now within
organized crime from the total control that the Sicilian group had in
its origins in Italy and Sicily as opposed to the people who have now
taken over some of these families and have been born in the United

Mr. Sourwine. Go ahead, sir.

Mr, Bartels. Increasingly, this new form of organized drug traf-
ficking activity is assuming a greater role in the enforcement problems
we face. In the end, we see that the misguided idealism on which the
brotherhood was first conceived finally ijave way to the usual criminal
motivations of big money for little labor. And, although their drug
activity centered at first around LSD, they later branched out to in-
clude hashish and finally cocaine. In its last hour of activity, the
hard narcotics were finally seized upon as offering the biggest profit
for the least effort.

Mr. Sourwine. Pardon me for continually interrupting. I want to
make these points as they occur. You say "in its last hour of activity".
You mean this entire Leary family group is out of business now?

Mr. Bartels. I will let Mr. Sinclair comment on that. I think sub-
stantially it is out of business, is that not correct ?

Mr. Sot-RwixE. It is good news if it is true. We did not think that
was tiiie.

Mr. Sinclair. Severely crippled.

Mr. SouRwixE. Go ahead, sir.

Mr. Bartels. A second aspect with important lessons for our tactical
approach to the drug traffic is the rapidity with which the brother-
hood became an international operation capable of tapping and devel-
oping illicit drug supplies in a country as remote as Afghanistan. The
ease with which false passports may be obtained coupled with the great
cash resources which the group possessed and the availability of mod-
ern jet travel made it not only possible, but likely, that the effort would
be made.

For the last several veai-s. we have concentrated developing our
attack on the illicit drug traffic at its traditional foreign sources in
Turkey, in France, and in Mexico. The events in Southeast Asia
demonstrated the potential dangers from that particular area ; and the
investigation of the brotherhood activities proves no drug producing
area, however remote, can be ignored in our international effort. What
the brotherhood was able to accomplish in Afghanistan with regard
to hashish could as easily be accomplished with regard to opium and

Without the assistance which our foreign offices can offer, and with-
out a mobility and flexibility on our part at least equal to that of crimi-
nal organizations, we could not even learn of the criminal activities of
such groups much less successfully cope with them. In the instant c_ase,
our agent in Kabul plaved a major role in coordinating the investiga-
tion with the California-based task force. Our offices around the world
must be able to develop and exchange intelligence information rapidly
so as to identify violatoi-s and make them targets of police activity. Our
agents must further have the capability of using this information and
moving rapidly throughout the world to put it to use. For example, in
pursuit of the brotherhood investigation, DEA agents traveled to
Paris, Kabul, Costa Rica, Mexico City, Belgium, and Honduras as
well as traveling extensivelv within the United States.

One of the particulars inVhich DEA will differ from its predecessor
agencies is in the increased emphasis which we intend to place on
the development of intelligence as the second operational arm of our
enforcement efforts.

Mr. SouRWixE. One more interruption, if I may. This mobility
and ability to act is going to require agreements for cooperation with
a great many other governments, is it not ?
Mr. Bartels. Yes, it will.

Mr. SouRWTXE. The work of negotiating those agreements is under-
way now?
Mr. Bartels. Yes, it is.

Mr. SouR^vixE. That is really another subject. I do not want to
push you into it but I thought we needed some mention of it here.
Mr' Bartels. I think vou are 100 percent right. We now will have

65 foreign offices in 49 countries which is a tremendous growth rate

over the past several years.


Mr. SouRWiNE. I also had one other question at this point. You
mentioned the ease with which false passports may be secured. You
are referring to U.S. passports?

Mr. Bartels. Yes, sir.

Mr. SouR\viNE. When you say false passports, do you mean out-
right forgeries or do you mean actual passports which are obtained
by persons under false names or through false pretenses?

Mr. Bartels. The latter.

Mr. SouRWTNE. Wlien you say false passports you do not mean
forgeries. You mean U.S. passports issued to people other than those
they purport to cover.

Mr. Bartels. Yes, sir. That is what

Mr. SoTJRWiNE. Or obtained by an actual person through false

Mr. Bartels. Yes.

Mr. SoTjRWiNE. Go ahead.

Mr. Bartels. Finally, this case illustrates the inadequacies of exist-
ing criminal justice procedures in coping with contemporary high-level
drug violators. Of the top 12 organizers of the brotherhood's activities,
six continue to be fugitives from justice living on their ill-gotten wealth
in foreign countries where additional enterprises can be planned. Worst
of all, two of these were successfully arrested but were able to post
bonds, whereupon they promptly fled the jurisdiction. Another brother-
hood member was rearrested on three subsequent occasions and finally
fled after forfeiting bonds totaling $125,000.

In the more limited case of heroin trafficking, we have asked the Con-
gress to consider imposition of new restraints on the granting of bail.
We recognize the caution which must be exercised to safeguard con-
stitutional rights, but we have offered new formulas for pretrial deten-
tion which we feel strike a balance between the necessitv to protect the
public and the rights of accused persons. This law was introduced by
the chairman of this subcommittee and other distinguished members
of the Judiciary Committee, and we recommend it as an appropriate
starting point from which to consider the problem.

I would like to turn now to Mr. Llovd Sinclair who will provide you
with an account of the particulars of this investigation. I hope that you
will keep in mind throughout his account, that the successes he de-
scribes were not those of DEA alone, but were the results of the efforts
of many State and local officers and Federal agencies, particularly
the Department of State, which cooperated in numerous false pass-
port investigations of brotherhood members. We shall then be pleased
to respond to whatever questions you may have. Special Agent Donald
Strange will also assist in answering any detailed questions concem-
inar the conduct of the investigation.

Mr. Sourwine. Sir, before Mr. Sinclair begins his statement, I have
a number of questions I want to ask. I have no reason to insist that
you answer them, but may I ask you while you are here?

Mr. Bartels. Certainly.

Mr. Sourwine. If you want to field them, do so; and if you want to
pass them to one of your experts, do so.

Wien you speak of the Department of State cooperatinsr in nu-
merous false passport investigations, what division or branch of the

State Department were vou referring to? Do you mean the Passport

Mr. Sinclair. Security,

Mr. SouRwiXE. You mean the Bureau of Security?

Mr. Sinclair. Xo, no. Within the Department of State.

Mr. Sourwine. The Office of Security?

Mr. Sinclair. Ri^ht.

Mr. SouRwiNE. Within the Department of State.

Mr. Sinclair. Yes.

Mr. SouRwiNE. l^Hio heads that ?

Mr. Sinclair. I do not know.

Mr. Strange. ]\f r. Hibbard Lamkin was the special agent in charge
in Los Angeles, whom we worked through initially. He has since re-

]Mr. SouRwiNE. You are talking about cooperation at the local level
rather than at the Washington level.

Mr. Strange. Yes, sir, but at one point in time we called direct to
the State Department in Washington when we had reason to believe
that one of the brotherhood members was using a fraudulent pass-

Mr. SouRwiNE. Who did you talk with there ?

Mr. Strange. I do not recall. It was primarily another agent's re-
sponsibility. He maintained liaison with a member of the State De-
partment in Washington. He spoke with him almost on a day-to-day

Mr. SouRwiNE, Over quite a period of time ?

Mr, Strange, Yes. sir,

Mr, SoTJRwiNE, Did you get the information you were telephoning
for over a period of time ?

Mr, Strange, Yes, sir. When documents that were obtained in either
a search or through informant information gave us the idea that pos-
sibly one of these brotherhood members was using an assumed name,
we would run that name through the passport section and see if they
had an application on file for the member under that name, and quite
often they did,

Mr, SouRwiNE, Now, it may be that I am here anticipating some-
thing that one of your men plans to cover, and if so. I have no objec-
tion to deferring the question. But let us run through these and then
go ahead with the director's statement,

Dr, Leary had a rather openhanded acceptance by the media or cer-
tain areas of our media of public information, did he not?

Mr, Barteis, Yes, he did,

Mr, SouRwiNE. I remember two major interviews with I^ary in
Playboy magazine, for instance. Was this access to the press and to a
somewhat lesser but still substantial degree the airwaves, of any
substantial or even critical importance in enabling Leary to increase
his influence ?

Mr, Bartels, In my opinion, it was, and I would ask Mr, Sinclair
if he would not confirm that,

Mr, Sinclair, Yes. absolutely,

INIr, SouRwiNE, Was Leary himself ever arrested for trafficking in
drugs ?


ISIr. Bartels. Yes, he was.

Do you know his record ? I know he was in Texas once.

Mr. Sinclair. Yes, that was Customs.

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you plan to cover that ?

Mr. Sinclair. Not the Texas incident, but we do plan to cover an-
other aspects of his

Mr. SouR\vaNE. Would it be out of order to tell us about the Texas
incident now ?

Mr. Sinclair. I am not specifically familiar with it. I recall he
crossed the border at Texas, I believe, with his daughter, and they
were arrested at that time.

Mr. SouRwiNE. When — may I ask you cover the Texas incident fully
when you correct the record either at this point or any other place
you think it will fit best.

Mr. Sinclair. We would be happy to.

[The material referred to follows :]

Dr. Timothy Leary was arrested by a U.S. Customs oflBcial in possession of a
small quantity of marihuana at Laredo, Tex., on December 22, 1965. The facts
of the case are as follows :

Dr. Timothy Leary left New York on December 20, 1965, by automobile,
accompanied by his two children, Susan, age 18, and John, age 16, and two
other persons. Their destination was Yucatan, Mexico, and the alleged purpose
of the trip was a Christmas vacation for the Leary children and to provide
Dr. Leary the opportunity to write a book and to prepare for a summer
session to be conducted with a research group at his home in Millbrook, New
York. On December 22, 1965, Dr. Leary and the four passengers drove across the
international boundary at Laredo, Texas, into the Republic of Mexico, stopped
at the Mexican immigration station for several minutes, and turned back
toward the United States. At approximately 6:45 p.m., they arrived at the
secondary inspection area. Laredo International Bridge. Laredo. Texas. Dr. I^ary,
the driver of the vehicle, told a U.S. Customs oflScial that they had driven across
the boundary into Mexico within the prior hour, that they had been unable to
secure tourist permits and had b^en told by Mexican immigration officials to
return the following morning at 8:00 am. at which time the necessary Mexican
permits would be given to them.

The U.S. inspector asked the group if they had anvthing to declare from
Mexico and was told that they had not. After the occupants alighted from the
vehicle, the U.S. inspector observed some vegetable material and a seed on the
floor of the automobile which appeared to him to be marihuana. Thus the five
travelers were arrested. A search of the baggage, the vehicle and of the individ-
uals was made. Sweepings from the car floor and glove compartment were later
proved to be marihuana. While Dr. Leary was being searched, he stated that he
had never used marihuana. A woman Customs inspector performed a personal
search of the two female travelers, which resulted in the finding of a small
metal container on the person of Susan T>eary after she had disrobed. Within
the container were three partially smoked marihuana cig.irettes, a small quantity
of serai-refined marihuana and capsules of detroamphetamine .sulfate. Demand
was made of Dr. Leary for the required Treasury Department transferee form.
He stated that he had no such form. Susan Leary. in response to the same
demand, refused to make any .statement. Dr. Leary admitted to a U.S. Customs
Agent that the metal box taken from his daughter. Susan, containing the mari-
huana was his property.

Dr. Timothy Leary and his minor daughter were jointly indicted on three
pounts pertainine to marihuana. Dr. Leary was tried before a jury on Maroh 11.
1969. Count 1. which charged the smucrgliuET of marihuana into the United States
which should have been invoiced (declared), was dismissed by the court.
Dr. Learv was found guilty, however, on Count 2. which charged transj>ortation.
and facilitation of transportation, and concealment of marihuana after im-
portation, in violation of 21 U.S.C. 176a, and on Count 3, which charged trans-
portation and concealment of marihuana bv defendants as transferees, required
to pay the transfer tax in ^^olation of 26 U.S.C. 4744 (a) (2). Dr. Ijearv
sentenced to the maximum penalties and fines provided for such offenses, subject


however, to the provisions of 18 U.S.C. 4208(b), and was ordered committed to
the medical center at Springfield. Missouri, for a complete study to be used bv
the court as a basis for determining the ultimate sentence in the case.

Susan Leary was tried at the same time as her father. Dr. Leary, by the
court without a jury (trial by jury having been waivetl) and found guilty on
Count .3 of the indictment but not guilty on Counts 1 and 2. Imposition of
sentence was suspended and she was placed on probation during the remainder
of her minoritv. without supervision, under the provisions of the Youth Corrup-
tions Act. 18 U.S.C. 5010 (a).

Dr. Leary appealed his conviction on Counts 2 and 3 to the Court of Appeals
for the Fifth Circuit which aflSrmed the lower courts findings.

Dr. Leary then jietitioned to the Supreme Court and the Supreme Court agreed
to con.sider two questions: (1) whether petitioner's conviction for failing to
comply with the tran.sfer provisions of the Marihuana Tax Act violated his
Fifth Amendment privilege against self-incrimination; (2) whether petitioner
was denied due process by the application of the part of 21 U.S.C. 176a which
provides that a defendant's possession of marihuana shall be deemed suflicient
evidence that the marihuana was illegally imported or brought into the United
States, and that the defendant knew of the illegal importation or bring in,
unless the defendant explains his possession to the satisfaction of the jury.

On May 19, 1969. the Supreme Court held in favor of the petitioner (Dr.
Leary) on both issues and reversed the judgement of the Court of Appeals.

Mr. SorRWiXE. Would voii say it is true the role T^earv played was
that of an ideological trafficker, whether or not he was himself selling

Mr. Bartels. Definitely.

Mr. SixcLAiR. Absolutely.

Mr. SouRAvixE. He was responsible for hooking more young people,
if I mav use that term, than a g-ood many pushers.

Mr. Bartels. That is my opinion.

Mr. Soi'RwixE. Because of his acceptance and the access he had
through the media to the minds of these voung folks.

Mr. Bartels. Developing the subculture which advocated the use
of drugs.

Mr. SouRwixE. Now, you gave us some figures about seizures. I do
not remember precisely. What was the figure for hashish seizures in
1968 ?

Mr. Bartels. 534 pounds.

Mr. SouRwixE. And in 1972 ?

Mr. Bartels. 30,094 pounds.

Mr. SouRwixE. Did you have any one big or possibly lucky seizure
in 1972 that would increase that figure, or is that the result of a steady
year-by-year progression ?

Mr. Bartels. It is larsfely a steady year-by-year progression. We
had one seizure which I believe was 1.300 pounds which was the
largest in the historv. I mav add that we had a seizure 2 weeks asfo of
almost 900 ]SmileOunds. But that shows what an extremely large seizure
would be.

Mr. SorRwixE. But your 1.300 pound seizure was not any bigger part
of the 30.000 poimds seized in 1972 than vour largest seizure was of the
534 pounds in 1968.

Mr. Bartels. That is cori-ect. For instance, the figures, if I may,
.show this sort of a progression. In 1968. as I stated, there were 534
pounds. In 1969, 2,247 pounds. In 1970, 7,256 pounds. In 1971, 22,188
pounds. And as I said, in 1972, 30,094 pounds.

Mr. SouRwixE. What is vour total so far this vear ?

Mr. B.-vrtels. Through June, from January of 1973 through June 30,
1973, we have 11,150 pounds of hashish.


Mr. SouRwiNE. You are behind the 1972 rate, then.
Mr. Bartels. Yes, we are slightly.

Mr. SouRwixE. Is that because the traffic has dropped off or because
you have been denied the force you need or for what reason ?

Mr. Bartels. I am not sure really at this early date. We may make
it up. It may be also that there is a feeling among the youth to turn
to other drugs. I think it is a little early to say.

Mr. SouRw^ixE. Can you give us any reasonable estimate of the
amount of hashish that has been entering this country undetected?
Obviously, you would not have a statistic on it but do you have esti-
mates on it ?

Mr. Bartels. No. Nothing really reliable.

Mr. SomwixE. You told me that in your opinion, the traffic had
gone up faster than your seizures had gone up, so you must have some
kind of an estimate. Do you have an estimate of total traffic year by
year ?

Mr. Bartels. We do not because we do not know how efficient we
are in making seizures, whether we are seizing 10 percent, 5 percent,
20 percent, 25 percent. But we know that at the borders the nature
of this traffic is such and the borders are so open and wide that we
are not seizing what we would hope to, and a great deal comes in. If
we are seizina; 20 percent of it perhaps we are doing pretty well. And,
of course, it is more difficult once you get into hashish oil which does
not involve as cumbersome a shinment as marihuana.

Mr. SouRwixE. Would you have any instrument of the confirmed
hashish imports of the Brotherhood of Eternal Love which eluded
detection of Customs and other law enforcement agencies ?

Mr. Bartels. Let me refer to Mr. Sinclair on that. I think we said
24 tons, did we not ?

Mr. Haislip. Yes. That is a total, and all of that is based on what we
would call hard intelligence from identifiable sources. And this is due
just to the activities of the brotherhood.

Mr. SouRwixE, They brought in 24 tons in your opinion, over what
period of years ?

Mr. Haislip. 1968 to the present.

Mr. SixclAir. During that time we seized approximately 6,000
pounds so that means approximately 44,000.

Mr. SouRwixE. Well, you must have seized — you mean from them.

Mr. Straxge. Yes, sir.

Mr. SouRwixE. 6.000 pounds. That is 3 tons.

Mr. Bartels. Out of 24 which is about a 12-percent seizure rate.

Mr. SouRwixE. 12, I21/2.

Mr. Bartels. Yes, sir.

Mr. SouRwixE. Do you think you are getting that much generally
over the whole traffic ?

Mr. Bartels. I do not know how I can estimate that.

Mr. SouRwixE. You have not worked the whole traffic as intensively
as you worked the brotherhood, have you ?

Mr. Bartels. No.

Mr. Haislip. I think it would be fair to note, too. that in the last
year or two of the activity with regard to the brotherhood members,
probably increasingly large amounts of their hashish was seized be-


cause of the attention given to them. At first none of it was seized. It
was all getting: thronorh.

Mr. SorRwixE. You do not have any estimate of what they are
handlinof. brino^ing in and peddling now.

Mr. Haislip. Not any reliable figure.

Mr. SouRwiNE. You have not quit working on them yet, have you?

Mr. Bartels. No. We have not totally quit working on them.

Mr. SouRwixE. Can you give us a figure on Avhat hashish sells for
wholesale in the United States?

Mr. Bartels. I will defer to Mr. Sinclair on that.

Mr. SixcLAiR. It depends on how much you are talking about. The
standard price that we see and recognize is $900 a povmd.

]Mr. SouRwixE. And that is a good deal less than it costs when you
sell by the paper, is it not ?

Mr. SixcLAiR. Or by the ounce. You can break it up by the bag and
sell it at $100 an ounce. That would realize $1,600 a pound but when
you think that it only costs $15 a pound in Afghanistan, that is a sub-
stantial increase in profit.

]Mr. SoTJRWixE. Everybody gets his cut.

That retail price, then, is" about $1,600 a pound, $100 an ounce.

Mr. SixcLAiR. Yes.

Mr. SouRWixE. "What is the average strength of the hashish sold in
this country ?

Mr. Haislip. I have a figure on that based on the reports of our
laboratories. Over a period of time they found that the variations were
great, but that the average strength' of hashish contained approxi-
mately 10 percent THC and that for the marihuana or hashish oil, the
average was approximately 46 percent THC.

Mr. SouRWixE. And then this real high strength pot oil you told us
about that ran 90 percent was nine times as strong as the average.

Mr. Haislip. For hashish, yes.

Mr. Bartels. That is right.

INIr. SouRWixE. So that, although you said that the usual dose of
the oil was one drop to a normal cigarette, actually that will produce
a strength 21/2 or 3 times as much as an ordinary marihuana joint,
will it not ?

Mr. Bartels. Yes.

Mr. SouRwixE. How much hashish would the average person have
to ingest in order to develop a real hashish high ?

Mr. Sixclair. A gram or two, I believe. The size of a pencil eraser,
a gram or two,

Mr. SouRwixE. Now, what percentage of this $100 an ounce would
that be ?

Mr. Sixclair. A small part of it, sir. There are approximately 30
grams in an ounce.

Mr. Son?wixE. If a man buys an ounce of it for $100, does he have
a hundred highs ?

Mr. SixcLAre. No. Probably around 30. That would be an average
and that could vary up and down depending on the individual.

Mr. SouRwixE. "Was it the brotherhood which invented or first de-
veloped hashish oil ?

Mr. Bartels. Yes, I think that is right. It was Sand, was it not ?
Mr, Sixclair. No. Another brotherhood member.

23-53S 0—73-


Mr. SouRWiNE. Is any other organization producing it now that yo"
know of ?

Mr. SixcLAiR. There must be. yes.

Mr. SouRWiNE. In other words, you do not know who but you know
there is production other than the brotherhood production.

Mr. Sinclair. That is correct.

Mr. SouRwiNE. You raised the question of who in the brotherhood
was responsible for the development of hashish oil. Do you want to
put that name in the record ?

Mr. Sinclair. According to our best intelligence sources it is Ronald
Hadley Stark.

Mr. SouRWiNE. Getting back to this business of a dose of one drop
in a cigarette — if he puts two drops in the cigarette, he has for prac-
tical purpose got a serious overdose, has he not ?

Mr. Sinclair. Again, I think that depends on the individual.

Mr. SouRwiNE. Thpre is a tolerance that develops?

Mr. Sinclair. I do not know if it is a tolerance but you never know
exactly how concentrated the THC or the hashish oil that you happen
to be using is.

Mr. SouRwiNE. Well, suppose you take 45 percent which is half of the
maximum the brotherhood was able to arrive at. And suppose a man
gets eight drops which is about what, half a teaspoonful ? \Vhat does it
do ? Put him out ? Kill him ? Affect his brain seriously ?

Mr. Bartels. We don't know. It will affect his brain seriously but
I think it is new enough, hashish oil, that we do not know what it will

Mr. Sourwine. It might seriously affect the brain permanently.

Mr. Bartels. That is possible.

Mr. Sourwine. Are any experiments being made along this line to
determine tolerance ?

Mr. Bartels. Not to my knowledge.

Mr. Sourwine. Is anybody making experiments alons: this line with
animals ?

Mr. Bartels. I do not know.

Mr. Haislip. I think the National Institute of Mental Health has
fjome research grants in this area but we would not be able to answer
for what they are doing in the field.

Mr. Sourwine. The FDA would not be working on it because it is
not being offered in the market legally.

Mr. Haislip. That is correct.

Mr. Sourwine. Some of the evidence that this subcommittee took
last year, about a year ago. suggests that there is a direct tie-in be-
tween hashish smoking and marihuana smoking. What would your
opinion be on this? Does the marihuana smoking lead to the use of
hashish in any degree?

Mr. Bartels. I think the two are interchangeable.

Mr. Sourwine. Interchangeable. Not a matter of movement from
the man who smokes a joint to the man who smoke hashish. It is back
and forth.

Mr. Bartels. I think it can lead up. In other words, the hashish be-
ing more potent, more reliable, is more sou""ht after bv the confirmed
and experienced marihana smoker who frequently is dissatisfied with


the 2 percent THC when he can get higher, So I would think yes,
it can lead to it

Mr. SouRWiNE. Before we get through I would like to cover for
the record the connection of Leary with William Mellon Hitchcock,
the multimillionaire Avho permitted Leary to continue his experimen-
tation with LSD on the Hitchcock farm in Dutchess County, N.Y.
Do you want to go into that now or leave it for one of the other men
with you to offer ?

Mr. B ARTELS. That is sub judice right now.

Mr. SouRwiNE. It will be covered in a later statement. All right.

Is the equipment for the preparation or production of hashish
oil extensive or expensive ?

Mr. Haislip. We have some photographs for the record that we
have offered that will illustrate a typical laboratory.

Mr. SouRwaxE. That is, it will be offered.

Mr. Haislip. It is being offered now.

Mr. Bartels. I will be happy to offer them.

Mr. SouRwiNE. That is fine.

Mr. Chairman, may these be received ?

The Chairman. They will be received.

Mr. Bartels. May I offer to you two photographs, one revealing
a marihuana or hashish oil laboratory seized in Escanaba, Mich., and
the other being the brotherhood "Orange Sunshine" LSD laboratory
in St. Louis, Mo. ?

[The photographs referred to follow :]


Marihuana or Hashish Oil Laboratory, Escanaba, Mich.


Brotherhood "Orange Sunshine" LSD Laboratory, St. Louis, Mo.

Mr. SouRWixE. I am not a laboratory technician or expert and un-
able to tell from looking at one of these but it does not look as though
the equipment is very expensive. Do you have a conclusion in that
regard ?

Mr. Bartels. It is very inexpensive.

Mr. SouRwixE. Very inexpensive.

Mr. Bartels. Yes, sir.

Mr. SouRwiXE. When you talk about hashish oil, does that mean
it can only be prepared from hashish or can it be distilled from simple

Mr. Bartels. From crude marihuana as well.

Mr. SouRwix'E. Marihuana and hashish are different versions of the
cannabis plant.

Mr. Bartels. That is right, a different process.

Mr. Sourwix'e. And the hashish oil that you get from one in an equal
degree of concentration would be just the same as what you get from
the other ?

Mr. Bartels. Yes, sir.


Mr. SouRwiNE. Does hashish oil have the characteristic cannabis
odor so that it can be detected by your trained dogs that are used by
the Customs and Post Office Departments ?

Mr. Bartels. I defer to Mr. Strange on that. Do you know?

Mr. Haislip. I think in most cases the oil would be sealed in a
container in any case which would probably make it less subject to that
type of discovery because it would be tightly sealed.

Mr. Sinclair. Usually in glass vials.

Mr. SouRwixE. Do you know whether the oil has a similar aroma
or flavor when put in a cigarette or smoked to what you would get if
you used marihuana?

Mr. Haislip. The best report we have on that is that it is not as
easily detectable and that is just a street report.

Mr. SouRwixE. I have no more questions at this time. Do you want
to go ahead ? Mr. Sinclair next ?

Mr. Bartels. Yes, sir.

Mr. Sinclair. Thank you.

Mr. Chairman, distinguished members of the subcommittee, to the
agents who participated in the Brotherhood of Eternal Love investi-
gation, it was not just another routine case. For nearly a year and a
half, we felt the pulse of what has come to be realized as one of the
largest and most complex drug systems in the history of this country's
narcotic law enforcement efforts.

Possibly you might ask: Are these notorious international traf-
fickers from Italy. Mexico, or Turkey, or from the Golden Triansfle in
Southeast Asia? No. gentlemen, the great majority of these violators
are from California; but, our story does not beerin there. Although
no one knew it at the time, the Brotherhood of Eternal Love began
with Dr. Timothy Francis Leary at Harvard University in 1963.

It was in 1963 that Dr. Leary was fired from his post at Harvard as
a result of his experimentation with LSD. He soon found a friend in
multimillionaire. "William Mellon Hitchcock, and was allowed to con-
tinue his experimentation with LSD from Hitchcock's 4.000-acre
estate in Millbrook, a quiet community in Dut^'hess County, N.Y.

From 1963 to 1966. Dr. Timothy Leary planted the seeds of "mysti-
cism through drufifs" in the minds of countless thousands of vovmsr
Americans. Even Dr. Leary never realized the f ruitfulness of his crop
or the international ramifications of its harvest.

From Millbrook, Dr. Leary traveled to Berkeley. Calif., and from
Berkelev to a small city in southern California called Laguna Beach.
This village-type community was soon to become the psychedelic drug
capital of the world.

In October 1966, the Brotherhood of Eternal Love became a lecral
corporation in the State of California. The brotherhood was also
granted a tax-exempt status on the basis that it claimed to be a reli-
gious organization.

The brotherhood was heavily drug oriented. From its inception, in
addition, intelligence indicates that the group was ceremoniouslv prac-
ticing group sexual freedom in connection with the use of drugs.

From 1966 to 1968. the brotherhood flourished by dealing in mari-
huana smuggled in 100-pound lots from Mexico and bv traffickins: in
LSD obtained from illicit sources and from Sandoz Chemical "Works
in Basel, Switzerland.


Mr. SouRwixE, Do you imply that the LSD obtained from the Basel
firm was legally obtained ?

Mr. SixcLAiR. There was a time when lysergic acid diethylamide was
available commercially. The first person to synthesis it worked for
Sandoz and Sandoz actually manufactured it commercially.
Mr. SouRwixE. Thank you.

Mr. Sinclair. But, that was not enoucrh; and in the latter part of
1967, Glenn Lynd and two other brotherhood members traveled to
Afg:hanistan in search of a permanent source of supply for brother-
hood hashish.

Mr. SouRwixE. That is Glenn Lynd, L-y-n-d ?
Mr. Sinclair. That is correct, sir.

Thev purchased 125 pounds of high-quality Afghanistan hashish
from their suppliers in Afghanistan for $15 a pound and smuggled
it back into California where thev sold it for $900 a pound. This was
to be the first 125 pounds of nearly 24 tons of hashish smuff^led into
the United States from Afghanistan, Lebanon, and India by the
Brotherhood of Eternal T>(Ove.

In the summer of 1968, brotherhood members traveled to San Fran-
cisco in an attempt to secure a permanent source of supply for LSD —
which they found. The LSD was to be called orange sunshine and
the laboratory was to be set up in December 1968.
Mr. SouRwixE. May I interrupt for a moment, sir?
Mr. Sinclair. Yes. sir.

Mr. SouRwixE. Here again, you used this 24-ton figure as though it
was the end of the Leary operation. Do you know that 24 tons or any
other amount is all thev were ever going to smuggle in ?
Mr. SixcLAiR. Xo, sir.

Mr. SouRwixE. Have you put them out of the business ?
Mr. SixcLAiR. No, sir.

Mr. SouRwixE. So that is only what you know about that they have
done heretofore ?

Mr. SixcLAiR. That is correct.
Mr. SouRwixE. Go ahead.

Mr. Strange. Two weeks affo there were 923 pounds of hash seized
in Xew York and Las Vegas. That was a brotherhood shipment.
Mr. Soi-rwixe. Where in Las Vegas ?

Mr. Straxge. It came in from Amsterdam through Kennedv Air-
port to New York and from there to Las Vegas. It cleared U.S. cus-
toms in Las Vegas and it was seized on the outskirts of town, being
transported from Las Vegas to southern California in a large Ryder

Mr. SouRwixE. Came in through the McCarran Airport in Las
Vesras. All right go ahead.

Mr. Sixclair. In March 1969, the first batch of "orange sunshine"
LSD was made bv brotherhood membere in a laboratory located out-
side of San Francisco. Slightly under 1 million tablets were produced
in this first endeavor. Numerous millions were to be made in the next
4 years.

At this point in time, the Brotherhood of Eternal Ix>ve was the larg-
est supplier of hashish and LSD in the Ignited States.

Mr. SouRWiXE. Let us get the reference. That phrase "point of time"
has meant a lot of things. You are talking about March 1969.


Mr. Sinclair. That is correct, sir.

Mr. SouRWixE. Go ahead.

Mr. Sinclair. The center of their operations was still La^na Beach,
Calif., although they were fast becoming international travelers and
were purchasing property in Hawaii, Canada, Central America, and
several States neighboring California.

From 1966 to 1971, members of the brotherhood traveled throughout
the world using false identities with passports obtained under assumed
names. Their operations were virtually untouchable during this period
of time.

Mr. SouRwiNE. Why was that ?

Mr. Sinclair. Because of their mobility, because no one was really
aware of the extent of their activities.

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do they have any untouchability today ?

Mr. Sinclair. No, sir.

Mr. SoTJRwiNE. Their pretentions to be a religion do not do them any
good any more, do they ?

Mr. Sinclair. No, sir.

Mr. SouRWiNE. Go ahead.

Mr. Sinclair. No arrests were made of major figures in the organiza-
tion, and thousands of pounds of hashish and millions of dosage units
of "orange sunshine" LSD were being distributed through outlets in
southern California. Local authorities were aware of the brotherhood's
existence but could not penetrate the organization's outer wall.

The only significant accomplishment by local authorities during this
period was the arrest of Dr. Timothy Leary on December 26, 1968, in
Laguna Beach, Calif., for possession of marihuana. Dr. Leary was
convicted in February of 1970 and sentenced to State prison for a term
of 1 to 10 years. According to one of his companions, I^ary escaped
from prison in September 1970 with the help of the Weathermen fac-
tion of the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) who also pro-
vided him with false papers and arranged for his flight abroad.
According to several sources, the brotherhood paid $50,000^ to the
Weathermen to see their spiritual leader set free.

While in Algiers and Switzerland. Leary, despite the fact that he
was in exile, still exercised a major influence over the brotherhood, and
was visited constantly by the higher echelon of the brotherhood

In November of 1971, the brotherhood suffered its first rnaior set-
back when George Oliphant Avas arrested in Lebanon while in pos-
session of 800 pounds of hashish. It was later determined that Oliphant
and otlier members of the bi'otherhood had smu.ofgled approximately
4,000 iKMinds of I^banese hashish into the United States since 1968.

Mr. SoLTiwiNE. Did they make almost $900 a pound on all of that?

Mr. Sinclair. Yes, sir. Oliphant is still in prison in Lebanon.

On December 15, 1971, brotherhood member Donald Alexander
Hambarian was arrested in Lagima Beach, Calif., while operating a

1 In the pxperpt from his hook, "Confessions of a Pooe Fiend." on p. 35, Timothy l^nry
sav.s : "I Kiuldenlv flashed on the meshlnj: of nnderprounrl energy systems. Dope dealers raise
.?25.000 to finance the hreakont. And the hread goes to the manic ffuerrlllas." The suhcom-
mlttee has no way of estnhllshlnjr whether the amount paid to the Weathermen was actually
!i!.50.000 as stated" to the Drup Enforcement Acency by a member of the brotherhood who was
Involved In the fundralslnpr and Is now cooperating with the DEA, or whether It was .$25,000
as stated by Leary in his hook. What does appear certain Is that a very substantial sum was
paid to the Weathermen to arrange Leary's escape from the prison and from the country.


hashish oil laboratory. This hashish oil was to be the first encountered
in the United States. Hambarian was also in possession of 86,000
dosage units of LSD.

Also in December of 1971, the two Afghan sources came to the
United States accompanied by a brotherhood member, Robert Dale
Ackerly, now serving: sentence. Their trip appeared to be nothing
more than a sightseeing tour until it was learned that two shipments
of hashish totaling over 2,000 pounds were on their way to southern
California. The Afghans were overseeing these shipments.

In January of 1972, brotherhood member Michael Lee Pooiey was
arrested in Laguna Beach, Calif., while in possession of 133,000 dosage
units of "orange sunshine" LSD.

Mr. SouRwixE. What did that sell for ?

Mr. SixcLAiR. Well, it depends again on supply and demand. You
can sell tablets for as little as $1 apiece, or you can sell as many as
4,000 of them for $600. It just depends.

Mr. SouRwiNE. Go ahead, sir.

Mr. SixcLAiR. Later that same month, the first of the Afghan hashish
shipments was seized in Portland, Oreg. This shipment totaled 1,330
pounds and still stands as the largest quantity of hashish ever seized in
the United States.

In February of 1972, the second shipment of Afghanistan hashish
was seized in Vancouver, British Columbia. This load totaled 729
pounds. According: to outstanding indictments, both the Portland and
the Vancouver shipments belonged to Brothei-hood Chief Robert Lee
Andrist. At this time, intelligence revealed Andrist was in control of
the hashish smuggling arm of the brotherhood, while Michael Boyd
Randall was generally considered to be the head of the "orange sun-
shine" LSD operation. Both Andrist and Randall became fugitives
subsequent to indictment in this matter.

In March of 1972, Gordon Fred Johnson was arrested in Laguna
Beach, Calif., for distributing approximately 50,000 dosage units of
"orange sunshine" LSD. Over $46,000 in cash was found in Johnson's
residence upon execution of a search warrant. Also in March, Eric
Chastain was arrested in southern California for distributing 45,000
dosage units of "orange sunshine" LSD.

Mr. SouRwixE. Chastain is part of this Leary family, too ?

Mr. SixcLAiR. He is part of the brotherhood ; yes, sir.

It became apparent that the mere seizures of hashish and LSD were
doing very little to disrupt the Brotherhood of Eternal Love as a major
drug system. As a result of this observation. Federal, State, and local
narcotic officers formed a strike force, with the brotherhood as their
sole target.

Mr. SouRwixE. That was done in what year ?

Mr. Six'CLAiR. That was done in early 1972.

This strike force operated under the code name "Operation BEL."
The tool used by Operation BEL agents was the strongest weapon nar-
cotic officers have in their battle against drug traffickers. The con-
spiracy laws.

On August 3, 1972, the Orange County, Calif., grand jury climaxed
many months of investigation by Operation BEL agents when it re-
turned indictments against 29 members of the brotherhood organiza-
tion. This indictment was aimed primarily at the hashish smuggling
arm of the brotherhood.


On August 5, 1972, at 6 a.m., Operation BEL agents executed
search warrants and arrest warrants in Hawaii, Oregon, and in nu-
merous locations in southern California. Sixteen major brotherhood
figures were arrested, and over $40,000 in cash was seized, along with
a total arrest of 53 individuals.

In November 1972, a DEA special agent of the BEL Task Force
traveled with an IRS agent to Brussels, Belgium, to investigate a lab-
oratory relative to Ronald Hadley Stark. As a result of the investiga-
tion and subsequent followup, Stark was indicted by a Federal grand
jury in April 1973. (Stark is a chemist from New York who in 1964
was worth approximately $1,400 and who in 1968 was reportedly worth
approximately $1,200,000. Stark is a close associate of Nicholas Sand,
and according to some reports, was the first person to ever produce
hashish oil from solid hashish.)

Mr. SouRwiNE. Can you give us lists of the names and whatever you
have in the way of identification of the individuals in these two groups ;
that is, the 29 and the 53 that you just mentioned?

Mr. Sinclair. Yes, sir, for the record.

Mr. SouRWiNE. Can that be provided for the record later?

Mr. Sinclair. Yes, sir, it can.

Mr. SouRwiNE. May that be the order, Mr. Chairman ?

The Chairman. So ordered.

[The information referred to may be found in the appendix, p. 79.]

Mr. Sinclair. The investigation continued, and on December 6, 1972,
the Orange County grand jury returned another indictment, this time
aimed primarily at the brotherhood's "orange sunshine" LSD system.
On Decem...
"The philosophers have only interpreted the world, in various ways. The point, however, is to change it." Karl Marx

"He would, wouldn't he?" Mandy Rice-Davies. When asked in court whether she knew that Lord Astor had denied having sex with her.

“I think it would be a good idea” Ghandi, when asked about Western Civilisation.
Lords of Acid

How the Brotherhood of Eternal Love Became OCs Hippie Mafia


Published on July 07, 2005

Thumper knew it was time to run away from home when he saw his dad's car in the driveway. He was walking home from Laguna Beach's Thurston Middle School, heading up the hill to his house, reflecting on the fact that, months after the Summer of Love, his mom and dad weren't quite finished beating the hell out of each other.
His dad was vice president of a major perfume manufacturer, rich, and angry. His parents had separated four years earlier and now were beginning the second round of a bruising reconciliation. Dad had come home with a 5-year-old kid from a relationship with another woman. Thumper's stepbrother was there, during all the arguments that would follow, "tucked into a corner," he says.
Later that day, Thumper's older sister, home on break from UCLA, called. "We were on the phone, and she's like, 'What's he doing there?'" Thumper recalls. "And I was like, 'You don't understand: he's back. 'And my sister said something like, 'That is so not happening. That is not groovy.'"
His sister never came home. She moved into a house in Laguna Canyon. His parents didn't seem to care. "She was old enough to do what she wanted to," he says. "And my mom and dad were more into trying to save their own marriage for whatever goofy reason than caring about us, quite frankly."
A month later, Thumper came home from school and heard yelling and screaming again. "So I go into the house and Mom's all bloody and Dad's beating the hell out of her," he recalls. He pretended to call the police—a desperate ploy to scare his father—grabbed his stepbrother, and ran out of the house.
"So I went in search of my sister and stopped by Mystic Arts right across from Taco Bell" on Pacific Coast Highway. Unbeknownst to Thumper, his sister was already notorious. "Everyone called her Sunshine," he says. "I asked a bunch of people where she was and they said, 'Yeah, she's at a group grope.' I had no idea what that meant, because I was 14 years old."
Thumper thumbed a ride. "There are these guys out front of this house smoking doobies," he says. They told him Sunshine was inside. "So I go in there. They're having this massive orgy. They looked like maggots. So I'm like, 'Excuse me, pardon me, excuse me.'" Finally, someone pointed out his sister. She was "like, busy every which way."
It's easy to imagine the 14-year-old Thumper, barely entering puberty, standing fully clothed in the middle of an orgy, the sitar of Ravi Shankar dripping thick from the ceiling, incense and pot smoke hanging in the air like cotton, naked bodies writhing around him.
He tapped his buck-naked sister on the shoulder. "I'm hungry," he said. "Mom and Dad are fighting. Do you have five bucks?
"She's like, 'Not onme.' Which was pretty apparent."
In the midst of that throbbing mass of passionately entwined bodies, Thumper set foot on a path that would take him into the arms of the Brotherhood of Eternal Love, a legally registered nonprofit religious institution centered on Mystic Arts World, a head shop in downtown Laguna Beach. The church's figurehead and high priest was Timothy Leary, a world-famous former Harvard psychology professor turned proselytizer of psychedelic drugs. Leary and the Brotherhood preached spiritual awakening through Buddhist meditation and drug experimentation.
Leary's mantra—Tune in, turn on, drop out—had already led countless disaffected middle-class kids to quit their jobs or classes, head to California and drop acid. The Brotherhood's bible was Leary's PsychedelicPrayers,his idiosyncratic translation of the TibetanBook of the Dead. Mystic Arts sold copies of Leary's book, along with incense, candles and imported countercultural paraphernalia. Behind a bamboo-covered wall, church members gathered in a secret meditation room decorated with a massive Taxonomic Mandala, a technicolor spiral depicting the evolution of life, from primal ooze to Homo sapiens.
But Mystic Arts was more than a head shop or meditation center. And although it didn't start out that way, the Brotherhood of Eternal Love wasn't just a church. It was also Orange County's first major international drug smuggling network.
The Brotherhood viewed marijuana and acid as sacraments. Many of its members were serious, spiritual people who hoped to end the war in Vietnam and inspire a generation to achieve worldwide peace and harmony. It funded vegan soup kitchens and promoted an array of local artists, but it also financed a complex conglomeration of underground pipelines that would eventually funnel untold quantities of hash and marijuana—and later cocaine—to Southern California from such exotic locales as Sri Lanka, Afghanistan and Costa Rica. The Brotherhood also ran secret local laboratories for the production and distribution of Orange Sunshine, a powerful orange acid tablet that turned on thousands of young people in Laguna each year.
By the time Thumper met the Brotherhood during one of its sacred sex rites, the group's inner light was already dimming. Less than a year later, on Dec. 26, 1968, an ambitious young Laguna Beach police officer named Neil Purcell arrested Leary for possession of 2 kilos of marijuana and hash. Leary would spend a brief stint in state prison before escaping—with the help of the Brotherhood—to Algeria. Four years after his arrest, the Orange County grand jury indicted 46 Brotherhood members and fellow travelers on charges of belonging to an international drug ring. A 1972 Rolling Stonearticle dubbed them the "Hippie Mafia." Local law enforcement officials declared victory.

One of the founding members of the Brotherhood wasn't indicted: John Griggs, an Anaheim-raised hippie who worshiped Leary and hoped to install him as a prophet on a church-owned island. By the time the convictions came in, Griggs was gone, dead from an overdose of psilocybin in 1969. Most of those arrested spent, by today's standards, a relatively short time behind bars. Many lived on the run under assumed identities for years, like Nicholas Sand, who evaded capture until 1996, when the Royal Canadian Mounted Police caught up with him in British Columbia. Police finally arrested Brother Russell Joseph Harrington in 1994, at his home near Lake Tahoe.
But few of the survivors did as well as John Gale. Briefly jailed in the 1970s and early '80s, he went on to earn millions of dollars dealing drugs long after Purcell and the rest of Orange County law enforcement claimed they had crushed the Brotherhood.
If the cops didn't actually destroy the Brotherhood, drugs did. Cocaine trafficking and the money that came with it perverted whatever was genuine in the church's spiritual origins. The Brotherhood's drug empire produced great wealth, addiction and a surplus of paranoia that lasts even today, more than 30 years later.
Many people, including those only peripherally involved in the famed Hippie Mafia, are still reluctant to talk about it. One of those people, a Laguna Beach shop owner, was among those named in the original indictment. Although the charges against him were dropped when it became clear he wasn't a party to the Brotherhood's criminal dealings, he refused to discuss his past.
"All Leary did by coming to Orange County was bring a lot of heat on a lot of people," he says. "Nobody's going to talk to you, and if they do, you shouldn't trust what they say they remember.
"If you remember it, you weren't there."
When Sunshine's group grope ended, she dressed and took Thumper and their stepbrother to a communal house on Bluebird Drive. Her "friends" included Griggs and Gale. Thumper remembers being immediately drawn to Gale, a Jesus look-alike, the extrovert son of a wealthy Newport Beach boat manufacturer who also owned a Harley-Davidson distributorship.
"Gale was a beach boy, a surfer, musician, ladies man and man about town," Thumper says. Some of the other Brothers, like Griggs, were "inlanders." Thumper thought Gale was the real deal, a generous, larger-than-life character who loved playing practical jokes on his friends and took the time to make a lasting impression on total strangers.
"Gale used to go down to Taco Bell, and would hand out two dollars to everyone there," Thumper says. "Two dollars doesn't sound like a lot of money. But back then, tacos cost 19 cents. And he would literally give away $100 every day. The original conception of the Brotherhood wasn't about making money. We were funding soup kitchens. We had this one vegetarian kitchen called—what was it?—Love Animals Don't Eat Them. The Brotherhood wasn't about being greedy. It was about feeding people."
Kent Kelly, a soft-spoken, pensive veteran of Laguna Beach's hippie scene, owns Blind Faith, an aptly named art gallery in San Clemente. He moved to Laguna Beach from Chicago in 1968 and served food at the Love Animals Don't Eat Them food kitchen. He also managed Mystic Arts, after landing a job sweeping floors there. That's when he first met Timothy Leary, whose son Jack already worked at the shop.
"Sometimes we'd have Leary's whole laundry load from the dry cleaners in the store for two weeks, and it was nothing but Leary's silk robes," Kelly says. The store was a mecca for eccentric Laguna Beach hippies with odd nicknames, like Crazy Horse, a towering sword swallower who often wore a safety pin through his nose, and Cocaine Carol, who avoided pot, hash and LSD but always seemed to be snorting a hitherto-unknown white powder.
He remembers the Brotherhood of Eternal Love as a bunch of "very generous" guys. "They might have had thousands of dollars, but they'd still hitchhike." But Kelly wasn't a fan of Leary, a man he regarded as irresponsible. "I thought his message was too willy-nilly, everyone taking LSD," Kelly says. "It wasn't for everyone."
Although he knew the Brotherhood ran Mystic Arts, he doesn't remember taking orders from anyone. "I was a worker bee," he says. Occasionally, 30 or 40 people, sometimes Leary himself, would attend store meetings. "Leary just sat there and smiled and never said much," he recalls. "The Brotherhood is just as much a mystery to me as it is to you. I didn't really have any communication with them. They were really secretive . . . You heard rumors about people running around the world to Afghanistan, but no one in the Brotherhood told me about it."
Among other things, Kelly was unaware that Mystic Arts had become part of the Brotherhood of Eternal Love's marijuana, acid and hash distribution network. But hippies came to the shop from around Orange County to buy LSD in bulk.
"We would make frequent trips down to Laguna Beach," says a woman whose housemates in Silverado Canyon included drug dealers. "I was on the very fringe, and the people in the Silverado house were on the fringe too. They were connected by virtue of the fact that these guys were selling their LSD. The Brotherhood didn't use the term 'Brotherhood.' It was more like a secret, a fraternity . . . it wasn't a staple of their conversation."

Every time she and her housemates drove to Mystic Arts, they re-painted their Volkswagen minibus to avoid police detection. "Now it seems silly," she says, "but back then it seemed serious."
Her commune collapsed when some members moved to Hawaii and others headed north to Big Sur. She went to work in a San Francisco soup kitchen called The Living Room, where she met a wild-eyed man who thought he was god.
"Charles Manson came into The Living Room every day for a week," she says. "He was on his way to the desert and I had just come from there, so we had a lot to talk about. He was already out of his head, but so were a lot of people. He didn't stick out until we saw him on the cover of some magazine."
Not long after moving in with his sister, Thumper lost his virginity to a 23-year-old woman. There was no shortage of free love. He figures he had sex 100 or 200 times with various, more-than-willing female partners. "It was a pretty wild time, a promiscuous time. There were things a 14-year-old shouldn't know and shouldn't do.
"Here you had a bunch of kids doing such crazy things as selling all the pot in the world, all these commercial kilos that they would wrap up and sell as four-finger lids," he says. "They would get the money and go buy, like, a new surfboard. Everything was so innocent. They were literally making LSD in some laboratory by Mystic Arts. They made thousands and thousands of these tabs called Orange Sunshine."
Thumper says the Brotherhood kept him and other kids away from LSD. He talks about Leary as a kind of father figure. It was Leary who gave him the name "Thumper"—after the hyperactive rabbit in the Disney movie Bambi—for his nervous habit of tapping his foot. And it was Leary who gave him his first joint—not to smoke, but to sell.
"Tim was very kind to me," Thumper says, but also told him he'd have to work for his cash. As Thumper describes him, Leary, in the vanguard of the counterculture, was puritanical when it came to money. Leary "gave me this paper bag," Thumper says, and told him to go down to San Clemente, find Marines on leave from Camp Pendleton, and offer them four "fingers"—rolled-up packages of marijuana—for $10.
"And I'm literally, honest to God, going, 'Are you kidding? Fingers?' And he goes, 'Not anatomical. Just tell them that and, trust me, you'll get your money.'"
"So I went down there and waited all day long until I saw some jarheads I thought I could outrun," Thumper says. "I had hair down past my shoulders, and they were fighting each other over who was going to give me the money first. And not only did they not beat me up or call me 'fag' or 'girl,' but they thought I was cool. And I got $10."
The next day, Thumper says, he asked Leary for four more fingers. Leary agreed and Thumper made another deal. "I did this pretty much five times a week for several months." Usually Griggs or another Brother would hand him the paper bag. When Thumper asked if he could have several bags at once, they told him that wasn't the agreement: just one lid at a time—which would give Thumper and his stepbrother just enough money to buy lunch at Taco Bell or Orange Julius. "Right then," he says, "I was learning this goofy work ethic."
Everyone has their stories, and the notion of Leary or anyone else handing a 14-year-old marijuana didn't sound right to Robert "Stubby" Tierney, one of the original members of the Brotherhood of Eternal Love. "I never seen him do that—ever," he insisted. "Timothy was pretty high-strung. And we didn't have 14-year-old kids on the front line."
A Buddha-shaped, baby-faced man with a gentle smile and quick laugh, Stubby speculates that Thumper could be one of the countless people he's met over the intervening decades, people who claim to be part of the Brotherhood but weren't really involved. "Everyone says they were part of the Brotherhood," he says. "And in reality, that's what we wanted—we wanted everyone to feel part of it." On the other hand, he points out, it would be impossible for everyone to remember those days the same way.
"We're all just sitting around a big campfire," he says. "He might have seen the campfire from a different angle than me. There were branches of our family that I didn't know. I'm not going to completely deny what the guy is saying. I just know I was there. I was one of the officers of the Brotherhood. I was third in command on the FBI's flow chart. What I'm saying is, some of it doesn't match up with what I remember, but I can't discredit the guy either."
Stubby is used to hearing stories that don't quite add up, and says nobody was guiltier of self-aggrandizement than Leary. "I could never figure Tim out," he says. "He would always take credit for our experiences and talk about them in the first person."

And then Stubby drops a bombshell of his own: "Unbeknownst to me, Timothy Leary worked for the CIA. He came to infiltrate our gang."
If anyone would know the Brotherhood's inner dealings, it'd be Stubby. Although many claim the Brotherhood originated in 1965 with John Griggs and his Anaheim-based gang the Street Sweepers, Stubby says his branch of the family originated two years earlier, in Newport Beach. In 1963, Stubby began hanging out with a bunch of surfers known as the 15th Street Gang, in a house called the Animal Farm.
"We were the potheads in town," he says. "We were longhaired kids. The cops got on our case as a public nuisance." One of those cops was Neil Purcell, who then worked for the Newport Beach Police Department and who would go on to lead the charge against Leary and the Brotherhood. With a push from Purcell, Stubby and his friends moved down to Laguna Beach in about 1966.
"We called ourselves the Tribe of the Rising Sun," he says, displaying a medallion that depicts a flaming orb of sunlight. "We merged with the Brotherhood of Eternal Love. The cheapest rents were in the canyon. So we rented two houses on Victory Walk. We dealt drugs out of one house and lived in another. I had seven houses at one point because when one house got hot I had to rent another. Johnny Griggs and Leary lived next door on Roosevelt Lane. This was right after we opened Mystic Arts World, which is how we got to be known around the world. We used to go into the back room and smoke out."
Much more than simply a group of people interested in puffing joints or dropping acid, Stubby insists, the Brotherhood of Eternal Love was a family of people seeking spiritual enlightenment. "We were totally spiritual, religious people," he says. "Acid and marijuana were sacraments to us. We were so upset about Vietnam. We were like soldiers. We brought Timothy Leary to us to approach famous people like Crosby, Stills & Nash, the Grateful Dead, Jimi Hendrix, Jefferson Airplane—all the San Francisco bands—so we'd have control of the music. We really had power."
Part of that power was the Brotherhood's trademark orange acid. "Orange Sunshine was the purest form of LSD," he says. "But we made it a little too stony"—that is, too powerful. Tierney and his friends would manufacture hundreds of doses at a time by taking a piece of plywood, drilling holes halfway into it, then rubbing the acid paste into the plywood to dry. "We did it right in the canyon," he says. "We distributed Sunshine for 10 cents a dose. There was nothing in the world that would get you high for 12 hours for just 10 cents. If a person wanted a bunch of doses, the price went down to 5 cents and I'd give them a case of Leary's Psychedelic Prayers.We always distributed the money we made so everybody could have a house. We weren't greedy. We just wanted people to get high."
Stubby says he and John Gale would play football each New Year at Laguna Beach High School. The losing team brought a kilo of pot to the after-party. They also took turns showing up at Grateful Dead concerts, passing out free doses of Orange Sunshine. Gale would usually dress in an orange jump suit. They also inserted their spirituality into the surf industry. With financial support from Stubby, Gale founded Rainbow Surfboards, around the time the Brotherhood made "Rainbow Bridge," a 1970 Hendrix film in Hawaii. Stubby still has outtakes of the film where Brothers open up a surfboard to reveal stashes of pot hidden in the tail fin. Rainbow boards featured Buddhist mandalas, dolphins, religious symbols and "things you could reflect on," Stubby says. "We had the widest boards and the most unique designs," including one based on the dimensions of an 87-foot boat the Brotherhood owned.
The company still survives, under new management whose website echoes its genesis: "A legend reborn! Rainbow Surfboards was founded by Johnny Gale in 1969 in Laguna Beach, California. The late 1960s and early 1970s were a time of mind expansion, new music and pure cosmic surf soul."
But music, meditation and surfing became secondary to drug smuggling. Stubby had friends in Mexico who provided the Brotherhood with tons of cheap pot smuggled on the bodies of people who simply walked across the border. Soon, he and other Brothers were transporting marijuana and hash from all over the world.
"Everybody started traveling and getting involved in it," Stubby says. Serendipity bred instant smuggling routes. "You'd be somewhere halfway around the world and bump into a Brother and they would take it from there. It was like the Lord put it there for us."
The favorite source of cheap, highly potent pot was Afghanistan. From there, the Brotherhood would transport it to Germany. "Then we'd buy a Porsche, ship it to Canada and then drive it across the border."
The police were always one step behind them, even after Officer Purcell moved from Newport to Laguna, seemingly bent on busting the Brotherhood. At night, cops would stalk through Laguna Canyon with parabolic antennas aimed at windows, attempting to pick up coughing sounds or drug-related conversations. Stubby heard rumors that the police thought the Brotherhood employed a pack of guard dogs capable of sniffing gunpowder to protect their stashes and used to impound any stray dog they came across. Sure, the Brotherhood had dogs, Stubby says, but they didn't know gunpowder from dog food. In reality, Stubby says, he had a brother-in-law who happened to be a federal drug agent based in Tustin. "He would call up and say they were going to do a bust on Tuesday or Wednesday," he says. "So I was being warned."

Being isolated in the canyon afforded the Brotherhood a certain redoubt. But the cops kept coming. "There were telephone taps on one of our smuggling operations. They considered us a threat to global security because we were avatars playing God and hooking up with the Yogananda and exposing it to the youth. And we had a lot of naked women running around. The police really envied us, and it made them want to get us even worse."
The biggest bust of Neil Purcell's career also marked the beginning of the end of the Brotherhood of Eternal Love. At about 11 p.m. on Dec. 26, 1968, Purcell, who had followed Stubby and the Brotherhood from Newport Beach to the Laguna Beach Police Department, drove his cruiser up a twisting stretch of Woodland Drive. He spotted a station wagon parked in the middle of the road. People were moving around inside. They appeared to be arguing. They were too busy to notice him.
Purcell tapped on the window and demanded the driver's identification. But he didn't need to read the name on the license. The driver was Timothy Leary. Purcell knew Leary well. He ordered him out of the vehicle and, after calling for backup, searched the car. He would later say that he could smell the acrid odor of marijuana emanating from the station wagon through Leary's rolled-down window.
According to Purcell, a quick search turned up two kilos of marijuana and hashish, some of it hidden in clothing and luggage strewn throughout the wagon. Purcell arrested Leary for marijuana possession. Leary remembered things differently. In his 1983 memoir, Flashbacks, he claimed Purcell planted two joints on him.
"That's bull," says Dion Wright, an artist who was staying with Leary, Griggs and other members of the Brotherhood at Woodland Drive that night. "You can't believe anything Tim says. If it makes him look good, he'll say it. It doesn't have anything to do with the truth."
Wright painted the Taxonomic Mandala that decorated the hidden meditation room inside Mystic Arts. A good friend of Griggs, Wright says Leary's son Jack—and by extension, Leary himself—was responsible for the bust. "Jack was taking all the Brotherhood wives into bed with him, and John Griggs had a very different idea of what the Brotherhood was supposed to be about," Wright says. "John got fed up with what Jack was doing and told Tim that Jack had to go, or else everyone else would." So Tim put his wife and son in the car. "They drove down the hill in an emotional furor; they just spun out of there arguing."
That recollection would explain why Purcell was able to creep up on Leary without being noticed. "Purcell had been stalking Leary for months," Wright adds. "They had 'Purcell Watch' at the house—a whole system of alarms and whistles so everyone knew when Purcell was around. It was Tim's folly that got him busted. But to this day, I don't think Purcell knows the reason he was able to bust Leary that night."
Earlier, Griggs had been trying to raise money through Mystic Arts to purchase an island where he, Leary and the rest of the Brotherhood could establish a utopian society founded on Leary's religious teachings. Leary convinced Griggs that a ranch in the mountains was more practical.
"Tim didn't want to go to an island," Wright says. "He wanted access to the media, and that's what set off the conflict that destroyed the Brotherhood. John liked Tim, but the rest of the Brotherhood didn't. They moved off to Hawaii."
Wright says even Griggs grew disillusioned with Leary. "John Griggs viewed Leary as a Christ-like figure and viewed himself as John the Baptist. But after Leary got here and they got involved with each other, it was an erosion of reality."
Wright wasn't impressed with Leary. "He was a very charming guy. But he was a very irresponsible hedonist—with a great brain. He had legs as a psychiatrist, but as a social being, he was too caught up with the jet set. John worshiped Tim, and Tim wasn't careful about that. He was careless."
Wright met John Gale while living with Griggs in Laguna Canyon. Gale had just sold a bag of dog feces to a pair of undercover detectives, escaping into the bushes with their money. "The cops started shooting at random into the hill," Wright says. The gunshots fouled up a nearby unrelated anti-Brotherhood sting operation by state narcotics agents. The agents weren't happy. They came over and started yelling at the cops. The shooting also drew a crowd of people, and everyone started Om-ing, chanting the Buddhist mantra in mockery of the cop clusterfuck. "The local cops started streaming onto the scene, and they joined the shouting match," Wright says. "Then the cops started billy-clubbing people and arresting everyone for resisting arrest."
Wright was up the hill at Griggs' house, watching the melee. "Gale came out of the bushes and ran up to us laughing his ass off and counting all the money he took off the agents."

Gale would eventually gain a reputation as one of the most successful drug dealers affiliated with the Brotherhood, but Wright considered him a hanger-on. "There were a lot of obnoxious people around, and Gale was just one of them," he says.
Wright says the Brotherhood's glory days ended less than a year later, when Griggs died after overdosing on psilocybin. "By the time he died, he was ready to die, because if he didn't, he would have had to face the reality about Tim," he says. "It was the end of the era as far as I'm concerned. He was the true believer. When he died, the chance of his vision becoming reality was gone. People like Gale didn't have any vision. He didn't have the message at all. An exploitative criminal with the trappings of psychedelia is all he was. I would say Gale is the guy who turned the Brotherhood into the Hippie Mafia."
Before Purcell busted Leary, Thumper says, police raided the house on Bluebird Canyon. "There was a cave out near El Toro Road," he says. "And we went down the canyon and wound up living in the cave for a while. "There was about 10 of us: me, my sister, Cocaine Carol, Tipper and Beaver and Johnny Gale, who didn't really live there but thought it was cool."
Living in a cave didn't mean an end to responsibility. "There was a sense that if you needed money, if you wanted to buy a surfboard, you had to earn your money," Thumper says. "That was totally the Tim Leary edict. Another edict of his was you had to go to school. Beaver always seemed to get out of it. Leary always used to be yelling, 'Where's Beaver? Where's Tipper?'"
At the mention of those names, Thumper pauses for a moment. "If you ever bump into somebody that claims they were there back in those days, and you want to know if they're the real deal, you have to ask them: 'Where's Tipper and Beaver?' If they don't know, they weren't really there."
After staying at the cave, Thumper moved into a house with Cocaine Carol, Tipper and Beaver. He says John Gale drove him to school every day after discovering that he was playing hooky to go surfing. "John Gale became my designated driver. He would sit there pestering me to get my ass in school."
After Leary's bust, Thumper noticed the vibe changed. "There were a lot more psychedelics, and there were a lot more cops. And at that point, I really didn't want to be around there anymore."
But because he needed money, Thumper continued to hang out with Gale, who, like Stubby, had become a major smuggler.
"As a kid of about 18, I had the job of going to every bank in Laguna, Dana Point and San Clemente to exchange fives, tens and twenties into $50 bills and most preferably $100 bills in $9,000 increments; that was the most you could do without having to fill out some forms," he says. By then, the Brotherhood had all but ceased to exist. "They were running their own Amway. The Brotherhood was nothing more than a pyramid scheme. Guys like Gale had money like you wouldn't believe."
At one point, Thumper says, Gale and a friend went surfing in Sri Lanka and discovered the villagers grew a powerful variety of marijuana. Gale offered to buy their whole crop. But the villagers didn't want money; they wanted Levi's jeans. "They headed back [to Laguna] and made everyone go to every Sears, looking in the paper for a cheap pair of Levi's," says Thumper. "And they shipped them over there and bought all this pot. They called it Mars pot. It was high-grade pot; it put Oaxacan, Michoacan and Colombian Gold to shame. And we drained Orange County of Levi's. And that's cool, you know, that's entrepreneurial. What wrecked it was coke."
With the possible exception of John Gale, nobody grew richer—and ultimately lost more—from cocaine than Robert "Stubby" Tierney. At one time, Stubby had millions of dollars, all the beautiful women he could want, and friends in high places. Now he has nothing but memories and mementos: a signed photo of late Grateful Dead guitarist Jerry Garcia, a faded picture of Timothy Leary in Algiers, and a photo of himself with director George Lucas. He lives off a Social Security check of less than $900 each month in a Newport-area senior citizens' home, doesn't drive a car, and eats at a Costa Mesa soup kitchen.
"Cocaine destroyed our scene," he says. "Brothers started taking opium and doing cocaine and amphetamines. That took all the spirituality out and made people selfish. We took so long to destroy the ego. We were a Brotherhood, a family beyond family. In the beginning it was really strong, and later the coke would make everyone paranoid. Some of the Brothers got turned around," he says, meaning they became police informants. "Others got into worse stuff."
Stubby left Orange County within months of Leary's arrest and headed to San Francisco, where he enjoyed music and dealt marijuana. "Then I got into cocaine, because it was a small package with a big profit," he says. He helped arrange the sale of a Brotherhood-owned ranch in Oregon to raise cash to bust Leary out of prison. "We took $50,000 or $60,000 and gave it to this guy saying he represented the Black Panthers and that the Weathermen would get the money."

Soon thereafter, Leary jumped a prison fence at the California Men's Colony in San Luis Obispo and climbed into a waiting van driven by members of the Weather Underground, the radical group responsible for a string of anti-Vietnam War bombings. He made his way to Europe, then to Algeria, and finally to Kabul, Afghanistan, where he was arrested in 1973. Leary spent the next three years in prison before moving to Beverly Hills, where he died of prostate cancer in 1996. At his wishes, his ashes were placed in a rocket and blasted into space. Before Leary died, Stubby says, he hounded Leary to get his money back, but Leary kept dodging him.
After arranging Leary's release, Stubby headed to Mexico, and thanks to his connections with the Mexican mafia, carried papers identifying himself as a federal agent investigating marijuana smuggling. Posing as a narc, he conned his way onto the Brotherhood's yacht, which had been confiscated in Mazatlan. "I couldn't believe it, but I got the boat out of there," he says.
He spent the next two years on the boat, traveling the Pacific and eventually the Panama Canal, where, in 1973, he was captured and deported. He spent the next year at Lompoc Federal Penitentiary. After being released, he headed to the Caribbean and then to northern California. "That's when I started really dealing cocaine, and it made my life miserable," he says.
After serving time, Stubby lived under an assumed name, which helped him find work in television while he continued dealing drugs. He became a successful TV producer for NBC, working on both Real People and That'sIncredible. He even developed his own Real People character, Captain Sticky. (The actor who actually played Captain Sticky recently died in Thailand, where he moved to establish a sex-tour business.) In between shoots in San Diego, Stubby flew to San Francisco and met an ambassador from "a foreign country" who would walk through airport security with diplomatic immunity and 25 to 50 kilos of coke in two suitcases. "We'd bring it to a stash house in Daly City, and El Salvadoran soldiers with their whores and girlfriends and submachine guns would guard it," he says. "We had millions of dollars."
Stubby had a close call at San Diego's airport, when two FBI agents stopped him in the terminal and said he fit the profile of a drug dealer; Stubby had a few grams of cocaine and a suitcase full of money with him. At the last minute, an airline representative told the agents they had just stopped a TV producer. After ditching the drugs in a toilet, he landed in San Francisco and told his coke connections he couldn't take the pressure. "They paid me $250,000 to retire from the coke business," he says.
That money bought Stubby some video editing equipment, and he reinvented himself as a TV and film editor and, later, a video producer. His company supported dozens of employees and their families; he says he also raised hundreds of thousands for charities. But a series of unfortunate events—business partners ripped him off, a fire destroyed expensive equipment, he got screwed out of royalties—conspired to pull him down. Whatever hopes of keeping his career together ended when Costa Mesa police busted him for possessing a kilo of marijuana. Although the charges were reduced to possession because he had a doctor's note saying the drug helped him fight symptoms of his diabetes, he spent six months under house arrest. His wife left him, and his brother-in-law took custody of his youngest son.
"I lost my family and everything because of drugs," he says. Now Stubby takes a bus to the Newport Beach Pier and hustles lessons on video editing to help pay his bills. "I'm talented and I lose a lot of opportunities because of my record," he says. "When I was rich, I thought I was infallible. Now that I'm poor, I don't get a lot of people visiting me."
Thumper credits his first glimpse of coke to the legendary Cocaine Carol.
"All she did was coke," he says. "It was like her job. Fifteen years later, I was addicted to it. But back then, she was way ahead of her time."
But he says his first taste of the betrayal and greed that came with dealing cocaine occurred in the early 1970s, when he went to Peru on a surfing safari with John Gale.
"We went to this fishing village called Chicama," Thumper says. "We surfed the perfect wave. It was a mile-long perfect left. It was absolutely the best wave I have ever seen in my life. Gale paid for the trip. We stayed there seven days. And on the third day there, Johnny says, 'I need to use your surfboard. I'm going to another place and I'm probably going to be gone the night." Gale headed over a surf break with Thumper's board, returning shortly before they were to fly back to Orange County. When they landed at LAX, Gale handed him $500.
"He says, 'Here, Thump.' And I'm like, 'What the hell's that for?'" Gale laughed—and then explained that he'd stashed eight ounces of pure cocaine in the tail fin of Thumper's board.

"They didn't tell me about it because it would make me nervous," he says. Thumper threw the money in Gale's face. "I was pissed. I wasn't 14 anymore. I was big. And I said, 'You know what? That is fucked up. I could have ended up in prison. You're a fucking prick.' At that point, I knew everything had changed, because I was a patsy."
Thumper kept away from Gale for the next few years. But while attending college in Fullerton, he got a call from Gale. His old friend told him he had a lot of cocaine and needed help unloading it. "He was known as the king of cocaine at that point in time," Thumper says. "I wanted money, so I started selling it to all the groovy people in northern Orange County. I was selling like, six, seven, eight ounces of blow a week through Johnny. And then I got busted in San Clemente."
By the time he was arrested, narcotics detectives had been following Thumper all day; he faced 21 drug-related counts. The cops wanted him to set up Gale. "They said, 'You work with us or go to jail.' I said, 'I guess I'm going to jail,' because I wasn't ready to talk about anybody. But I soul-searched and realized how I wound up where I was. And I was looking at a shitload of years. And you know what I thought about: that surfing trip to Peru."
After getting a stern lecture on the folly of dealing drugs, Thumper agreed to work as an informant. But he refused to snitch on Gale. "He would have killed me. He had bodyguards and Ferraris and all this crazy shit—a brand-new Mercedes—and you know what? The weird thing was he was not a nice guy anymore."
Thumper says he helped the police set up a massive sting against a drug ring competing with Gale and then said he wanted out. He's never looked back—except once, a few years ago, when his daughter attended a DARE class at school. She returned home with a pencil that the cop who gave the speech had passed out to all the kids. The pencil was inscribed with the name of the cop who had arrested him. He called the cop and thanked him for turning his life around.
Now a wealthy corporate executive for an organic food distributor, Thumper recently shared his story over dinner at Oggie's Pizza in Huntington Beach. Fifty-one years old, he's married with two kids, and agreed to speak on the condition of anonymity. At 6 feet 4 inches, he still surfs, but he looks more like a linebacker. (Ironically, his stepbrother went on to become a defensive tackle in the NFL.) Thumper's not proud about his involvement with the Brotherhood and only agreed to the interview because he wanted to explain how, even though the group became nothing more than a cynical network of drug dealers, it didn't start out that way. During the interview, his wife and youngest daughter ate pizza at a nearby table. After two hours, they joined us. Thumper mentioned he has a signed coffee table that Leary sent him on his sixteenth birthday while Leary was hiding out in Algiers. As a kind of proof for me, he asked his wife to tell me who had more influence on him: his biological father or Leary.
"Tim," she immediately said. "But it depends on what you mean by 'influential.' If you mean who had a positive influence, then Tim. Not your father. He didn't influence you in a good way."
The cop who busted Thumper is Jim Spreine, who became chief of the Laguna Beach Police Department after Purcell retired. Reached by telephone while on vacation in Oregon, he says he plans to retire next year. In the early 1970s, he was a narcotics detective with the San Clemente police force.
"I made a lot of arrests during that time, so it's hard to remember him," Spreine says. "I know some former narcs, and they really hated the dopers. That wasn't me. These people got caught in it for greed or personal necessity. I felt it was a vicious circle and a lot of innocent people got sucked into it and some very greedy, wealthy people took advantage of them. And in this particular case, I could tell he had a lot more going for him than the average guy, and I told him he should make something of his life."
Spreine says he was never able to arrest Gale. "They had a network to scare their people. At the time, we didn't see a lot of Brotherhood people work as informants. There were guns. They used guys by throwing money at them, or getting them hooked on drugs, and these guys would be scared to death."
The police did, in fact, arrest Gale a few times. An April 30, 1981, UPI story reported that Gale, "one of the wealthiest drug brokers in Southern California," had been arrested the day before in a raid on two beachfront homes in Laguna Beach. The raid netted more than $7.5 million worth of cocaine, $100,000 in marijuana and hash, $150,000 in cash and $250,000 in gems, rare coins and gold.

But Gale never served serious prison time. He probably would have, but he died in a 1982 car crash in South Orange County when his Mercedes missed a turn. The car hit a chain-link fence, which went through the car, instantly decapitating Gale. Unlike Thumper, Stubby kept in touch with him until the end.
"John Gale was a living god, a pure entity," he says. "I love him with all my heart. I was proud to know him. It's too bad his life was so short."
Neil Purcell believes rival drug dealers were chasing Gale when he died. After busting Leary in 1968, Purcell was awarded Officer of the Year and rose to become chief of police in Laguna. After a brief retirement in Big Sky, Montana, Purcell went back into law enforcement, as chief of police in Anderson, California. He's now writing a book about Leary.
"Gale was an egotist, a greedy-type person, and that's what got him killed, in my opinion," Purcell says. But Purcell was apparently unaware that the Brotherhood, led by Gale, moved into cocaine trafficking after the high-profile bust of Timothy Leary.
"I can tell you that Johnny Gale did his share in acid and hash and was an extremely large dealer," Purcell says. "I chased him for a number of years. But if he was a giant in coke, that's news to me."
Because of his upcoming book, Purcell is reluctant to talk about Leary but can't resist taking credit for taking him down. "I personally hold him responsible today, and will to my death, for being one of the main reasons we have such a dope problem today," Purcell says. "His advocacy of psychedelics and hash and peyote caused a lot of people to die, and in my opinion, he was a ruthless, cowardly, self-serving individual."
Kent Kelly's affiliation with Mystic Arts—and the Brotherhood of Eternal Love—ended suddenly when it burned down in 1970. "The building inspector said it was faulty wiring," Kelly says. He and others suspected arson. The only thing to survive was the meditation room with the Taxonomic Mandala. "By then most people were so scared, they moved to Hawaii or Oregon," he says. "Neil [Purcell] came up to me and said, 'You've had your day in this town; you're going back to Chicago.'"
Kelly says he didn't see Leary again until shortly before his death in 1996, when he drove up to Wavy Gravy's Hog Farm in Oregon. "One thing Tim asked me to do was give Neil a message. He wanted to know why Purcell never thanked him, because he became policeman of the year and chief of police thanks to that arrest."
Dion Wright, the man who painted the Taxonomic Mandala that survived the Mystic Arts fire, now lives in Flagstaff, Arizona. But he returns to Laguna Beach each year to display his sculptures at the Sawdust Festival. The mandala isn't on display, but Wright says he's willing to sell it to anyone with $150,000. As he set up his booth there on a recent afternoon, he agreed that someone burned down Mystic Arts 35 years ago. "Everyone knows the John Birch Society did it," he says.
Wright recently finished Drugglers,a 500-page memoir about the Brotherhood. He's looking for a publisher. He offers a piece of folklore about John Gale, the man he calls "JG."
"You know about the Elvis theory, right?" he asks. "There's this story in the underground that JG isn't really dead. Supposedly, his dad removed all his teeth and planted them in a likely corpse and staged the wreck—and JG is happy in Bali or some such idyllic spot. Nobody really believes that story."
Just then, Wright spotted a man wearing an eye patch who had just finished his lunch. "He's been here since the '60s," Wright says.
"Hey Rick," he calls. "You knew JG, right?"
One-Eye Rick walks over, screws up his good eye to a spot near the ceiling and pauses thoughtfully.
"Gale got what he deserved," he finally says, and walks out the door.
A few minutes later, a woman taps my shoulder.
"Are you the reporter?" she asks. "The guy in the truck wants to talk to you."
As I approach, I see that the driver is One-Eye Rick. He nervously looks both ways to make sure nobody can overhear him.
"Be careful who you talk to," he says. "Gale could be in witness protection."
I ask him if he knows Tipper and Beaver.
"Sure, I knew Tippy and Beav," he answers, stepping on the gas and nosing his truck out of the parking lot and onto Laguna Canyon Road. "They were Cocaine Carol's kids."
"The philosophers have only interpreted the world, in various ways. The point, however, is to change it." Karl Marx

"He would, wouldn't he?" Mandy Rice-Davies. When asked in court whether she knew that Lord Astor had denied having sex with her.

“I think it would be a good idea” Ghandi, when asked about Western Civilisation.



"The philosophers have only interpreted the world, in various ways. The point, however, is to change it." Karl Marx

"He would, wouldn't he?" Mandy Rice-Davies. When asked in court whether she knew that Lord Astor had denied having sex with her.

“I think it would be a good idea” Ghandi, when asked about Western Civilisation.

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