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View Full Version : Bird Flu as a Weapon? A Bit of History of Biological Weapons



Magda Hassan
04-29-2009, 06:53 AM
Just so that we remember that many governments are perfectly capable of using deadly biological variants against humans, including their own citizens and then there are the unintended consequences. Here is a collection of links to these historical events. Generously pointed out to me Edwin Jewett from E Pluribus Unum forum who we hope will join us soon. :wavey: :dancing:


http://www.aarc.org/resources/biological/history.asp

excerpts from A Short History of Bio-Warfare (AARC)

Little known and yet remarkable in its scope is Japan's biological warfare program during World War II. Probably, the most extensive and most horrorific biological weapons research and deployment occurred in Manchuria from 1932 until the end of the war. [20] This program, innocuously entitled as Unit 731 was located in Pingfan Manchuria. Under the direction of Dr. Shiro Ishii from 1932 to 1942 and then Kitano Misaji from 1942 until 1945, Unit 731 employed a staff of over 3,000 scientists and technicians. Unit 731, sprawled over 150 building and five satellite camps. Additional sub-units were located in Mukden, Changchun and Nanking. Experimentation on prisoners using Shigella (bacterial dysentery*), Vibrio cholerae (cholera) and Yersinia pestis (the bubonic plague) was part of the Unit 731 program. At least 10, 000 prisoners died. Most from "experimental infection" and the remaining were executed after experiments for autopsy. [21]

Both the United States and the Soviet Union's Biological Warfare program owe their germination to the work of Unit 731. The Soviets captured Unit 731. US forces captured Shiro Ishii and Kitano Misaji and granted them immunity from war crimes if they divulged their BW secrets. US had no research in either offensive or defensive BW early in World War II. Only when the intelligence agents of the Office for Strategic Services (OSS) discovered the activities of Unit 731 did the US initiate its own offensive germ warfare program at Camp Detrick, Maryland in late 1942. [22]

The British secretly developed their own biological warfare program focused on anthrax. To test the effectiveness of weaponized anthrax delivered by a conventional bomb the British chose Gruinard Island off the coast of Scotland. The island was bombed in experiments to determine the best dispersal. Then in 1943, there was an outbreak of anthrax in sheep and cattle on the coast of Scotland that faced Gruinard Island. Attempts at decontamination by starting brushfires failed as spores of anthrax had been embedded in the island's soil thus making total decontamination impossible to this day. This creates the third disadvantage of BW use by a nation; the difficulty in decontamination may preclude the use of acquired territory. [23, 24]

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http://www.caedefensefund.org/CAE_USbiowar.pdf

“1949-69: The US Defense Department’s Committee on Biological Warfare conducts field tests in over 200 populated areas across the nation, unbeknownst to the civilians in these areas. Field tests were conducted using non-lethal forms of bacteria in order to test their dispersion properties as weapons. Field tests were conducted in San Francisco (1950), Norfolk, Virginia (1951), Minneapolis, Minnesota (1953), the Gulf Coast of Florida (1955), Savannah, Georgia (1956-
58), and New York City (1966), as well as animal and human volunteer studies at the Dugway Proving Ground, Utah (1955-?), and “large area coverage” tests over South Dakota and Minnesota (1957). In the San Francisco test (Serratia marcescens and Bacillus globigii), some 11 cases of urinary tract infection were reported at Stanford University Hospital in 1950-51. A 1951 article in the Archives of Internal Medicine, describes the infections and attributes them to S.marcescens. An investigation led by the CDC, NIH, and City of New York did not comment on the use of S.marcescens but recommended finding a substitute. Samples from the San Francisco tests were collected by Soviet spies off the Pacific coast, and helped to jump-start the Soviet biological weapons program.”


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http://www.thebulletin.org/article.php?art_ofn=ma01choffnes

“Germs on the Loose”, By Eileen Choffnes, March/April 2001 pp. 57-61 (vol. 57, no. 02) © 2001 Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists

In 1981, troops training at the Jungle Warfare Training Center at Fort Sherman, Panama, contracted the mosquito-borne disease Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE)--an outbreak that was eventually linked to a military experiment conducted in 1970. As a consequence of this test, VEE remains an endemic threat in certain areas of Central America. [13]

The reference: "Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis: Report of an Outbreak Associated with Jungle Exposure," Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, November 1984.


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http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB58/ (http://www.gwu.edu/%7Ensarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB58/)

THE NIXON ADMINISTRATION'S DECISION TO END
U.S. BIOLOGICAL WARFARE PROGRAMS
National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 58
Edited by Dr. Robert A. Wampler
October 25, 2001; Updated December 7, 2001

This is a major resource with direct links to 26 documents in pdf format. Three excerpts from the introduction:

Perhaps the most troubling and terrifying development in the wake of the terrorist attacks of September 11th is the emergence of biological warfare as a real, instead of a potential, threat for our government and the public to confront. To provide the historical context for this new threat, the National Security Archive published on October 25, 2001 key declassified documents on President Richard Nixon's decision to halt the U.S. biological warfare program. In this updated briefing book, the Archive is making available the official history of the U.S. Army's activities in the U.S. biological weapons program (see Document No. 26). New revelations in the news now make this history even more vital to understand, since the mailed anthrax that has killed five Americans in recent weeks may have come from the U.S. program, not from foreign sources.

According to William Broad in The New York Times (December 3, 2001),

"The dry powder used in the anthrax attacks is virtually indistinguishable in critical technical aspects from that produced by the United States military before it shut down its biowarfare program, according to federal scientists and a report prepared for a military contractor. The preliminary analysis of the powder shows that it has the same extraordinarily high concentration of deadly spores as the anthrax produced in the American weapons program. While it is still possible that the anthrax could have a foreign source, the concentration is higher than any stock publicly known to be produced by other governments. The similarity to the levels achieved by the United States military lends support to the idea that someone with ties to the old program may be behind the attacks that killed five people."(1)

The range of experimentation on human subjects carried out by the U.S. biological weapons program, as summarized by Jeanne Guillemin, a Boston College sociologist and the wife of Matthew Meselson, makes for chilling reading:

"The entire experimental legacy is dismaying, from the hundreds of dead monkeys at Fort Detrick to the spectacle of Seventh Day Adventist soldiers, the vaccinated volunteers in Project Whitecoat, strapped to chairs amid cages of animals in the Utah sunlight as Q fever aerosols are blown over them. Most chilling are the mock scenarios played out in urban areas: light bulbs filled with simulated BW agents being dropped in New York subways, men in Washington National Airport spraying pseudo-BW from briefcases, and similar tests in California and Texas and over the Florida Keys."(5) Equally troubling was the evidence that the CIA had maintained a small stockpile of biological agents and toxins in violation of Nixon's ban that were capable of sickening or killing millions of people. Among this stockpile was 100 grams of anthrax, as well as smallpox, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus, salmonella, and clostridium botulinum, or botulism germs.(7)

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http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/bioter...tecoat-usat.htm (http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/bioterrorism/2001-12-20-whitecoat-usat.htm)

The “Eight Ball” and Operation Whitecoat

“Olesen would fully recover from his infection, as would all the other volunteers in Operation Whitecoat who willingly became guinea pigs in Cold War-era tests involving yellow fever, plague, the infectious disease tularemia and other deadly bugs.”

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http://www.newstarget.com/019187.html

Human medical experimentation in the United States:
The shocking true history of modern medicine and psychiatry (1965-2005)

A limited sampling of the listings:

1967: Researchers paralyze 64 prison inmates in California with a neuromuscular compound called succinylcholine, which produces suppressed breathing that feels similar to drowning. When five prisoners refuse to participate in the medical experiment, the prison's special treatment board gives researchers permission to inject the prisoners with the drug against their will.

1969: The U.S. military conducts DTC Test 69-12, which is an open-air test of VX and sarin nerve agents at the Army's Edgewood Arsenal in Maryland, likely exposing military personnel.

1969: Dr. Donald MacArthur, the U.S. Department of Defense's Deputy Director for Research and Technology, requests $10 million from Congress to develop a synthetic biological agent that would be resistant "to the immunological and therapeutic processes upon which we depend to maintain our relative freedom from infectious disease".

1969: Judge Sam Steinfield's dissent in Strunk v. Strunk, 445 S.W.2d 145 marks the first time a judge has ever suggested that the Nuremberg Code be applied in American court cases.

1970: A year after his request, under H.R. 15090, Dr. MacArthur receives funding to begin CIA-supervised mycoplasma research with Fort Detrick's Special Operations Division and hopefully create a synthetic immunosuppressive agent. Some experts believe that this research may have inadvertently created HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.

1970: Under order from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which also sponsored the Tuskegee Experiment, the free childcare program at Johns Hopkins University collects blood samples from 7,000 African-American youth, telling their parents that they are checking for anemia but actually checking for an extra Y chromosome (XYY), believed to be a biological predisposition to crime. The program director, Digamber Borganokar, does this experiment without Johns Hopkins University's permission.

1971: Stanford University conducts the Stanford Prison Experiment on a group of college students in order to learn the psychology of prison life. Some students are given the role as prison guards, while the others are given the role of prisoners. After only six days, the proposed two-week study has to end because of its psychological effects on the participants. The "guards" had begun to act sadistic, while the "prisoners" started to show signs of depression and severe psychological stress.

1973: An Ad Hoc Advisory Panel issues its Final Report on the Tuskegee Syphilis Study, writing, "Society can no longer afford to leave the balancing of individual rights against scientific progress to the scientific community".

1977: The Kennedy Hearing initiates the process toward Executive Order 12333, prohibiting intelligence agencies from experimenting on humans without informed consent.

1977: The U.S. government issues an official apology and $400,000 to Jeanne Connell, the sole survivor from Col. Warren's now-infamous plutonium injections at Strong Memorial Hospital, and the families of the other human test subjects.

1978: The CDC begins experimental hepatitis B vaccine trials in New York. Its ads for research subjects specifically ask for promiscuous homosexual men. Professor Wolf Szmuness of the Columbia University School of Public Health had made the vaccine's infective serum from the pooled blood serum of hepatitis-infected homosexuals and then developed it in chimpanzees, the only animal susceptible to hepatitis B, leading to the theory that HIV originated in chimpanzees before being transferred over to humans via this vaccine. A few months after 1,083 homosexual men receive the vaccine, New York physicians begin noticing cases of Kaposi's sarcoma, Mycoplasma penetrans and a new strain of herpes virus among New York's homosexual community -- diseases not usually seen among young, American men, but that would later be known as common opportunistic diseases associated with AIDS.

1980: American doctors give experimental hormone shots to hundreds of Haitian men confined to detention camps in Miami and Puerto Rico, causing the men to develop a condition known as gynecomastia, in which men develop full-sized breasts.

1985: A former U.S. Army sergeant tries to sue the Army for using drugs on him in without his consent or even his knowledge in United States v. Stanley, 483 U.S. 669. Justice Antonin Scalia writes the decision, clearing the U.S. military from any liability in past, present or future medical experiments without informed consent.

1988: The U.S. Justice Department pays nine Canadian survivors of the CIA and Dr. Cameron's "psychic driving" experiments (1957 - 1964) $750,000 in out-of-court settlements, to avoid any further investigations into MKULTRA.

1990: The United States sends 1.7 million members of the armed forces, 22 percent of whom are African-American, to the Persian Gulf for the Gulf War ("Desert Storm"). More than 400,000 of these soldiers are ordered to take an experimental nerve agent medication called pyridostigmine, which is later believed to be the cause of Gulf War Syndrome -- symptoms ranging from skin disorders, neurological disorders, incontinence, uncontrollable drooling and vision problems -- affecting Gulf War veterans.

1990: The CDC and Kaiser Pharmaceuticals of Southern California inject 1,500 six-month-old black and Hispanic babies in Los Angeles with an "experimental" measles vaccine that had never been licensed for use in the United States. Adding to the risk, children less than a year old may not have an adequate amount of myelin around their nerves, possibly resulting in impaired neural development because of the vaccine. The CDC later admits that parents were never informed that the vaccine being injected into their children was experimental.

1990: The FDA allows the U.S. Department of Defense to waive the Nuremberg Code and use unapproved drugs and vaccines in Operation Desert Shield.

1995: In the Mar. 15 President's Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE), former human subjects, including those who were used in experiments as children, give sworn testimonies stating that they were subjected to radiation experiments and/or brainwashed, hypnotized, drugged, psychologically tortured, threatened and even raped during CIA experiments. These sworn statements include:

Christina DeNicola's statement that, in Tucson, Ariz., from 1966 to 1976, "Dr. B" performed mind control experiments using drugs, post-hypnotic injection and drama, and irradiation experiments on her neck, throat, chest and uterus. She was only four years old when the experiments started.

Claudia Mullen's testimony that Dr. Sidney Gottlieb (of MKULTRA fame) used chemicals, radiation, hypnosis, drugs, isolation in tubs of water, sleep deprivation, electric shock, brainwashing and emotional, sexual and verbal abuse as part of mind control experiments that had the ultimate objective of turning her, who was only a child at the time, into the "perfect spy." She tells the advisory committee that researchers justified this abuse by telling her that she was serving her country "in their bold effort to fight Communism."

Suzanne Starr's statement that "a physician, who was retired from the military, got children from the mountains of Colorado for experiments." She says she was one of those children and that she was the victim of experiments involving environmental deprivation to the point of forced psychosis, spin programming, injections, rape and frequent electroshock and mind control sessions. "I have fought self-destructive programmed messages to kill myself, and I know what a programmed message is, and I don’t act on them," she tells the advisory committee of the experiments' long-lasting effects, even in her adulthood.

1996: Professor Adil E. Shamoo of the University of Maryland and the organization Citizens for Responsible Care and Research sends a written testimony on the unethical use of veterans in medical research to the U.S. Senate's Committee on Governmental Affairs, stating: "This type of research is on-going nationwide in medical centers and VA hospitals supported by tens of millions of dollars of taxpayers money. These experiments are high risk and are abusive, causing not only physical and psychic harm to the most vulnerable groups but also degrading our society’s system of basic human values. Probably tens of thousands of patients are being subjected to such experiments".

1996: President Clinton issues a formal apology to the subjects of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study and their families.

2000: The Department of Defense begins declassifying the records of Project 112, including SHAD, and locating and assisting the veterans who were exposed to live toxins and chemical agents as part of Project 112.

2002: President George W. Bush signs the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act (BPCA), offering pharmaceutical companies six-month exclusivity in exchange for running clinical drug trials on children. This will of course increase the number of children used as human test subjects.

2004: In his BBC documentary "Guinea Pig Kids" and BBC News article of the same name, reporter Jamie Doran reveals that children involved in the New York City foster care system were unwitting human subjects in experimental AIDS drug trials from 1988 to, in his belief, present times.

2005: In response to the BBC documentary and article "Guinea Pig Kids", the New York City Administration of Children's Services (ACS) sends out an Apr. 22 press release admitting that foster care children were used in experimental AIDS drug trials, but says that the last trial took place in 2001 and thus the trials are not continuing, as BBC reporter Jamie Doran claims. The ACS gives the extent and statistics of the experimental drug trials, based on its own records, and contracts the Vera Institute of Justice to conduct "an independent review of ACS policy and practice regarding the enrollment of HIV-positive children in foster care in clinical drug trials during the late 1980s and 1990s".

2005: In exchange for receiving $2 million from the American Chemical Society, the EPA proposes the Children's Health Environmental Exposure Research Study (CHEERS) to learn how children ranging from infancy to three years old ingest, inhale and absorb chemicals by exposing children from a poor, predominantly black area of Duval County, Fla., to these toxins. Due to pressure from activist groups, negative media coverage and two Democratic senators, the EPA eventually decides to drop the study on Apr. 8, 2005.

2005: Bloomberg releases a series of reports suggesting that SFBC, the largest experimental drug testing center of its time, exploits immigrant and other low-income test subjects and runs tests with limited credibility due to violations of both the FDA's and SFBC's own testing guidelines.

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http://www.frankolsonproject.org/Articles/VictimsBlood.html

Article in Baltimore Sun, Dec. 23, 2001

“In an attempt to make America's biological arsenal more lethal during the Cold War, the Army collected anthrax from the bodies or blood of workers at Fort Detrick who were accidentally infected with the bacteria, veterans of the biowarfare program say.

The experiments, during the 1950s and '60s, were based on long experience with animals showing that anthrax often becomes more virulent after infecting an animal and growing in its body, according to experts on the bacteria and scientific studies published at the time. Former Army scientists say the anthrax strain used to make weapons was replaced at least once, and possibly three times, with more potent anthrax that had grown in the workers' bodies. But some of the key scientists who did the work more than four decades ago are dead, and records are classified, contradictory or nonexistent, so it is difficult to establish with certainty the details of what happened.

The use of human accident victims to boost the killing power of the nation's germ arsenal is a macabre footnote to a top-secret program designed to destroy enemy troops with such exotic weapons as botulism, smallpox, plague and paralytic shellfish poison….”

Please read the entire article at the link…

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http://www.frankolsonproject.org/Articles/...iedSecrets.html (http://www.frankolsonproject.org/Articles/BaltSun/BuriedSecrets.html)

an article in the Baltimore Sun, August 2004 (some excerpts)

During the Cold War, top Army scientists toiled stealthily in rural Maryland to make covert weapons coveted by new enemies.

For years, in total secrecy, they studied the black art of bioterrorism. They designed deadly, silent biological dart guns and hid them in fountain pens and walking sticks. They crunched lethal bacteria into suit buttons that could be worn unnoticed across borders. They rigged light fixtures and car tailpipes to loose an invisible spray of anthrax. They practiced germ attacks in airports and on the New York subway, tracking air currents and calculating the potential death toll.

But they weren't a band of al-Qaida fanatics -- or enemies of any kind. They were biowarriors in the U.S. Army's Special Operations Division at Fort Detrick …

A 1954 Army document says high-ranking officials -- including George W. Merck, the pharmaceutical executive and top government adviser on biowarfare -- wanted to shut down the SO Division because they considered it "un-American."

But Fort Detrick's rank and file rarely voiced such doubts. "We did not sit around talking about the moral implications of what we were doing," said William C. Patrick III, a Fort Detrick veteran who worked closely with the SO Division. "We were problem-solving."…

A gun or a bomb leaves no doubt that a deliberate attack has occurred. But if someone is stricken with a sudden, fatal illness -- or if an epidemic slashes across a crowded city -- there is no way of knowing whether anyone attacked, much less who. That was the key conclusion of the Pentagon's Committee on Biological Warfare in a secret October 1948 report on covert biowarfare….

Although it emphasized the threat to America, the report called for offensive capability. "Biological agents would appear to be well adapted to subversive use since very small amounts of such agents can be effective," the report said. "A significant portion of the human population within selected target areas may be killed or incapacitated."

Setting an imaginative tone for what would follow, the report listed potential targets: "ventilating systems, subway systems, water supply systems ... stamps, envelopes, money, biologicals and cosmetics ... contamination of food and beverages." …

Understanding U.S. vulnerability may have been the main purpose of such experiments. But defensive findings had offensive implications. If the subway tests could be explained as defensive, there was no such ambiguity in the SO Division's development of covert biological weapons.

Mysterious characters from Fort Bragg and the CIA came and went at the SO Division, leaving wish-lists and checking progress. For cover, CIA visitors often wore military uniforms and said they worked for "Staff Support Group." No one mentioned aloud the name of the agency financing so much of the division's work.. "It was never really said, except that probably by the middle '60s it became obvious," Pannier said. Army bosses "would ask: 'Are you keeping them happy?'" Most CIA records on the SO Division were apparently destroyed in 1973 by Gottlieb, the agency's liaison to Fort Detrick. But declassified invoices the division submitted to the CIA give a sense of the work ….

Among the other Big Five weapons: a 7.62 mm rifle cartridge packed with anthrax or botulinum toxin that would disperse in the air on impact; a time-delay bomblet that would release a cloud of bacteria when a train or truck convoy passed; and a pressurized can that sprayed an aerosol of germs. The fifth is described in unclassified documents only as an "E-41 disseminator."

http://www.middleeast.org/premium/read.cgi...4&function=text (http://www.middleeast.org/premium/read.cgi?category=Magazine&num=978&month=6&year=2004&function=text)

Cheney And Rumsfeld and the Alleged Murder of CIA bioterror expert…

Frank Olson, who was a key member of the CIA's secret brainwashing program MK-ULTRA, was sent plunging from a New York hotel window after he had threatened to reveal the CIA involvement in "terminal experiments" in post-war Germany…. Frank Olson's work for the CIA had included making biological weapons. He had devised an aerosol disguised as insect spray that contained the lethal pathogen, botulism. It was successfully used to kill a Russian GRU military intelligence officer on a visit to Gdansk, Poland, in 1951. Another creation had been toothpaste containing salmonella, an incapacitating bacterium.

documents which have surfaced in Washington all too clearly pinpoint the role [Cheney and Rumsfeld] played in covering-up the murder of Frank Olson. In a "Flash Secret" memo from Cheney to Rumsfeld, the [then] future Vice President warns if the truth emerged "it might be necessary to disclose highly classified national security information"…. Cheney warns in a further memo that Olson's job "is so sensitive that it is highly unlikely we would submit relevant evidence on the issue of his duties". The 23 pages of documents paint a clear picture of the determination of Cheney and Rumsfeld to keep secret Olson's work and to ensure, as a matter of public policy, it must remain secret that "a drug criminally given him (Olson) cannot as a matter of law be determined he died in the course of his official duties"…

A California history professor, Kathryn Olmstead discovered the documents in the Gerald Ford library. Cheney and Rumsfeld were given the task of covering up the details of Frank Olson's death. At the time, Rumsfeld was White House Chief of Staff to President Gerald Ford. Dick Cheney was a senior White House assistant to the President. Frank Olson's family received US $750,000 to settle their claims against the US government in 1976.

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http://www.kouroo.info/war/BioChemWar.pdf

[B]October 10/11, 2001: The FBI, in an action that would make it much more unlikely that we would be able to trace the anthrax type mailed in recent letters, allowed the original batch of the Ames strain of anthrax to be destroyed. (Suspicions that the anthrax used in the letters had been this Ames strain would, however, nevertheless receive confirmation on October 17th.)

October 18: In conjunction with the U.S. Post Office, the FBI offered a reward of [B]$1,000,000 for information leading to the arrest of the person who mailed letters contaminated with anthrax to media organizations and congressional offices.

October 24: The US House of Representatives passed a number of previously unpopular Bush projects, Alaska oil drilling, $25 billion in tax cuts for corporations, taps into Social Security funds, and cuts in education, and also passed the final version of the “USA Patriot Act.” Republican Congressman Ron Paul commented that “It’s my understanding the bill wasn’t printed before the vote — at least I couldn’t get it. They played all kinds of games, kept the House in session all night, and it was a very complicated bill. Maybe a handful of staffers actually read it, but the bill definitely was not available to members before the vote.” It would later be revealed that only two copies of the bill had been made available in the hours before its passage. Most Representatives would admit that they voted for the Act without reading it.

March 25, 2002: On this day occurred what is hopefully the last, the sixteenth, of the series of mysterious deaths of renowned microbiologists. This microbiologist was Steven Mostow, dying at 63 years of age when the airplane he was piloting crashed near Denver, Colorado. Three others died in the crash. He had worked at the Colorado Health Sciences Centre and was known as Dr. Flu for his expertise in treating influenza. He had been one of the country’s leading infectious disease experts and was associate dean at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center.

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The State Department defines terrorism as “premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience.”

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The White House staff was given Cipro on 9/11. The FEMA drill scheduled for NYC on September 10th, 2001 was a bio-terror drill…. a “TRIPOD” drill… Trial Point of Distribution.

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http://www.armscontrol.org/act/2004_10/Tucker.asp

Biological Threat Assessment: Is the Cure Worse Than the Disease? by Jonathan Tucker,
Arms Control Association, October 2004

“The Bush administration contends that science-based threat assessment is needed to shorten the time between the discovery of new bioterrorist threats, such as pathogens engineered to be resistant to multiple antibiotics, and the development of medical countermeasures, such as vaccines and therapeutic drugs. This rationale is flawed, however, for three reasons.

First, the administration’s biodefense research agenda credits terrorists with having cutting-edge technological capabilities that they do not currently possess nor are likely to acquire anytime soon….

Second, prospective threat-assessment studies involving the creation of hypothetical pathogens are of limited value….

Third, by blurring the already hazy line between offensive and defensive biological R&D, science-based threat assessment raises suspicions about U.S. compliance with the BWC and fosters a “biological security dilemma” that could lead to a new biological arms race. At the same time, the novel pathogens and related know-how generated by threat-assessment work could be stolen or diverted for malicious purposes, exacerbating the threat of bioterrorism.”

Read more at the link, especially the parts about domestic oversight and unilateral restraint.

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http://www.rtnda.org/resources/bioguide.pdf

“A Journalist’s Guide to Covering Bioterrorism” (second edition)(2004), Radio & Television News Directors Foundation, Funded by the Carnegie Corp.

One of the project advisors was Jerome Hauer.

Opening paragraph in the Foreword:

“Journalists usually are uninvolved observers, reporting on events as they unfold. But as we know all too well—after the September 11 attacks on New York and Washington—when anthrax hit, journalists and news organizations themselves became part of the story.”

In other words, the target…

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http://www.fromthewilderness.com/free/ww3/...ome_hauer.shtml (http://www.fromthewilderness.com/free/ww3/121505_jerome_hauer.shtml)

“… immediately after 9/11 Jerome Hauer was making the exact same claims, helping to propel Bush’s call to war…”

WHO IS JEROME HAUER?

Jerome Hauer is a Bio-Warfare expert who is well known in New York City for having created former mayor Rudolph Giuliani’s Office of Emergency Management (OEM) in World Trade Center 7 – the building that inexplicably imploded in a freefall on September 11, 2001, without having been hit by an airplane. Hauer’s corporate affiliations include SAIC, Batelle, CSC-DynCorp, Hollis-Eden, and one of the nation’s most powerful private investigative and security firms Kroll Inc., among others. Now BioPort has been added to his resume.

On the eve of 9/11, in NYC, Hauer was having drinks with his close friend, the recently retired FBI Agent and “Osama-Chaser,” John O’Neil. At that time O’Neil was the head of security at the World Trade Center complex, a position Hauer had helped him to get. O’Neil died in the World Trade Center on 9/11, and it was Hauer who identified his body.

Hauer was quoted by Newsday staff writer Laurie Garrett on her personal blog as saying, “John O’Neill was head of the FBI’s counterterrorism branch in Washington. He led every important investigation you can name — the USS Cole, Tanzania, Kenya bombings. He retired three weeks ago. I helped him get the job as head of security for the World Trade Center.And the irony is, the guy he chased for most of his career killed him.”

Please read more at the link ….

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http://www.bookmasters.com/clarity/b0027.htm

The book Biowarfare and Terrorism outlines how and why the United States government initiated, sustained and then dramatically expanded an illegal biological arms buildup.

Most significantly, U.S. expert Francis A. Boyle reveals how the new billion-dollar U.S. Chemical and Biological Defense Program has been reorientated to accord with the Neo-Conservative pre-emptive strike agenda—this time by biological and chemical warfare.

Linking U.S. biowarfare development to the October 2001 anthrax attack on Congress—the most significant political attack on the constitutional functioning of democracy in the United States in recent history—Boyle sheds new light on the motives for the attack, the media black hole of silence into which it has fallen, and why the FBI may never apprehend the perpetrators of this seminal political crime of the 21st century.

Biowarfare and Terrorism should raise public concern at what the vastly expanded US biowarfare research and purported civilian preparedness programs hold in store for America—and the extent to which the Bush administration is prepared to pursue them, irrespective of their incitement to a global biowarfare arms race, and likely exposure of the American people to future accidents and reprisals.

Francis A. Boyle is a leading American professor, practitioner and advocate of international law. He was responsible for drafting the Biological Weapons Anti-Terrorism Act of 1989, the American implementing legislation for the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention. He served on the Board of Directors of Amnesty International (1988-1992), and represented Bosnia- Herzegovina at the World Court. Professor Boyle teaches international law at the University of Illinois, Champaign. He holds a Doctor of Law Magna Cum Laude as well as a Ph.D. in Political Science, both from Harvard University.

JONATHAN KING is Professor of Molecular Biology at MIT, and an authority on the genes and proteins of micro-organisms. Prof. King was a founder of the Council for Responsible Genetics and Co-Chair of its Committee on the Military Use of Biological Research. He has long been concerned with the social, economic and public health consequences of biomedical research.

The web site has the Table of Contents for the book, and an ordering mechanism.

See also the fascinating quotes from many sources down the right side of the web page.
See also http://www.counterpunch.org/boyle0425.html.
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http://www.boomantribune.com/?op=displayst...7/6/183338/1011 (http://www.boomantribune.com/?op=displaystory;sid=2005/7/6/183338/1011)
Boyle’s letter to Judith Miller on her New York Times article on Iraqi bio-weapons.

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http://www.thebulletin.org/article.php?art_ofn=nd04wright

“Taking Biodefense Too Far” by Susan Wright (November/December 2004 pp. 58-66 (vol. 60, no. 6) © 2004 Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists)

Some excerpts:

Clarke and others in the Clinton administration believed international terrorists were also interested in using biological weapons, but whether there was an actual link was--and still is--debatable. [1]
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In June 2001, a simulated smallpox attack on the United States, "Dark Winter," predicted a trail of death and disease across the nation. Although later analyses questioned the assumptions on which Dark Winter was based, particularly the transmission speed for the disease, media coverage was overwhelmingly apocalyptic. [3]
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As one Washington security think tank, the Center for Strategic and International Studies noted in its report, Defending America in the 21st Century, in December 2000: "Many experts believe that the federal government should foster an acceleration of research in immunology and genetics with the objective of putting improvements in immune responses ahead of the ability to create new and more deadly biological agents."

In other words, American technological prowess should allow it to prevail against any biological weapons-armed foe by staying ahead of technological innovation. This message resonated with a more general one coming from the neoconservative group Project for a New American Century (PNAC). In September 2000, PNAC published Rebuilding America's Defenses, a blueprint for a world dominated by American military force. Many of those supporting the PNAC proposals would populate the higher echelons of the Bush administration following the November 2000 election.

When Al Qaeda attacked the World Trade Center and Pentagon on September 11, 2001, and anthrax was disseminated through the postal system some two weeks later, the groundwork for the government's response, in terms of both a major expansion and a reorientation of biodefense, had been very effectively prepared.

As the news of the first casualty from pulmonary anthrax broke on October 4, 2001, the Bush administration launched a dramatic expansion of counter-bioterrorism programs, requesting emergency funding of $1.5 billion. A frightened Congress increased the amount to $2.5 billion. Funding for counter-bioterrorism began to soar and has been soaring ever since (see page 62).

The first indication of the change in direction in U.S. policy was the revelation in September 2001 by three New York Times journalists that work on a genetically modified, vaccine-resistant form of anthrax had been secretly initiated by the Pentagon in early 2001. The project was later transferred to the Defense Intelligence Agency, which turned it over to Battelle, a private military contractor based in Columbus, Ohio. A senior White House official told journalists that the defense secretary had the authority to approve the project and that the administration intended to pursue more work of this kind "to help build germ defenses and protect American lives." [13]

Increasingly, biodefense research aimed at genetically altering microbes to increase their pathogenicity, virulence, persistence, or transmissibility is portrayed as normal. Last year, a National Academy of Sciences report, Biotechnology Research in an Age of Terrorism, described such work as "areas of concern"--but only because, if known, it might give terrorists similar ideas. In February, NBACC Deputy Director Lt. Col. George Korch revealed that NBACC intends to pursue a range of topics including "aerosol dynamics," "novel packaging," "novel delivery of threat," "genetic engineering," "bioregulators/ immunomodulators," "genomics and proteomics," and "red teaming."

…designing a specific defense against any single genetic variation makes no sense…

Many life scientists seem unaware that their work is being framed by the hyper-realist paradigm that Bush endorsed at West Point in 2002--a vision of the United States as so powerful, so technologically dominant, that military competition is pointless. In pursuing every conceivable form of defense--even against organisms that exist only in the imagination--scientists are buying into that vision. But just as hyper-realism has not worked in Iraq--and has, instead, increased insecurity by providing a new breeding ground for terrorism--so a parallel argument applies to forms of biodefense that strain the limits of the Biological Weapons Convention. In seeking the ultimate form of biological dominance--a biological defense against which all bioweapons fail--the United States runs a grave risk of providing a breeding ground for a new form of biological warfare.

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http://www.radioliberty.com/nljune03.html * (see info on web site author below)

"As governments begin to declare cautious victory over severe acute respiratory syndrome - a disease that, like HIV, Ebola and Nipah is believed to have jumped from an animal host to humans - some scientists are turning their attention to a question asked all too infrequently once deadly viral outbreaks have been contained: Where did that come from?"

Scientists Search For Human Hand Behind Jungle Virus, The Wall Street Journal, June 19, 2003.
-- --

"Helms sought Allen's approval for a major project 'to develop a capability in the covert use of biological and chemical materials, . . . . From the start . . . CIA officers made no pretense that this project would be an innocuous matter of pure science. The research would have to proceed 'without the establishment of formal contractual relations,' Helms advised Allen; the existence of signed contracts would reveal the government's sponsorship. Moreover, the scientists qualified to do research in this field 'are most reluctant to enter into signed agreements of any sort which connect them with this activity, since such a connection would jeopardize their professional reputations.'

". . . five years later a CIA audit justified the extraordinary secrecy of the project: 'Precautions must be taken not only to protect operations from exposure to enemy forces but also to conceal these activities from the American public in general. The knowledge that the Agency is engaging in unethical and illicit activities would have serious repercussions in political and diplomatic circles.' For years to come CIA auditors defended the absence of normal accountability on grounds of professional discretion within the scientific community, dubious legality, and the dangers of public disclosure. Neither Congress nor the president was informed. . . ."

Gentleman Spy: The Life of Allen Dulles, 1994

--

The CIA destroyed most of the records of the Special Virus Cancer Project (SVCP). [28] Copies of the first seven volumes of the SVCP Report were shredded, but a few copies of Volumes 8 (July 1971) and 9 (July 1972) survived. They reveal a frightening story. SVCP scientists worked on pathogenic retroviruses (RNA viruses) during the 1960s and 1970s. [29] (see link for notated references)
--

Margaret Sanger embraced eugenics, organized Planned Parenthood, and called for: ". . . the elimination of 'human weeds,' for the 'cessation of charity,' for the segregation of 'morons, misfits, and the maladjusted,' and for the sterilization of 'genetically inferior races.'" [34]

She stated: "The mass of Negroes . . . particularly in the South, still breed carelessly and disastrously, with the result that the increase among Negroes, even more than among Whites, is from that portion of the population least intelligent and fit." [35]

Read more at the link about …
West Nile Virus, SARS, the Nipah virus, mycoplasmas (patented in June 1991 by a researcher at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology), Metapneumovirus infection, monkeypox, Lyme disease, Lass fever, hantavirus, Ebola, and the interesting history of the Marburg hemorrhagic fever virus (and its variants).

A bio of the developer of this web site and radio program can be found here: http://www.coasttocoastam.com/guests/789.html .

He is a retired orthopedic surgeon, evangelist, radio personality, and is the author of AIDS: The Unnecessary Epidemic and The Brotherhood of Darkness (about secret societies).

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“Memorandum 200”: Implications of Worldwide Population Growth for U.S. Security and Overseas Interests

The Ford/Kissinger plan for population control of under-developed countries

http://www.population-security.org/28-APP2.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Secu..._Memorandum_200 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Security_Study_Memorandum_200)

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http://www.whale.to/b/nazi_flu.html

"pathogenic mycoplasma”…. It is flu-like. It is pathognomonic of, not a bacterial or viral infection, it is pathognomonic of a fungus or a fungus related to a flu. And that's exactly what has been developed and patented by the Armed Forces Research Institute of Pathology.

Mycoplasma is not really a fungus, it's not really a bacteria, it's not really a virus. It's sort of like a pseudo all of them. It has no cell wall, it goes deep into the cell nuclei thereby making it very difficult to mount an immune response against. And it’s man-made…”

# #

http://www.whale.to/vaccine/quotes21.html

"Ebola, the ideal biological weapon that kills nine-out-of-ten humans within three weeks of infection, emerged first in three European vaccine production laboratories virtually simultaneously in 1967. Then named the Marburg virus (after one of the vaccine maker's Marburg, Germany, address), consensus held that this virus arrived in Europe in a shipment of nearly 500 African monkeys. The scientific literature, mainstream media, and Richard Preston, never once disclosed the name of the infamous monkey supplier - Litton Bionetics. Bionetics is cited in the US Congressional Record as a leading biological weapons contractor and nonhuman primate supplier for the US military. "

"Similarly, U.S. legislators learned in 1999 the little reported fact that Gulf War troops, as many as 200,000, were unwittingly used in AIDS vaccine experiments wherein portions of the AIDS virus, HIV, were recombined with a pathogenic mycoplasma, isolated, tested, and then patented by Dr. Shyh-Ching Lo of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology for the American Registry of Pathology in Washington, D.C.”

“Why so many orphaned children in Uganda? Because this was the principle site of the African hepatitis B vaccine trials in 1974-1975. Uganda was the home of the International Agency for Research in Cancer (IARC) that collaborated with Litton Bionetics, the U.S. Army's sixth top biological weapons contracting lab during the late 1960s and early 1970s. Bionetics was the organization that, at this time, developed numerous AIDS-like viruses under the direction of Dr. Robert Gallo of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), who more than a decade later received credit for "discovering" the AIDS virus HTLV-III (HIV-1).”

Dr. Leonard Horowitz received his doctorate from Tufts University and was awarded a fellowship in behavioral research at the University of Rochester. Dr. Horowitz earned a master's degree in public health and behavioral science from Harvard University. He also holds a master's degree in health education from Beacon College. For more than a decade, Dr. Horowitz directed a multidisciplinary health center. He served on the faculty at Tufts University, Harvard University, and the Leslie College Institute for Arts and Human Development.

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http://www.whale.to/b/cantwell9.html
The Virus Cancer Program: The Birthplace of AIDS and Kaposi’s Sarcoma

http://www.whale.to/v/cantwell3.html
The Secret Origin of AIDS and HIV: How Scientists Produced the Most Horrifying Plague of All Time – and then Covered It Up

http://www.africaspeaks.com/articles/2005/0903.html

http://www.whale.to/a/cantwell9.html (human radiation experiments in the US)

http://www.whale.to/v/nicolson3.html (Gulf War syndrome)

http://www.whale.to/c/cantwell_alan.html (index of Cantwell articles)

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http://www.fromthewilderness.com/free/ww3/...genetic_p1.html (http://www.fromthewilderness.com/free/ww3/030403_genetic_p1.html)

“The spread of human, animal or crop disease can be made to look like an "act of God" with no one able to trace the perpetrator(s)… [15]”

“In the 1980s, South Africa's apartheid regime ran a biological weapons program called "Project Coast". According to an April 2001 U.S. Air Force Report [36] one of the program's goals was to develop a "black bomb" via genetic engineering research. The "black bomb" would weaken or kill blacks but not whites. [37] In addition to the "black bomb," Project Coast planned to build a large-scale anthrax production facility to produce anthrax for use against black guerrilla fighters inside or outside of South Africa [38], and to develop a drug that would induce infertility and could be given surreptitiously to blacks, perhaps under the pretext of a vaccine. [39] None of these goals were achieved. However, in one of the appendices to the USAF report, the authors asked, "In its genetic engineering experiments, how close was South Africa to a "black bomb"? Are other countries developing similar biological weapons?" [40]

“On November 15, 1998, the Sunday Times of London ran a front page article reporting that the Israelis were planning an ethnic bomb. [41] The article stated that the Israelis were trying to identify distinctive genes carried by some Arabs, particularly Iraqis.” .

“In light of the Israeli research into the genetic differences between Arabs and Jews, who share Semitic origin, and in light of the overwhelming evidence that the United States Government had foreknowledge of the 9-11 attacks and allowed them to occur, resulting in the deaths of thousands of U.S. citizens, no one should assume that any weapon, genetic or not, would not be developed because some of the developer's people might suffer the same fate as the targeted "enemy."
-- --

“The JGI web site describes the Institute as "virtual human genome institute" that integrates the sequencing activities of the human genome centers at the three JGI member institutions: Lawrence Livermore, Lawrence Berkeley, and Los Alamos National Laboratories. JGI partner institutions include Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and Stanford Genome Center." [50] The Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos and Oak Ridge laboratories are well known as nuclear weapons research facilities. Lawrence Livermore and Los Alamos are seeking to install high containment microbiology labs in their facilities. These labs could work with virulent organisms such as live anthrax, botulism, plague.”


http://www.fromthewilderness.com/free/ww3/...2_microbio.html (http://www.fromthewilderness.com/free/ww3/02_14_02_microbio.html)

“A Career in Microbiology Can Be Harmful to Your Health:

DEATH TOLL MOUNTING AS CONNECTIONS TO DYNCORP, HADRON,
PROMIS SOFTWARE AND DISEASE RESEARCH EMERGE

“In the four-month period from Nov. 12 through Feb. 11, seven world-class microbiologists in different parts of the world were reported dead. Six died of "unnatural" causes, while the cause of the seventh's death is questionable. Also on Nov. 12, DynCorp, a major government contractor for data processing, military operations and intelligence work, was awarded a $322 million contract to develop, produce and store vaccines for the Department of Defense. DynCorp and Hadron, both defense contractors connected to classified research programs on communicable diseases, have also been linked to a software program known as PROMIS, which may have helped identify and target the victims.”
-- --

“Currently, Ken Alibek [Kanatjan Alibekov, the no. 2 man in the former Soviet Union biowarfare program who defected to the US in 1992] is President of Hadron Advanced Biosystems, a subsidiary of Alexandria, Va.-based Hadron, Inc. Hadron describes itself as a company specializing in the development of technical solutions for the intelligence community. As chief scientist at Hadron, Alibek gave extensive testimony to the House Armed Services Committee about biological weapons on Oct. 20, 1999, and again on May 23, 2000. Hadron announced on Dec. 20 that as of that date, the company had received $12 million in funding for medical biodefense research from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, and the NIH. Hadron said it was working in the field of non-specific immunity.

In the 1980s Hadron was founded and headed by Dr. Earl Brian, a medical doctor and crony of Ronald Reagan and an associate of former Attorney General Edwin Meese. Brian was convicted in the 1980s on fraud charges. Both Hadron and Brian have been closely associated in court documents and numerous credible reports, confirmed since Sept. 11, with the theft of enhanced PROMIS software from its owner, the INSLAW Corporation. PROMIS is a highly sophisticated computer program capable of integrating a wide variety of databases. The software has reportedly been mated in recent years with artificial intelligence. PROMIS has long been known to have been modified by intelligence agencies with a back door that allows for surreptitious retrieval of stored data.”

-- --

“The entire process can also be turned around to develop a pathogen that will affect a broad class of people sharing a genetic marker. A broad class of people sharing a genetic marker could be a group such as a race, or people with brown eyes.”
----

One company, DynCorp, handles data processing for many federal agencies, including the CDC, the Department of Agriculture, several branches of the Department of Justice, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the NIH. On Nov. 12 DynCorp announced that its subsidiary, DynPort Vaccine, had been awarded a $322 million contract to develop, produce, test, and store FDA licensed vaccines for use by the Defense Department….

Reasons to suspect DynCorp of criminal behavior are not hard to find. Investigative reporter Kelly O Meara of Insight Magazine, in a story dated February 4, disclosed a massive US military investigation of how DynCorp employees in Bosnia had engaged in a widespread sex slave ring, trading children as young as eight and videotaping forced sexual encounters. She reviewed government documents and interviewed Army investigators looking into the activities which had spread throughout DynCorp s contract operations to service helicopters and warehouse supplies for the US military. Videos and other evidence of the crimes are in the Army s possession. And in a February 23rd story, veteran journalist Al Giordano of www.narconews.com reported that a class action suit had been filed in Washington, D.C. by more than 10,000 Ecuadorian farmers and a labor union against DynCorp for its rampant spraying of herbicides which have destroyed food crops, weakened the ecosystem and caused more than 1,100 documented cases of illness…. DynCorp s former Chairman, current board member and the lead investor in Capricorn Holdings, is Herbert Pug Winokur. Winokur was, until recently, Chairman of the Enron Finance Committee.

Please read more at the link….

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http://www.globalresearch.ca/index.php?con...&articleId=1071 (http://www.globalresearch.ca/index.php?context=viewArticle&code=20051012&articleId=1071)

An article from October 2005 entitled: The Avian Flu Fright is Politically Timed: A Public Health Warning and Political Essay by Dr. Len Horowitz, whose work “resulted in the United States General Accounting Office investigating the man-made origin of AIDS theory”, and whose “stunning testimony before the United States Congress' Government Reform Committee, literally brought the hearing to a halt. (See: healingcelebrations.com) Dr. Horowitz questioned government health officials regarding a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) secreted report showing a definitive link between the mercury ingredient (i.e., Thimerosal), common to most vaccinations, and the skyrocketing rates of autism and behavioral disorders affecting our children and the future of our nation.” He is the author of two books: Emerging Viruses: AIDS & Ebola - Nature, Accident or Intentional? and Death in the Air: Globalism, Terrorism and Toxic Warfare.

Here’s the abstract for that article:

If avian flu becomes more than a threatened pandemic, it will have done so by political and economic design. This thesis is supported by current massive media misrepresentations, profiteering on risky and valueless vaccines, gross neglect of data evidencing earlier similar man-made plagues including SARS, West Nile Virus, AIDS and more; continuance of genetic studies breeding more mutant flu viruses likely to outbreak, inside trading scandals involving pandemic savvy White House and drug industry officials, curious immunity of these pharmaceutical entities over the past century to law enforcement and mainstream media scrutiny, and published official depopulation objectives. With the revelations and assertions advanced herein, the public is forewarned against this physician-assisted mass murder best termed “iatrogenocide.”* This genocidal imposition is expected to serve mainly economic and political depopulation objectives.

Here is an excerpt from that article:

I suppose we should overlook the fact that the current frightening strain of H5N1 avian flu virus has never readily jumped from human to human, and not commonly from birds to humans either. Thus, an effective vaccine can only be prepared by mutating this virus, thus creating what the world fears most. Let me explain. . . .

To make the human vaccine specific for the H5N1 mutant virus, you must start with the human virus which does not yet exist, except in perhaps military-biomedical-pharmaceutical laboratories. In fact, this is precisely what is being prepared based on news reports. To produce the human pathogen, the avian virus must be cultured for lengthy periods of time in human cell cultures, then injected into monkey and ultimately humans to see if these experimental subjects get the same feared flu. Thus, the flu virus the world currently fears most is either: 1) now being prepared in labs paid by industrialists with massive wealth-building incentives to “accidentally” release the virus; or 2) has already been prepared in such labs to take advantage of this current fright and future sales following the virus’s release.

Remember, to be effective against a virus, a vaccine is said to require specificity. If authorities were to now have the main H5N1 avian flu strain feared to spread at some future date there’s no assurance by the time they developed the vaccine the strain would remain sufficiently the same for the vaccine to be effective anyway due to expected viral mutations. Viral mutations over time is a function of the agent’s newness. New man-made viruses, laboratory creations, like the ones currently being prepared for vaccine trials, are less stable not having evolved over the millennia. Thus, the entire vaccine effort is largely, if not entirely, a sham with ulterior motives.

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http://www.prisonplanet.com/articles/april...irdfludrill.htm (http://www.prisonplanet.com/articles/april2006/070406birdfludrill.htm)

Simultaneous drill and bird flu outbreak in Britain?

“Britain's bird flu scare that officials are now warning could spread to other areas of Scotland coincided with an exercise that drilled a response to an avian flu outbreak. The drill included the involvement of Downing Street and the Ministry of Defence.

The BBC reports that the exercise was cancelled as soon as the discovery of the H5 virus in the dead swan in Fife was made.

"The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs in London was running it with control centres in Bury St Edmunds, Leeds, Cardiff and Gloucester," states the article.

"It also involved the Association of Chief Police Officers, the Environment Agency, Downing Street, the Ministry of Defence, and other government departments."

The drill revolved around a scenario where bird flu was discovered in two places in England and one in Wales…”. (more at link)

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A book review:

"In False Alarm: The Truth About the Epidemic of Fear, Marc Siegel, M.D. tries to reduce the hysteria quotient with a straightforward recitation of facts and statistics. He says that anthrax, severe acute respiratory syndrome, bird flu and Iraq's so-called weapons of mass destruction have been transformed by exploitative politicians and a pandering media into prompts that raise our anxiety levels much higher than the statistical likelihood of these threats happening... Fear, biologically wired in, has been a protective adaptation that has allowed the human species to survive. But today, as Siegel suggests, it is counter-adaptive"-

-- Benjamin Barber, Los Angeles Times

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Don’t forget the proclamations of the President… that he be allowed to mobilize the military in response to an outbreak of a flu pandemic.

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http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/14.01/birdflu.html

On Los Alamos computer simulations of pandemic

“A mile from the main compound at Los Alamos, in a grade school turned research lab, half a dozen physicists and computer scientists (and one mathematical biologist) are grinding out disease like pepper from a mill. This is EpiSims, an ambitious computer-simulation project that has released anthrax in Houston, sown the bubonic plague in Chicago, and, most recently, spread the flu in Los Angeles. In 2000, EpiSims let loose smallpox in Portland, Oregon. Programmers started by creating a computer model of the city that's accurate down to the individual high school, traffic light, and citizen… James Smith, who runs the EpiSims project at Los Alamos, describes his tools as "giant data fusion engines." Tapping the scientists' sophisticated computing algorithms and the lab's supercomputer clusters, it takes about 300 parallel processors and less than 24 hours to run a one-year simulation.

But simulating the spread of disease is only half the job. EpiSims also had to evaluate how officials should respond…. EpiSims eventually ran through hundreds of smallpox models, sometimes vaccinating only exposed individuals, other times targeting the so-called superspreaders, individuals who transmit more than their share of disease, sometimes putting the entire city in quarantine. With every tweak, the disease would peter out or gain steam accordingly….

For a highly communicable disease like smallpox or influenza, these incidental interactions spread disease just as well as extended encounters. So chasing after the hubs can mean chasing after 80 percent of the population - a huge waste of time and energy. Better simply to inoculate the entire city…..

These sorts of precise, real-world conclusions are the payoff of the EpiSims approach. They are, to use Smith's term, "actionable" - worthy of consideration not just by scientists but by policymakers. …

Such relevance has made EpiSims a darling at Los Alamos and an integral component of a Department of Homeland Security project called Nisac (for National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center), an effort to model a range of disasters and plot recovery strategies.”

“…it's nearly impossible to stockpile a [flu] vaccine because the virus is so quick to mutate. Add the fact that people can be infected and contagious without knowing it.”

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http://www.windsofchange.net/archives/007641.php

Ray Kurzweil and Bill Joy, in a New York Times Op-Ed
entitled “Recipe for Destruction”, re-printed at this link:

“… the United States Department of Health and Human Services published the full genome of the 1918 influenza virus on the Internet in the GenBank database. This is extremely foolish. The genome is essentially the design of a weapon of mass destruction. No responsible scientist would advocate publishing precise designs for an atomic bomb, and in two ways revealing the sequence for the flu virus is even more dangerous.

First, it would be easier to create and release this highly destructive virus from the genetic data than it would be to build and detonate an atomic bomb given only its design, as you don't need rare raw materials like plutonium or enriched uranium. Synthesizing the virus from scratch would be difficult, but far from impossible. An easier approach would be to modify a conventional flu virus with the eight unique and now published genes of the 1918 killer virus.

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http://forums.backpage.com/showthread.php?mode=hybrid&t=7991

One anonymous Internet poster (caveat lector – I have not “vetted” this information, though it seems accurate) notes Rumsfeld’s history at Searle & Company (producer of the oral contraceptive Enovid and NutraSweet (generic name: aspartame), and the multinational ABB Corp. who worked closely with the Clinton Administration to bring nuclear power plants to North Korea.

“In 2000, Rumsfeld was also serving on the board of Gilead and quit this position just prior to being appointed Secretary of Defense, in 2001 when he began work under GW Bush Jr. in his administration. However, Rumsfeld still holds the majority of shares of Gilead as of March 2006, and Donald Rumsfeld, since being Chairman of the Board of Gilead Sciences - who is the developer of Tamiflu, which is used in the treatment of bird flu - several news sources including USA Today, and CNN have published stories implying that Donald Rumsfeld profits from and and all sales of Tamiflu to the US government while he is presently in office.”

“In 1976, a military recruit in New Jersey died from a flu that experts speculated might be the "swine flu". At Rumsfeld's urging, the Ford administration quickly produced and distributed large number of doses of the vaccine. However, some batches were contaminated and 52 people died while 600 fell ill. The program was stopped and nobody got swine flu.”

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www.caedefensefund.org/

“In their May 2004 raid on Steve Kurtz’s home, agents from the FBI and Joint Terrorism Task Force seized art works, research, and the first draft of a book that were to be part of Critical Art Ensemble’s project Marching Plague, dedicated to demystifying the issues surrounding germ warfare. After wasting millions of taxpayer dollars, the government was unable to produce any evidence that Steve was a “bioterrorist”—yet they refused to return any of the seized materials. Despite this attempt at censorship, Steve was finally able to (partially) reconstruct his research, which has now been published as Marching Plague: Germ Warfare and Global Public Health (New York: Autonomedia, 2006). The companion film has also premiered…”

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Bird Flu as a Weapon?

http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1444780/posts
a freeper points to China in 2005 as weaponizer of bird flu…

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http://www.inforos.com/?id=7869 (a Russian perspective)

“… serious experts think that the bird flu is poorly suitable as a weapon of terror. But using such bacteriological weapon by one state against others for undermining economy or destabilization of internal political situation could be a different matter.”

-- --

Joseph Farah’s G2 Bulletin, May 2006, reports British Intelligence indications that North Korea has weaponized the bird flu…

http://www.commongroundcommonsense.org/for...ic=44645&st=160 (http://www.commongroundcommonsense.org/forums/index.php?showtopic=44645&st=160)

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http://www.realclearpolitics.com/Commentar...0_14_05_CK.html (http://www.realclearpolitics.com/Commentary/com-10_14_05_CK.html)

Charles Krauthammer’s article (October 14, 2005)
Bird Flu as Biological Weapon?

“Nature, which published the full genome sequence, cites Rutgers bacteriologist Richard Ebright as warning that there is a significant risk ``verging on inevitability'' of accidental release into the human population or of theft by a ``disgruntled, disturbed or extremist laboratory employee.''
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http://www.orwelltoday.com/fluweapon.shtml

An article in March 2005 by Helen Branswell from Canadian Press
on the Canadian intelligence report about the weaponization of bird flu

The military's intelligence arm has warned the federal government that avian influenza could be used as a weapon of bioterrorism, a heavily censored report suggests. It also reveals that military planners believe a naturally occurring flu pandemic may be imminent. The report, entitled Recent Human Outbreaks of Avian Influenza and Potential Biological Warfare Implications, was obtained under the Access to Information Act by The Canadian Press. It was prepared by the J2 Directorate of Strategic Intelligence, a secretive branch of National Defence charged with producing intelligence for the government.

The report outlines in broad terms the methods that could be used to develop a manmade strain of influenza capable of triggering a human flu pandemic. It notes a method called "passaging," while not entirely predictable, could be a "potentially highly effective" way to push a virus to develop virulence. "Such forced antigenic shifts could be attempted in a biological weapons program," says the 15-page report, dated Dec. 8, 2004. Passaging involves the repeated cycling of strains of a virus through generations of a species of animals or through cell culture. The process can be used to either ratchet up or dial down the virulence of a virus, depending on which of the ensuing offspring - the mild or the severe - are selected in each cycle for the next passage.

There is debate in the community of infectious disease experts whether influenza would make a good bioterrorism agent. For one thing, once released, the virus would not discriminate between friend or foe. Terrorists and their supporters would be as likely to fall ill and die as those they hoped to target.

But if the ultimate goal is panic, social disruption and economic losses, influenza would be a good choice, says Dr. Brian Ward, a virologist at McGill University in Montreal. "To me it's one of the most logical viruses to use. It doesn't have to be a really bad one to throw a huge wrench," Ward said. "I mean, if you want to hurt the world's economy, that's an awfully good way."

But influenza expert Dr. Earl Brown suggests that while flu makes a good theoretical bioterror agent, the reality of these "delicate" viruses is that the task would be harder than it appears. "Flu is a wimpy virus, which I think is the one knock against it. It doesn't persist in the environment (outside a human) very long," says Brown, a University of Ottawa scientist who specializes in the evolution of influenza viruses. "You have to infect people sort of straight away, otherwise it's going to die sitting around the environment."

Brown, who has done expensive work on reassorting or mating flu viruses, says any virus bred to spread would have to meet several key criteria: it would need to jump the species barrier and have the ability both to transmit easily and cause severe disease if it did. "If you want to see chaos and mayhem and you're not concerned about the backlash, then you just have to get to the biology. And right now nobody can do it," Brown says. "There's a good chance that you'd make something that just would burn out. It just wouldn't spread very well."

The report also raises the spectre of a pandemic strain engineered in a laboratory using reverse genetics. That technically challenging process allows scientists to custom tailor a flu virus, taking genes from a virulent but not highly transmissible strain, for instance, and melding them with genes from a virus that transmits well from person to person.



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http://www.maebrussell.com/Mae%20Brussell%...20Brussell.html (http://www.maebrussell.com/Mae%20Brussell%20Articles/Mind%20of%20Mae%20Brussell.html)

"I found it interesting that the Cuban Watergate burglars—who were later given a $200,000 payoff by the CIA—were looking for the air-conditioning plans for the hotels in Miami, when later it was discovered that Legionnaire's Disease may have come through the air-conditioning ducts. There is the capability to use germs to neutralize people. The CIA has the germs. Legionnaire's Disease has the exact symptoms of a disease they were experimenting with at Fort Detrick, Maryland. When you hear of weapons control, you think of guns, tanks, planes, but you don't hear that they're selling germs, or that Nixon ordered Richard Helms to destroy the germs at Fort Detrick and Helms didn't. Nixon was put out as a bad man, isolated and ridiculed, but Helms went on to become ambassador to Iran and is immune to perjury charges."

“… the CIA works on a basis of need-to-know. Because if you know too much, you may not do what you're supposed to do. If you know that the end result is that somebody's going to be blown up twelve miles away—and all you're supposed to do is deliver an envelope—you may think [twice] about it.”

“Would I be like Anne Frank's father, who told his family that things were OK and that people were basically good—while they were living their last days? They never fought Nazism, but just watched it all go by and hid in the attic until their time came around to be taken away.”

David Guyatt
04-29-2009, 09:41 AM
The problem is that the powers that be would use such weapons when it suited their purposes, but they would also create an illusory panic of a possible global pandemic if it also suited their agenda.

Not to mention the very considerable additional profit generated from world sales of completely unnecessary drugs and equipment as we saw from Bird flu and the leap in Tamiflu vaccines

So, I'm sitting here looking at the growing panic around the world noting that there have been no deaths of the Pig flu outside of Mexico - albeit two "possible" deaths in California, plus a total of 152 deaths in Mexico itself.

Should we truly be alarmed? Not really.

In an ordinary flu season, 35,000 deaths occur in the US alone (see: http://www.huliq.com/3257/80297/us-should-expect-swine-flu-deaths-cdc )

In the Uk in the early 1990's seasonal flu deaths totaled around 22,000. By 2004/5 this number had been reduced to the low 2000's due to the increased vaccination programme in the UK (see: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/4358364.stm ).

In the last outbreak of "scare flu", sales of Tamiflu vaccine skyrocketed from $150 million to $2.2 billion. This time around all the big pharma companies stock market prices have leapt (see: http://www.mailonsunday.co.uk/money/article-1173894/Travel-shares-tumble-pandemic-fears-hit-FTSE.html ).

http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2009/04/28/article-1173894-04B21CEA000005DC-382_468x193.jpg

Magda Hassan
04-29-2009, 10:17 AM
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DkjewEM0dmk&feature=channel_page
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h8hFs4fcxQg&feature=channel
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AYPSH_1eudg&feature=related
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2lZyDgeRe2Q&feature=related
http://www.thegoonshow.co.uk/scripts/lurgi.html

Jan Klimkowski
04-29-2009, 06:04 PM
With regard to Frank Olson, the version of events that I now believe is that Olson discovered his conscience, and was about to blow the whistle on terminal human experiments being undertaken under early incarnations of "MK-ULTRA" and its still highly secret British equivalent. Plus the use of biological warfare weapons by the "allies"/NATO.

There's a very good German documentary on the murder of Dr Frank Olson by by American intelligence starting at the url below (it's in five parts, and the other parts can be easily found from this Part One link):

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8MlFajrqKDc

Lots of interesting material, such as the proven use by the CIA of Nazi doctors (eg Kurt Blome, Fritz Hoffmann) in mind control & lethal chemical interrogation "research" (probably under Paperclip), and the identification of a top secret CIA headquarters in Germany, located in the building of an IG Farben successor company, in the heart of Frankfurt in the early 1950s.

(Thomas Pynchon - have a good giggle at that!)

Frank Olson's son, Eric Olson, believes that one of the reasons his father was murdered was his knowledge of the use of germ warfare by America during the Korean War. Of course after American POWs confessed to this, known CIA asset & hack Edward Hunter claimed that they had been "brainwashed" - a piece of essentially meaningless mumbo jumbo that has prevailed ever since. The documentary includes attempts by Eric Olson to persuade his father's scientific colleagues to repeat on camera what they have told him off camera.

Watch and judge for yourselves who you believe.

A good and important film.

Dr Frank Olson seems to have been a man with a conscience. His murder was covered up by Donald Rumsfeld and Dick Cheney to protect their bastard view of American "National Security".

Yet again, the orthodox history of the Twentieth Century (the one they teach in schools and universities) is revealed as an ugly lie.


August 28, 2002
The Secret Sharers
The CIA, the Bush Gang and
the Killing of Frank Olson

by Chris Floyd

There is a thread running through modern American history, a thin red cord that weaves in and out of the shifting facades of reason and respectability that mask the brutal machinery of power. At certain rare moments the thread flashes into sight, emerging from the chaotic jumble of unbearable truth and life-giving illusion that makes up human reality. It appears, bears witness, then vanishes again, forgotten behind the next facade.

It's a thread that runs from horrified young intelligence operatives stumbling into the death camps of Nazi Germany to hardened agents running assassination programs in the jungles of Vietnam to august men of state building a shadow government with secret decrees authorizing tyranny, murder, torture and deceit. It's a thread of moral corruption, corruption by an idea, a temptation, a perversion of reason, the whisper of evil that says: "The end justifies the means."

That thread fetched up briefly again earlier this month, then was buried, literally, in a Maryland grave. The family of Frank Olson laid his exhumed remains to rest, closing the book on their half-century of struggle to find out why he died so violently in the hands of the government he had served--and whose deepest secrets he had guarded.

Frank's son, Eric, believes he knows the answer now: his father was murdered to keep the thread from sight, to "protect" the American people from the knowledge that their own government had taken up and extended Nazi experiments on mind control, psychological torture and chemical warfare--and that it was conducting these experiments as the Nazis did, on unwilling subjects, on captives and "expendables," even to the point of "termination."

Frank Olson was a CIA scientist at Fort Detrick, Maryland, the Army's biological weapons research center. Ostensibly he was a civilian employee of the Army; his family didn't know his true employer. Olson worked on methods of spreading anthrax and other toxins; some of his colleagues were involved in mind control drugs and torture techniques. But his life within the charmed circle of the American intelligence elite would unravel with dizzying speed in just a few months in 1953.

It began in the summer of that year, when Olson--increasingly troubled by his own and his colleague's work--made several trips to Europe, to investigate secret American-British research centers in Germany. There he found the CIA was testing "truth serums" and other torture drugs on "expendables," including captured Russian agents. He told a British colleague that he had witnessed "horrors" there. And it called into starkest question his own work on biochemical weapons. He came home a changed man, troubled, morose. He told his wife he wanted to leave government service.

But it was too late: the brutal machinery was already grinding. His British colleague told his own superiors about Olson's concerns; they in turn informed the CIA that Olson was now a "security risk." Not long after his return, Olson was given the LSD. Then he was flown to New York, ostensibly for psychiatric treatment, at the hands of a CIA doctor--who prescribed whiskey and pills. Then he was taken to a CIA magician--yes, a magician--who apparently tried to hypnotize him for interrogation.

Finally he checked into a cheap hotel--with a CIA handler, Robert Lashbrook, in tow. Olson called his wife, told her he was feeling better and would be home the next day. But that night, he was found dead on the street, 10 floors below. The handler said that Olson had apparently thrown himself through the closed window in a suicidal fit. The government told the family it was simply a tragic suicide. They didn't mention the LSD--or the fact that Olson worked for the CIA.

It would take Eric Olson 49 years to piece together as much of the truth as we are ever likely to know about what happened that night. But first would come a false dawn, a cruel trick played on the family by cynical operators in Ford Administration, who used a screen of half-truth and deliberate falsehood to divert the Olsons--and the nation--from the darkest tangles of the thread. Two of those operators would would work the thread--play upon it, thrive on it, hold hard to its damp crimson stain--to rise from the obscurity of White House functionaries to positions of colossal, world-shaking power:

Dick Cheney and Donald Rumsfeld.

Keeping the Faith

Washington, 1975. It was a long hot summer of discontent in the White House. The unelected president, Gerald Ford--who'd taken office after the resignation of Richard Nixon--was raging. Every day seemed to bring fresh horrors from the Congressional committees investigating America's intelligence agencies. Assassination plots, terrorist acts, coups, secret armies, subversion of allied governments, Mafia connections, torture, press manipulation, domestic surveillance--the revelations were endless, a bottomless pit of corruption and criminality being dredged up by the House and Senate panels.

Where was their sense of duty, the code of omerta that had for so long protected those who toil in the shadows, who do the dirty work to keep America fat and safe and happy? What right did these mere senators and representatives have to tell the people--the big dumb dazed mobocracy out there--the truth about what their leaders were doing in their name? They were like children, they could never understand the higher wisdom that guided the elites. Oh, it was a far cry from the old days, back on the Warren Commission, when a good soldier like Jerry Ford knew just what to do: you accepted whatever the agencies told you, and you steered investigations away from anything that might break the code and pierce the shadows.

So Ford seethed. What the hell is wrong over there at the CIA, he complained to his chief of staff, Donald Rumsfeld. Why couldn't Bill Colby, the director, keep a lid on things? Colby had even come clean about Operation Phoenix, for Christ's sake. More than 20,000 Vietnamese murdered in the CIA-run program--did Joe Lunchbucket really need to know about that?

What next? Are they going to find about Reinhard Gehlen, too: the Nazi spy who joined the CIA and recruited thousands of Hitler's best and brightest--including Klaus Barbie and a cadre of SS veterans--to work for the Agency? Sure, it would look bad, but come on: Gehlen was championed by Allen Dulles himself--the founding father of the CIA, the hotshot lawyer who kept Prescott Bush's name out of the papers when Pres was caught trading with the Nazis in 1942. Dulles and those Yale boys knew what was best--but try explaining that to some poor schmuck whose father got killed at Normandy or Auschwitz or some other godforsaken hole, eh?

As it happened, the "Gehlen Organization" stayed secret for another 26 years. But in July 1975, Ford had still more worries. A top White House aide, Dick Cheney, sent a memo to Rumsfeld, warning him about an upcoming lawsuit. The family of Frank Olson had found out--through the Congressional investigations--that he had been secretly drugged by the CIA not long before he took that fall from the hotel window. Now they were suing the government for damages.

The lawsuit could be bad business, Cheney told Rumsfeld. "It might be necessary to disclose highly classified national security information" during the trial. That would include the truth about Olson: the CIA connection, biochemical weapons, the mind-control and torture experiments based on Nazi death-camp "research," and the Agency fingerprints all over Olson's last days in New York City. The case might even reveal the existence of special "CIA Assassination Manuals," like the one issued in the year of Olson's death, 1953, stating: "The most efficient accident, in simple assassinations, is a fall of 75 feet or more onto a hard surface. Elevator shafts, stairwells, unscreened windows and bridges will serve. [In some cases], it will usually be necessary to stun or drug the subject before dropping him."

Such revelations had to be avoided at all costs. Rumsfeld and Cheney urged Ford to make a settlement before the trial started. To avoid the courts entirely, they would arrange a private bill in Congress to give the family some cash. The deal would be sweetened by private audiences with both Ford and Colby, apologizing for the CIA's past "mistakes," and promising "full disclosure" of all the facts, so the family could at last find peace.

And so it was done. And it was all a lie--beyond the bare fact, already unearthed by Congress, that Olson had been drugged by the CIA. The family got 17 minutes in the Oval Office with Ford--who apologized for the government's indirect involvement in Olson's death--that LSD test gone awry. Rogue elements, you know; unauthorized activity. Shouldn't have happened; never happen again. This was followed by a meeting with Colby, who handed over a thick file: the CIA's "complete" investigation of the Olson affair--so complete that it forgot to mention that Olson was a CIA official. Or that his colleagues considered him a "security risk." Little things like that.

Thus began the second cover-up. It took Eric Olson another 27 years to piece together the story, from obscure archives, through lucky accidents, and strained meetings with old CIA hands, who let fall dribs and drabs of the truth. He was even forced to exhume his father's body: a gruesome process that revealed the original 1953 post-mortem had also been a lie.

That examination had simply confirmed the cover story: poor sap had flung himself through the glass and splattered on the sidewalk below. No autopsy needed. Close the coffin--the body is too busted-up for the family to see--and close the case. But the second examination, decades later, carried out by forensic experts, revealed the truth. There were no marks on the well-preserved cadaver consistent with a self-propelled flight through the window: no cuts on the face or arms. There was, however, a cranial injury entirely consistent with a blow to the head--delivered before the fall.

Earlier this year, the Cheney-Rumsfeld memos came to light, confirming that the Olsons had been deliberately lied to in 1975. It helped fill in some of the remaining pieces of the scattered jigsaw puzzle that was his father's death--and had become Eric's life. And although the centerpiece of the puzzle--the fateful moments in that hotel room, before Frank Olson went through the glass--remains forever absent, the picture was as complete as it would ever be, Eric decided. And so he buried his father, again, in the dark Maryland earth.

But Ford, Rumsfeld and Cheney had kept the faith back in those dangerous days of 1975. They had honored omerta. Colby was not so lucky. For his sins--his "weakness" in allowing a few spears of sunlight into the shadows--he was summarily dismissed a few months later. He was replaced by a man who also lived by the code, who would keep the precious Agency--and all its Gehlens, its torturers, its dopers, its shooters--safe from the mobocracy, the ignorant rabble with their pathetic fairy-tale notions about democracy, justice, law and honor. He would guard the shadow world so well that one day the headquarters of the CIA would proudly bear his name:

George Herbert Walker Bush.

Chris Floyd is a columnist for the Moscow Times and a regular contributor to CounterPunch.

http://www.counterpunch.org/floyd0828.html

Jan Klimkowski
04-29-2009, 06:20 PM
THE OLSON FILE
A secret that could destroy the CIA
by Kevin Dowling and Phillip Knightley

In the early hours of 28 November 1953, Armand Pastore, the night manager of the Statler Hotel, New York, was startled to hear a crash of breaking glass and then a sickening thump on the pavement outside his hotel. He rushed out to find a middle-aged man lying semi-conscious on the ground.

Pastore looked up to see light shining from a shattered window of a room on the hotel's thirteenth floor. He knelt down alongside the man, cradled his head in his arms and leaned closer as the man made an effort to speak, then died. He had obviously jumped out of the window, just another suicide in a city where the plunge from skyscraper to pavement was a shocking but not unusual event.

Suicide was certainly the finding at the inquest — Dr Frank Olson, a United States Army scientist, for reasons no one could fathom, had taken his own life. And that was what the record showed for the next twenty-two years.

Then in 1975 the Rockefeller Commission, set up by President Ford to examine the extent of the CIA's illegal domestic operations, revealed that an unnamed army scientist had died after CIA experts, experimenting with mind-bending drugs, had secretly slipped him a dose of potent LSD. During the ensuing uproar, the scientist was identified as Frank Olson.

The US government moved immediately to show how sorry it was for what had happened. Congress passed a private humanitarian relief bill which authorised a payment of $750,000 to the widow, Mrs Olson, and her three children. Mrs Olson and her son Eric were invited to the White House where President Ford publicly apologised to them. And the then CIA director, William Colby, held a lunch for Mrs Olson and Eric in his office at the CIA, apologised and gave them the CIA file on the case.

According to the file, Olson had suffered a "chemically-induced psychotic flashback" a week after he had been slipped the dose of LSD. So a CIA doctor, Richard Lashbrook, had been deputed to look after Olson until he was normal again. Lashbrook had been sharing the hotel room with Olson and was asleep in a bed next to him when, he said, he was awoken by the sound of breaking glass and realised that Olson had crashed through the window.

Eric, who is now 54,was never very convinced by this version of events but kept quiet so as not to distress his mother. Then when she died in 1994 he decided to test the official story of his father's death. Experts told him that in order to achieve the momentum needed to vault over a central heating radiator under the window, burst through the closed blinds and smash through the hotel's heavy glass panes, Olson would have had to struck the window travelling at more than 30 km per hour. A trained athlete takes about fifty metres to accelerate to that speed. But the hotel room was only 5.5 metres long.

Next there was Dr. Lashbrook's strange behaviour when the hotel manager Pastore arrived in the room to tell him that his colleague was dead on the pavement below. Lashbrook went to the telephone, rang a number and simply said, "Olson's gone". Then he hung up and retired to the bathroom where he sat on the lavatory with his head in his hands.

Eric Olson, a Maryland clinical psychologist, began to spend every spare moment trying to get at the true story of what had happened to his father. Today he is convinced he is on the brink of doing so. But the story is so strange, so reminiscent of the TV series "The X-Files," that despite compelling evidence, it is uncertain that anyone will believe it.

THE TERMS of the $750,000 government settlement for Olson's death prevented his family from pursuing the matter in the civil courts. But if Eric Olson could convince the authorities that his father's death was a criminal matter, then he might eventually get at the truth. Four years ago he had his first breakthrough when he won a court order to exhume his father's body.

"When he was buried the coffin had been sealed. They said he had been so badly mutilated in the fall that it wouldn't be right for the family to see him. But when we opened the casket a lifetime later, I knew Daddy at once. He had been embalmed and his face was unmarked and untroubled. He hadn't been hurt the way they said he had."

A new autopsy confirmed Eric Olson's impression and entirely contradicted the findings of the first inquest. Carried out by a team led by James Starrs, Professor of Law and Forensic Science at The National Law Centre, George Washington University, it could find no sign of the cuts and abrasions that the first autopsy said had been caused by crashing through the window glass.

On the other hand, there was a haematoma, unrecorded at the first post mortem examination, on the left hand side of Olson's skull. This had been caused by a heavy blow, James Starrs decided, probably from a hammer, before the fall from the window. Starrs and his team concluded that the evidence from their examination was "rankly and starkly suggestive of homicide."

Although the team did not say so — because it could be only supposition — someone had struck Olson on the head with a hammer, smashed open the window, probably with the same hammer, and had then thrown Olson out. But the new autopsy findings were certainly enough for a New York public prosecutor, Stephen Saracco, to win the right for a grand jury to begin hearing the evidence he had uncovered. If the jury, too, found the evidence of murder compelling, then Saracco requested that it should hand down indictments for murder and conspiracy to murder.

Saracco, an ambitious, aggressive lawyer with no fear about taking on the American establishment, says that the men he wants named in the indictments will include some of America's most respected CIA veterans and, if the grand jury agrees to his request to widen his investigations, former officers of the British Secret Intelligence and Security Services as well.

Already there are indications that the international intelligence community is running scared. The CIA and the Department of Justice have resisted Saracco 's attempts to subpoena Dr. Lashbrook, who now lives in California, to question him, among other things, about Olson's last hours, the telephone call that Lashbrook made immediately after Olson's death and the work that Lashbrook and Olson had been engaged in together.

Early in July, after months of negotiation, the two government departments gave in and agreed that the grand jury should hear Saracco's team examine Lashbrook at Venture County Courthouse during the week beginning 24 August. Saracco has already offered Lashbrook immunity from prosecution in return for his testimony. He was too late, however, to do the same for William Colby, the CIA chief who apologised for Olson's death.

On 27 April 1996, after Saracco won the right to a grand jury hearing, Colby who realised that he would be forced to give evidence, vanished from his country retreat about forty miles south of Washington. It looked as if he had left in a hurry: the lights and the radio were still on, his computer was still running, and a half finished glass of wine was on the table. The next day his empty canoe was found swamped on a sand bar. Five days later divers found a body identified as Colby's. He had apparently been the victim of a boating accident.

If so, it would appear that Maryland waters are particularly unkind to retired members of the CIA. In 1978 another CIA officer, John Paisley, also vanished there in another boating accident. A week after Paisley's abandoned boat was located, a body with a gunshot wound to the head was found. But the condition of the body meant that precise identification was impossible — making the area a conspiracy blackspot.

Suppose the grand jury does in the end find that the evidence that Olson was murdered and that the perpetrators were other CIA officers, there will still remain a major barrier to an eventual conviction — what was the motive? What was so sensitive to the CIA that it would kill one of its own? To find an answer we have to go back to the fifties when the two great ideologies of the 20th century, communism and capitalism, were locked in a battle to the death and no act no matter how morally shocking was ruled out in the struggle for victory.

THE NUCLEAR stand-off of the Cold War had sent both sides back to their drawing boards. If it were impossible to employ nuclear weapons without assuring mutual total destruction, what other weapons could the boffins come up with — given virtually unlimited funds and no moral restraints — that would win any future war? Two possibilities attracted attention. The first was bacteriological warfare.

Bacteriological warfare is remarkably cheap; it has been described as "the poor man's nuclear bomb." A deadly virus sufficient to wipe out every living person over an area of one square mile would cost only about $50. In the 1950s both sides in the Cold War set up research establishments to develop biological weapons, methods of delivering them, and methods of protecting against them. Dr. Frank Olson worked in this area.

Trained as a biochemist, he had been employed since 1943 in the Special Operations Division at Fort Detrick, Maryland, was associated with a CIA secret research unit known at the time as MK-ULTRA, and came to Britain frequently between 1950-53 to work at the British Microbiological Research Establishment (MRE) at Porton Down. Olson was part of a team which was developing aerosol delivery systems for biological weapons that included staphylococcus enterotoxin, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis and anthrax. Olson seems to have concentrated on counter-biological warfare, trying to find vaccines and special clothing that would protect against attack.

Deadly effective though it may be, biological warfare has drawbacks. There is always the risk that it may get out of control and attack not only the enemy but those who decided to employ it in the first place. Like nuclear warfare, biological warfare could wipe out civilisation as we know it. So Olson and some of his colleagues became intrigued by another type of weapon altogether, one which attacked not the body but the mind.

Those scientists in the Western intelligence community who supported the idea of developing brain-washing programmes had two gurus — Dr Douglas Ewan Cameron, a Glasgow-born psychiatrist, and Dr. Sydney "The Gimp" Gottlieb, the CIA's top expert on brainwashing. Cameron won his post-graduate diploma in psychiatric medicine at the University of London before joining the staff at John Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, in 1926. He became convinced that the mentally ill posed a grave threat to Anglo-American civilisation and should be forcibly sterilised.

During the Second World War he was a member of the Military Mobilization Committee of the American Psychiatric Association and was appalled to learn that of the fifteen million men inducted into the US armed forces, two million had to be rejected on neuropsychiatric grounds, a proportion far higher than in any other nation. He set about finding remedies including electroshock (60,000 ECTs in a single year), lobotomies and other forms of psychosurgery, sensory deprivation and mind-altering drugs — all used on patients who had little or no say in their treatment. Conscientious objectors, many of them Quakers, were defined by Cameron as mentally-ill and sometimes forced to accept treatment.

When the end of the war revealed that the Nazis had been carrying out similar experiments — 23 German doctors were convicted at Nuremberg — the Western intelligence community suddenly became very interested in Cameron's work. This interest grew to an obsession after the Stalin show trials with the robotic, apparently artificially-induced confessions made by the accused. Then the behaviour of American POWs held in Chinese camps during the Korean War and their subsequent denunciation of the American way of life, futher convinced the CIA that the communists were already well advanced in mind control techniques. In intelligence circles there were rumours of a Soviet plot to place brain-washed zombies in the White House and other citadels of Western power.

The American response was MK-ULTRA. Its director, Dr. Gottleib, sought help from his Scottish hero, Cameron, and set him up with cover organisations to distance the CIA from some of the more abhorent aspects of MK-ULTRA's work. So Cameron founded the Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology, ran a proprietary company called Psychological Assessment Associates, and contributed papers to learned journals on "Psychic Driving", "The Restructuring of the Personality" and "Suggestion and Extra-Sensory Perception."

The short-term goals were to counter any communist plot to insert brain-washed assassins into the West. However, according to authors Gerald Colby and Charlotte Dennett, biographers of Nelson Rockefeller — one-time chairman of a committee overseeing the MK-ULTRA operation — the scientists also wanted to find drugs or techniques by which "a man could be surreptitiously drugged through the medium of an alcoholic cocktail at a social party ... and the subject induced to perform the act of attempted assassination of an official in a government in which he was well-established socially and politically."

A far-fetched idea, perhaps, but one whose currency was not limited to the CIA. A few years later, the surreptitious administration of a mind-altering drug in a drink at a party was suggested as a possible solution to a strange double death in Sydney, Australia. On the morning of January 1, 1963, Dr. Gilbert Bogle, and his lover, Mrs. Margaret Chandler, were found dead on a river bank after a riotous party given by staff of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization. Bogle, a brilliant scientist, had told friends that he was about to go to the US to work on scientific research of great military importance. The deaths were never solved, but Sydney detectives became convinced that Bogle and his colleagues had been experimenting with LSD and the effect it produced on their thought-processes — the invitation to the New Year's party required each guest to bring a painting done under the influenced of the drug — and either by accident or by design someone had slipped the couple what turned out to be an overdose.

Repeated requests to the BBI under the Freedom of Information Act asking for details of the work that Bogle would have been doing in the US have met with refusal on the grounds of national security. But the speculation is irresistible that it might have involved experiments in mind control similar to those that Olson had worked on.

The long-term aim of these experiments with mind-altering drugs is thought by those who have studied the MK-ULTRA programme to have been to ensure the dominance of Anglo-American civilisation in the "war of all against all — the key to evolutionary success." Brain-washing would be used not only to defeat the enemy but to ensure compliance and loyalty of one's own population.

Where did Dr. Olson fit into all this? A Harley Street psychiatrist, Dr. William Sargant, now dead, was sent by the British goverment in the early 1950s to evaluate MK-ULTRA. On his return he told a colleague and friend, former BBC television producer, Gordon Thomas, that what Cameron and Gottlieb were up to was as bad as anything going on in the Soviet gulags.

Thomas, whose books include a 1988 study of the CIA's forays into mind-control, Journey into Madness: Medical Torture and the Mind Controllers, says "Sargant told me that he had urged the British government to distance this country from it. He said it was blacker than black." According to Thomas, Sargant told him that Frank Olson had come to Britain between 1950-53 to work on attachment at Porton Down and had also made frequent visits to "an intelligence facility" in Sussex. This is confirmed by entries in the special passport that Olson used.

The stamps on the passport, which declare that the bearer was on "official business for the Department of the Army" indicate a pattern of travel that took Olson between various British military airfields, France, Occupied Germany, Scandanavia and the United States between May 1950 and August 1953. Prosecuting attorney Saracco believes that something happened on one of these trips that holds the key to Olson's death. Since the matter is still before a grand jury Saracco cannot talk about it but Gordon Thomas has his own idea of what it was. "The CIA was using German SS prisoners and Norwegian Quislings [collaborators] taken from jails and detention centres as guinea pigs to test Cameron's theories about mind control. The Agency preferred to conduct such clinical trials outside the United States because sometimes they were terminal — the human guinea pig ended up dead. Olson was accustomed to seeing lethal experiments done on animals but when human beings were used in this way it was too much for him. I believe that he wanted out."

Mike Miniccino, an American businessman and historical researcher who has spent 25 years studying the MK-ULTRA programme and developing a database on its activities says that if Olson expressed doubts about MK-ULTRA and its work then he would have done so to William Sargant, the Harley Street psychiatrist, who had evaluated MK-ULTRA's work and who had been a close colleague of Olson's.

And although — as we already know — Sargant wanted the British government to distance itself from the CIA's work with MK-ULTRA, Miniccino says he nevertheless was committed to the principle of mind control and became the link between the British Secret Intelligence Service and MK-ULTRA. Miniccino adds, "So if Frank Olson expressed serious doubts about the MK-ULTRA project to Sargant, then he signed his own death warrant."

What Miniccino is implying and what public prosecutor Saracco wants to prove is that the MK-ULTRA mind control project — with its clinical trials on unsuspecting human beings — was such a sensitive issue with the western intelligence community that it would go to any lengths to prevent an insider like Olson, from blowing the whistle.

Is this, then, what happened? Did Olson tell the British psychiatrist/SIS agent Sargant that he wanted out of the mind-control project, and that his conscience might compel him to reveal publicly what the intelligence services had been doing? Did Sargant then pass this on to SIS, who in turn told the CIA? Was a decision then taken to make certain that Olson never talked by destroying his memory with drugs and, when this failed, by murdering him and making it look like a suicide?

Apart from the evidence set out earlier, there is another compelling fact that supports this theory. Until Mrs Olson died in 1993, a regular visitor at her house was Olson's former boss in Special Operations, Vincent Ruwet. Ruwet would spend long daytime hours with Mrs Olson. The two would drink together at her house (Mrs. Olson became an alcoholic) while Ruwet listened to the problems she faced in bringing up her three fatherless children. Everyone considered him to be a sympathetic family friend. But newly-discovered documents reveal that Vincent Ruwet had been assigned by the CIA to "keep track of the wife." If Olson was a threat because of what he knew, and knowledge can be passed on, then the CIA would have to spy on all those who had been close to him in case he had told them the truth about MK-ULTRA. The CIA has always maintained as a matter of historical record that it has never murdered an American citizen on American soil. If, as a result of Eric Olson's persistence in trying to uncover what really happened to his father, and the investigating skills of public prosecutor Saracco, this turns out to be a lie, it could well be the beginning of the end of the Agency.

Eric Olson says, "The Cold War is over and there are now ongoing national debates about the future of the CIA and about unethical medical testing on humans. My father's case covers both. The use of hallucinogens, hypnosis, electroshock and other procedures in an attempt to control the way people behave was the CIA's equivalent of the Manhattan [atom bomb] Project. MK-ULTRA was secret, shocking and incredibly dangerous. They couldn't afford to take the risk of letting my father continue to be involved or, considering all he knew, allowing him to quit. So he was terminated instead. My father's murder crossed a line in the sand which the U.S. government has always publicly respected. The guilty ones will not be allowed to get away with it." Or as Fox Mulder would say, "The truth is out there."

© 1998 Kevin Dowling and Phillip Knightley

Published in Night and Day magazine, the Sunday supplement to The London Mail on August 23, 1998.

Reprinted June 12, 1999 in Dagens Nyheter (Sweden).

Copied from http://www.frankolsonproject.org/Articles/LondonMail.html

The Frank Olson Legacy Project: How to Help

http://www.serendipity.li/cia/olsen1.htm

Jan Klimkowski
04-29-2009, 06:55 PM
Panama is a luverly place to mix up some potions:


US Army Tropic Test Site
As providers of equipment for use around the globe, it is frequently necessary for military materiel developers to meet the challenges posed by the world’s harsh climatic extremes. To ensure that humid tropic challenges are met, Army systems began to be tested systematically in the Panama Canal Zone in 1962, with the establishment of the Tropic Test Center (TTC) under the U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command. However, TTC history goes back much farther.

Several "crash" testing programs were instituted in Panama during World War II to ensure that military equipment deployed to tropical locations remained effective. Many years after the war, in 1962, the surviving activities were consolidated into one agency – the Tropic Test Center. Numbering well over 300 people during the Vietnam War days of the 1960’s, the organization has since been downsized and placed under the management of U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground.

The Tropic Test Center mission is to plan and conduct tropic environmental development tests on a wide variety of military systems, materials, weapons, and equipment of all conceivable types, sizes, configurations, and uses. The center’s laboratory facilities provide detailed information on tropic-induced failures and other environmental effects. All testing in Panama is conducted to the same stringent environmental protection standards as similar activities in the United States.

http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/facility/fort-clayton.htm

It all started with some covert Nazi business in the jungle:


The 5th Infantry left after WWI and returned to stay in Camp Paraiso from 1939 to 1943. The 2nd FA is the only other major US Army unit to be stationed at Clayton in those Pre WWII years. But we can claim the 33rd as our Canal Zone Reg. since it was born in the Zone.

The 33rd Infantry stayed in Clayton until December 7,1941 when virtually within hours they shipped out to Trinidad to set up the protection for the newly acquired Lend Lease Bases in Trinidad.

With German occupation of Holland the Dutch Queen had fled to Dutch Guiana and soon units of the 33rd Inf. came over to render protection for the queen and to thwart any attempt by Germany to move in more than was already happening. For secret Nazi bases had been set up in the jungles to supply U-Boats that would come up the river for provisions.

The troops of the 33rd Inf. battled hostile indians, the German camps and waylaid the U-Boats in ambush on the river. They were also there to insure the safe passage out of Bauxite ore which was so vital to our aircraft industry. These activities were kept a secret during the war and the 33rd Inf. returned home to Ft. Clayton in Feb.1946.

When the 33rd Inf. departed for war in 1941 they had at 25 years the longest record of continuous CZ service for any unit of the U.S. Army and were rightly considered the premier jungle trained unit in the Army. They were truly Zonians for no other unit like that had been born on the Zone.


http://www.czimages.com/CZMemories/Fort_Clayton/FC_index.htm


More than 130 tests were conducted on San Jose Island between May 1944 and the end of 1947.36 Many of the tests were "drop tests" involving aircraft that dropped chemical munitions into target areas. Others required troops to fire chemical mortars into the test areas, and still others involved more controlled use of munitions. In a very few cases, project reports indicate the use of chemical simulants, but in most live agent was employed.

The project divided the island into eleven areas, six of which were laid in grids for target areas. The three largest target areas, made up of overlapping squares, were about one square mile each in size. The chemical agents tested (and their military codes) included: mustard gas and distilled mustard (H, HD), phosgene (CG), cyanogen chloride (CK), hydrogen cyanide (AC), and Butane.37 One participant remembers that Lewisite was also tested.38

From available documents, the number of munitions tested are known for 18 of the 130 tests conducted on San Jose Island. Some 4,397 chemical munitions were fired in these 18 tests, for an average of 244 munitions fired in each test. Most of the munitions fired - 3,816 - were 4.2" mortars charged with Cyanogen Chloride, mustard, or phosgene, but the chemical munitions also included bombs from 100 pounds to 1,000 pounds in weight and 105mm Howitzer shells.

The San Jose Project also tested chemical munitions on the sea off of Panama in order to determine whether chemical warfare could be effective against enemy ships.39 In addition, according to a military map drawn up in 1946, tests included chemical spray on Iguana Island, which was also used as a conventional bombing range.40

A later military summary stated that "no nerve agents were tested" in San Jose.41 One participant in the project, however, tentatively asserted that nerve agent was tested there. Eugene Reid, a professional chemist by training, was drafted into the Chemical Warfare Service and served in Florida, Dugway Proving Ground and Edgewood Arsenal, as well as on San Jose. "Besides mustard, they were also testing newer things. Nerve gases, that was the hot thing then," Reid said in 1997. When subsequently asked for confirmation, he was less certain whether nerve agents were tested on San Jose. "I suspect very much that they were, but I can't say for sure they were used," he said.42

While neither the United States nor Great Britain had developed nerve agents of its own by 1945, the Allies had captured significant quantities of nerve agent from the Nazis as Germany receded before advancing Allied troops in the Spring of 1945, which is when Reid arrived in San Jose. The British felt that some of the stocks of captured German nerve agent should be "retained for possible use in the Far East" should the Allies invade Japan, an eventuality for which the San Jose Project was preparing.43

[...................................]

One of the San Jose tests, carried out between August 9 and August 15, 1944, sought "to determine if any difference existed in the sensitivity of Puerto Rican and Continental U.S. Troops to H gas [mustard]." A preliminary test involved ten Puerto Rican troops and ten "continental" (i.e., Anglo-Saxon) troops, which was followed by a fuller test involving 45 Puerto Rican soldiers and 44 "continental" soldiers. The men, who were "unfamiliar with the use of chemical agents," were "given a stiff course in gas discipline and the significance of H [mustard] lesions to casualty production." The tests involved applying liquid mustard to the under-surface of the forearms of each subject, then observed for three days. A summary of the test produced by Defense Secretary William Cohen in April 1998 implied that some men were hospitalized after they "sustain[ed] severe body burns or eye lesions." Men with less severe burns were simply returned to their barracks and expected to meet company formations.

http://www.forusa.org/programs/panama/archives/chem-report/part9.htm

During World War II, the military developed an increased interest in biological warfare, both defensive and offensive. The first action of the War Research Service, which was established in 1942 to investigate a variety of unconventional weapons, was to set up antibiological warfare programs in the United States and abroad -- including the Canal Zone and Puerto Rico -- under the auspices of the Surgeon General's office. These programs instructed medical and military officers in defensive measures against biological weapons.99 (This and all subsequent endnotes can be found here.)

In late 1947, the British Navy proposed to use U.S. facilities on San Jose Island to support biological warfare trials at sea, beginning in October 1948. Under the plan, the United States would provide 20 technicians, care for animals used in the experiments, and "shore base facilities" for recreation and ship maintenance. The military's Joint Strategic Plans Committee favored the experiments because they would "facilitate the obtaining of essential basic research data in the BW [biological warfare] field." But with the evacuation of San Jose Island in January 1948, the plan for using that island was scuttled. The experiments may have been carried out instead on Parham Sound in Antigua, which was considered as an alternate site.100

Since plans for the military use of biological agents focused on their transmission through aerial spray techniques, studies of aerosol spray patterns in Panama may have been designed to explore how biological agents could be used there. Dugway Proving Ground's technical library lists a number of such studies.101 However, chemical sprays and smoke devices also rely on aerial and meteorological data.

The National Institutes of Health's Middle America Research Unit (MARU) actively used biological agents in Panama. MARU was established in the 1950s, and worked closely with the Gorgas Memorial Laboratory. Located in a building in Ancon Heights, MARU "handled some of the deadliest and most infectious diseases known to medicine at the time," according to Carl J. Peters, a scientist who worked there in the 1960s. Peters emphasized the measures taken to contain the agents that the MARU technicians were working on, but noted that one lab technician accidentally contracted Bolivian hemorrhagic fever at the lab and died within a few days.

One disease in particular that MARU worked with was Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE), a naturally-occurring virus which incapacitates but generally does not kill its human victims. Instead, VEE begins abruptly with high fever, chills and aches and an intense aversion to light, then typically is gone within a week or two. In Central America in the 1960s, VEE attacked horses and mules, leaving many dead, and MARU sought to stem the disease's migration toward the United States through development of a vaccine. But Peters writes:


Nobler designs aside, however, the U.S. government had other reasons to be interested in VEE. The symptoms in humans are so incapacitating that VEE had been seen as a potential biological weapon. The army wanted to develop different categories of biological warfare agents: incapacitators as well as killers. With a relatively short incubation period of two to three days, VEE could be an ideal incapacitator: neutralizing an enemy population right before a battle without risk of killing innocent civilians or committing wartime atrocities. With that as a plan, the army had developed a vaccine to protect our troops in case an enemy tried to use it on them, or presumably in case the wind blew the wrong way the day they tried to use it on someone else.102

The army authorized MARU to test a live-attenuated vaccine on horses in the field, and Peters describes such tests on Costa Rica's Pacific coast. The Gorgas Memorial Laboratory also studied VEE among humans in Almirante from 1960 to 1962 and in Darién and the urban communities of Patoistown and Zegla in 1968, as well as in laboratory animals during the same periods. The studies included testing live vaccines of VEE on animal subjects.103

Exercises to test the military usefulness of VEE were carried out in Vietnam in the 1960s and on deserted islands in the Pacific, according to one account, but were put aside because allied troops could not be protected.104

VEE has persisted for long periods in Panama. Troops training at Fort Sherman in 1981 contracted it, an exposure that was linked to VEE in 1970, when the military was actively experimenting with VEE. The Walter Reed Army Institute of Research reported:


An outbreak of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE) occurred in a unit of military personnel who had gone to Panama for jungle training in 1981. Exposure was linked to training in October in an area of Fort Sherman that was previously implicated over ten years ago. An intensive serological survey identified five cases presenting with fever, chills and headaches. VEE remains a threat to U.S. forces deployed to specific areas of Central America.105

In addition, 1977 news accounts cited intelligence sources who claimed that in 1971 U.S. intelligence agents brought Swine flu from Fort Gulick (Espinar) in Panama to Cuba, where the flu apparently contaminated a large number of pigs. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization called the epidemic of swine flu that hit Cuba in 1971 the "most alarming event" of that year. According to the accounts, an intelligence agent was given a sealed unmarked container and instructed to deliver it to an anti-Castro group in Panama. Cuban exiles interviewed for the report said they received the container off Bocas del Toro in Panama and brought it to contacts to the small island of Navassa, whence it was shipped to Cuba in late March 1971. The first Cuban pigs contracted the flu on about May 6.106 Cuban authorities slaughtered half a million pigs in order to contain the epidemic.107

Apart from the above information, however, we have not located documentation of current contamination by military biological agents in Panama. We also have not found documents indicating the testing or use of Agent Orange or other defoliants in Panama, though we do not discount the possibility that defoliants may have been tested there.

In November 1969, President Nixon issued an executive order renouncing the use of all biological warfare agents, effectively ending any lawful development of the agents. The declaration led to the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention, which outlawed efforts to "develop, produce, stockpile, or otherwise acquire or retain" any biological weapons. The United States became one of the first parties to the convention. The U.S. military subsequently converted stockpiled biological agents into harmless fertilizer.


http://www.forusa.org/programs/panama/archives/chem-report/part4.htm

Jan Klimkowski
04-29-2009, 08:55 PM
I've decided to highlight the following comments from my post above:


In addition, 1977 news accounts cited intelligence sources who claimed that in 1971 U.S. intelligence agents brought Swine flu from Fort Gulick (Espinar) in Panama to Cuba, where the flu apparently contaminated a large number of pigs. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization called the epidemic of swine flu that hit Cuba in 1971 the "most alarming event" of that year. According to the accounts, an intelligence agent was given a sealed unmarked container and instructed to deliver it to an anti-Castro group in Panama. Cuban exiles interviewed for the report said they received the container off Bocas del Toro in Panama and brought it to contacts to the small island of Navassa, whence it was shipped to Cuba in late March 1971. The first Cuban pigs contracted the flu on about May 6.106 Cuban authorities slaughtered half a million pigs in order to contain the epidemic.107


107 Alexander Cockburn, "From Pearls...", The Nation, March 9, 1998, p. 9.

Move along. Nothing to see here...

:sleep:

David Guyatt
04-30-2009, 10:00 AM
I've decided to highlight the following comments from my post above:


In addition, 1977 news accounts cited intelligence sources who claimed that in 1971 U.S. intelligence agents brought Swine flu from Fort Gulick (Espinar) in Panama to Cuba, where the flu apparently contaminated a large number of pigs. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization called the epidemic of swine flu that hit Cuba in 1971 the "most alarming event" of that year. According to the accounts, an intelligence agent was given a sealed unmarked container and instructed to deliver it to an anti-Castro group in Panama. Cuban exiles interviewed for the report said they received the container off Bocas del Toro in Panama and brought it to contacts to the small island of Navassa, whence it was shipped to Cuba in late March 1971. The first Cuban pigs contracted the flu on about May 6.106 Cuban authorities slaughtered half a million pigs in order to contain the epidemic.107


107 Alexander Cockburn, "From Pearls...", The Nation, March 9, 1998, p. 9.

Move along. Nothing to see here...

:sleep:

Fascinating stuff Jan.

Maybe you should link this thread to the thread on the present apparently global "outbreak" of Swine flu?

Magda Hassan
04-30-2009, 10:27 AM
There's a very good German documentary on the murder of Dr Frank Olson by by American intelligence starting at the url below (it's in five parts, and the other parts can be easily found from this Part One link):

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8MlFajrqKDc

We have the German documentary in our You Tube channel. Eric Olsen also gave me the contact details of the producers for any one who wants to obtain a high quality version of the documentary of his father.

Jan Klimkowski
04-30-2009, 07:01 PM
There's a very good German documentary on the murder of Dr Frank Olson by by American intelligence starting at the url below (it's in five parts, and the other parts can be easily found from this Part One link):

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8MlFajrqKDc

We have the German documentary in our You Tube channel. Eric Olsen also gave me the contact details of the producers for any one who wants to obtain a high quality version of the documentary of his father.


Magda - sorry! :o

Ed Jewett
06-13-2009, 07:13 AM
It took me quite a while to work my way back to this thread ... I had significant computer problems and had to delay my membership ... and I quite agree that this whole mess can be as replete with misinfo and disinfo as any other ... my apologies if my 'crap detector' was low on batteries at any given moment.

The subject is of interest to me given my background and experience in emergency medical services, tabletop war games, mass casualty incident management and planning, emergency management and its exercises, and related simulation gaming applications.

I wrote two proposals, numerous articles and one white paper in the field. One of the proposals resulted in the development of "Incident Commander" by BreakAway Games. I was also the SME for the design of a "virtual exercise distributed to desktop", designed to help civilians manage the breakout of 'bird flu' in Georgia (USA) funded by DARPA with input from the USDA -- project killed).

The 57-page white paper "Coalescing Effective Community Disaster Response: Simulations and Virtual Communities of Practice" was posted in full for the month of March 2006 at the International Associaton of Emergency Managers website.

The white paper was written immediately post-Katrina after a long-term provocative telephone conversation with a physician who informed me of the importance of a 'cytokine storm' in the outbreak of a human flu pandemic, what it was, how it is treated, why it is so deadly, who it will kill, et alia. When asked -- in a public forum for people in the field about how to prepare for such an outbreak -- about the syndrome and why pharmaceutical firms weren't being asked to develop a potent drug to counteract the massive fluid overload of the lungs in such a 'storm', a leading public health official, a physician, said he'd never heard of the syndrome, and couldn't answer my question(s). So, should you see reports of young healthy people dying in large quantities in ICU's [I]down under[/FONT] now, Magda?], then you know you have a pandemic on your hands.

Anyway:

This, yesterday, via the LA Times (direct source) and Citizens for Legitimate Government (indirect source):

"Kathleen Sebelius, the new secretary of Health and Human Services, said May 22 that the department would devote nearly $1 billion toward vaccine development and manufacturing. The department has already placed orders with five manufacturers for $650 million worth of antigen and $287 million worth of adjuvant, Schuchat said.

The Department of Defense has also awarded development money and contracts for vaccine."

Magda Hassan
06-13-2009, 10:44 AM
The white paper was written immediately post-Katrina after a long-term provocative telephone conversation with a physician who informed me of the importance of a 'cytokine storm' in the outbreak of a human flu pandemic, what it was, how it is treated, why it is so deadly, who it will kill, et alia. When asked -- in a public forum for people in the field about how to prepare for such an outbreak -- about the syndrome and why pharmaceutical firms weren't being asked to develop a potent drug to counteract the massive fluid overload of the lungs in such a 'storm', a leading public health official, a physician, said he'd never heard of the syndrome, and couldn't answer my question(s). So, should you see reports of young healthy people dying in large quantities in ICU's [I]down under[/FONT] now, Magda?], then you know you have a pandemic on your hands.

Not so far Ed. There are about 1,200 cases in Melbourne Victoria and the rest of the country has just a few in other states but not too many. Footballers being the main form of transmission here at the moment apparently . No deaths, few hospitalizations and mostly just quarantine. A few schools closed. The government here seems keen to down play the seriousness of it saying things along the line of it just the numbers infected not a sign of the intensity of the virus. People are being asked not to visit Melbourne if they can avoid it and when they return are to stay home for a week to see if there are any symptoms. Strangely, they are letting in 15,000 US service personnel for war games though even if that is an excellent form of vector distribution as we saw in the 1918 outbreak. The show must go on I suppose as there is money and prestige at stake and we all know that is more important than peoples health and well being. Chile, on the other hand, has about the same amount of infections but has 3 deaths and much more hospitalizations. This could be from the generally poorer living conditions there, US style medical establishment, and the usually appalling air pollution at the best of times. Or it could be that Latinos are more affected by this strain. :bandit:I'd be interested to know the ethnic backgrounds of those 28 who have died in the US and the 4 in Canada.

David Guyatt
06-17-2009, 08:39 AM
My Sis sent me the following link which if true - and if someone has the time it wold be worth investigating if it is true (cynicism tells me to be cautious) this story really rock and rolls:

http://birdflu666.wordpress.com/2009/04/13/case-about-bird-flu/


Charges filed with the 1st part translated into English
By birdflu666


Overview


CRIMINAL CHARGES AGAINST

BAXTER AG,

BAXTER INTERNATIONAL AND

AVIR GREEN HILL BIOTECHNOLOGY AG,

FOR DEVELOPING, MANUFACTURING, DISSEMINATING, AND RELEASING A BIOLOGICAL WEAPON OF MASS DESTRUCTION

ON AUSTRIAN SOIL BETWEEN DECEMBER 2008 AND FEBRUARY 2009

Read more at the above link...

Magda Hassan
06-17-2009, 09:52 AM
It's true David. I posted it on the DPF a while ago.
http://www.deeppoliticsforum.com/forums/showthread.php?t=940&highlight=baxter
I am glad they are being prosecuted. Probably get a slap over the wrists though as is usual for this type of crime.

David Guyatt
06-17-2009, 11:00 AM
Thanks Magda. Must have missed your post in one of my peregrinations to other parts of these Islands.

Mexican Swine flu anyone?

Brian Anderson
06-18-2009, 11:01 PM
This is a chilling and sobering thread. Recently Dr. Donald Scott published his twelve year study entitled Aids: The Crime Beyond Belief. His thesis is that the co-factors that go to make up AIDS are a mycoplasma and the visna retrovirus. This deadly cocktail was engineered in US biowarfare labs and then vectored in small pox vaccines in
Africa and hepatitis vaccines among the gay communities of New York, San Francisco and Los Angeles. The CIA's MK(Monkey Kidneys)Ultra was the umbrella for numerous subprojects up until LBJ and at that time it was moved into the "respectable" Cancer research programs.

David Guyatt
06-19-2009, 06:09 AM
This is a chilling and sobering thread. Recently Dr. Donald Scott published his twelve year study entitled Aids: The Crime Beyond Belief. His thesis is that the co-factors that go to make up AIDS are a mycoplasma and the visna retrovirus. This deadly cocktail was engineered in US biowarfare labs and then vectored in small pox vaccines in
Africa and hepatitis vaccines among the gay communities of New York, San Francisco and Los Angeles. The CIA's MK(Monkey Kidneys)Ultra was the umbrella for numerous subprojects up until LBJ and at that time it was moved into the "respectable" Cancer research programs.

In respect to this Tim Sebastian's novel "Ultra" is well worth reading.

Ed Jewett
06-20-2009, 03:32 AM
From simuvac's blog at 911blogger:

http://www.military.com/news/article/army-lab-finds-9200-uncounted-vials.html?ESRC=eb.nl (http://www.911blogger.com/freelinking/Army%2520Lab%2520Finds%25209%252C200%2520Uncounted %2520Vials)
June 18, 2009
Associated Press


HAGERSTOWN, Md. - An inventory of deadly germs and toxins at an Army biodefense lab in Frederick found more than 9,200 vials of material that was unaccounted for in laboratory records, Fort Detrick officials said Wednesday.


The 13 percent overage mainly reflects stocks left behind in freezers by researchers who retired or left Fort Detrick since the biological warfare defense program was established there in 1943, said Col. Mark Kortepeter, deputy commander of the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases.


He said the found material included Korean War-era serum samples from patients with Korean hemorrhagic fever, a disease still of interest to researchers pursuing a vaccine. Other vials contained viruses and microbes responsible for Ebola, plague, anthrax, botulism and host of other ailments, Kortepeter said in a teleconference with reporters.


[There is more, but the host server is down.]

***

Citizens for Legitimate Government previously reported:


9,200 uncounted vials found at Army biodefense lab (http://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5hhFqMtXh4EkNNwL76wOXweOjVihAD98SLV100) 18 Jun 2009 An inventory of deadly germs and toxins at an Army biodefense lab in Frederick found more than 9,200 vials of material that was unaccounted for in laboratory records, Fort Detrick officials said Wednesday. The 13 percent overage mainly reflects stocks left behind in freezers by researchers who retired or left Fort Detrick since the biological warfare 'defense' program was established there in 1943, said Col. Mark Kortepeter, deputy commander of the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases.



http://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5hhFqMtXh4EkNNwL76wOXweOjVihAD98SLV100



9,200 potentially deadly Fort Detrick pathogens possibly missing (http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/06/17/AR2009061703271.html) --FBI investigators concluded that Fort Detrick probably was the source of the anthrax spores used in the deadly mailings of 2001. --Ebola virus, anthrax bacteria, botulinum toxin, hemorrhagic fever and others 'not accounted for' 18 Jun 2009 An inventory of potentially deadly pathogens at Fort Detrick's infectious disease laboratory found more than 9,000 vials that had not been accounted for, Army officials said yesterday, raising concerns that officials wouldn't know whether dangerous toxins were missing. After four months of searching about 335 freezers and refrigerators at the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases in Frederick, investigators found 9,220 samples that hadn't been included in a database of about 66,000 items listed as of February, said Col. Mark Kortepeter, the institute's deputy commander.

http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/06/17/AR2009061703271.html


[Is transparency is suddenly the new buzzword down in the Beltway?]

Ed Jewett
06-20-2009, 04:17 AM
From http://whatreallyhappened.com/ :


FDA Threatens to Seize All Natural Products that Dare to Mention H1N1 Swine Flu (http://www.naturalnews.com/026473_the_FDA_H1N1_natural_products.html)

In an effort to censor any online text that might inform consumers of the ability of natural products to protect consumers from H1N1 influenza A, the FDA is now sending out a round of warning letters, threatening to "take enforcement action... such as seizure or injunction for violations of the FFDC Act without further notice."


"Firms that fail to take correction action," the FDA warns, "may also be referred to the FDA's Office of Criminal Investigations for possible criminal prosecution for violations of the FFDC Act and other federal laws."


http://www.naturalnews.com/026473_the_FDA_H1N1_natural_products.html

Jan Klimkowski
06-20-2009, 12:03 PM
You vill open your mouth wide open and swallow OUR medicine.

Your medicine is VERBOTEN.

How long before Blackwater/Xe aka Manchurian Global start enforcement work for the FDA's Office of Criminal Investigations?

On a costs-plus contract and with complete legal immunity from prosecution for their own criminal acts....

Ed Jewett
06-23-2009, 10:44 PM
Posted without comment for your review prn

A 3-page pdf

H1N1-H5N1 Flu Outbreak Implicates Anglo-American
“Vaccine Pipeline” Says Expert Dr. Leonard Horowitz

http://www.oxysilver.com/mexican_flu_2009-special_report_by_dr._leonard_horowitz.pdf

***


"Swine Flu May Be Human Error; WHO Investigates Claim (Update1)

By Jason Gale and Simeon Bennett May 13 (Bloomberg) -- The World Health Organization is investigating a claim by an Australian researcher that the swine flu virus circling the globe may have been created as a result of human error.


Adrian Gibbs (http://search.bloomberg.com/search?q=Adrian+Gibbs&site=wnews&client=wnews&proxystylesheet=wnews&output=xml_no_dtd&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&filter=p&getfields=wnnis&sort=date:D:S:d1), 75, who collaborated on research that led to the development of Roche Holding AG’s Tamiflu drug, said in an interview that he intends to publish a report suggesting the new strain may have accidentally evolved in eggs scientists use to grow viruses and drugmakers use to make vaccines. Gibbs said he came to his conclusion as part of an effort to trace the virus’s origins by analyzing its genetic blueprint.

“One of the simplest explanations is that it’s a laboratory escape,” Gibbs said in an interview with Bloomberg Television today. “But there are lots of others.”

more here:


http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601087&sid=afrdATVXPEAk

David Guyatt
06-24-2009, 10:16 AM
Killing innocents via disease for profit is no different from exporting war for profit, or creating terrible famine as a by-product of exploitation of a nation state.

It shouldn't surprise us that this happens in the pharmaceutical/medical industry anymore than the arms industry. But it does. These guys proclaim to be in business to benefit mankind, not exploit it.

Que sera, sera eh.

Anyway, I'm posting the Horowitz press release (linked by Ed in his above post) in full below.


Tetrahedron Publishing Group
Health Science Communications for People Around the World
217 Cedar St., Suite #326
Sandpoint, ID 83864
208-265-8065
http://www.tetrahedron.org
NEWS RELEASE
Release: No. H1N1-15=6
Date Mailed: April 25, 2009
For Immediate Release
Contact: Jackie Lindenbach—208/265-8065; 800/336-9266
H1N1-H5N1 Flu Outbreak Implicates Anglo-American
“Vaccine Pipeline” Says Expert Dr. Leonard Horowitz
Los Angeles, CA— Skyrocketing stock values of Novavax, Inc.,1 precipitated by dozens of flu deaths in Mex-
ico, implicates a leading Anglo-American network of genetic engineers in a conspiracy to commit genocide,
according to a Harvard trained expert in emerging diseases, Dr. Leonard Horowitz.
Dr. James S. Robertson, England’s leading bioengineer of flu viruses for the vaccine industry, and avid promoter
of U.S. Government funding for lucrative “biodefense” contracts, along with collaborators at the US Centers for
Disease Control & Prevention (CDC), helped Novavax, Inc., in Bethesda, Maryland, produce genetically-modi-
fied recombinants of the avian, swine, and Spanish flu viruses, H5N1 and H1N1, nearly identical to the unprec-
edented Mexican virus that has now spread to the United States. The outbreak was precisely timed to promote
the company’s new research and huge vaccine stockpiling contracts, according to Dr. Horowitz.2
Scientists at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) are implicated through collaborations and publica-
tions involving private contracts with Novavax, a company that obtains its “biosimulars” through CDC Influ-
enza Branch director, Ruben O. Donis, and Dr. Rick Bright, previously working with Donis at the CDC, now
Novavax’s Vice President of Global Influenza Programs.
Evidence for the conspiracy to commit deadly duplicity in the vaccine industry includes the genetic markers on
the novel flu virus now spreading from Mexico to America. The virus is “genetically different from the fully
human H1N1 seasonal influenza virus that has been circulating globally for the past few years,” according to
Reuters and government officials. “The new flu virus contains DNA typical to avian, swine and human viruses,
including elements from European and Asian swine viruses.”3
“That is a description that is pathognomonic, or diagnostic, of a virus that came from Robertson’s circle of
friends,” Dr. Horowitz claims. “No other group in the world takes H5N1 Asian flu infected chickens, brings
them to Europe, extracts their DNA, combines their proteins with H1N1 viruses from the 1918 Spanish flu iso-
late, additionally mixes in swine flu genes from pigs, then ‘reverse engineers’ them to infect humans. The end
product that Reuter’s describes could only end up in Mexico via the United States from Britain in care of the
CDC. Ruben Donis at the CDC had to have sent them to Novavax, where Rick Bright’s team is now implicated
in a conspiracy to commit genocide—the mass killing of people for profit.”
Novavax’s preliminary report in the Journal of Virology, with co-authors from the CDC in Atlanta, was posted
online at the precise time Mexican officials began reporting deaths from this new strain of flu that is clearly an
unprecedented recombinant of at least three H5N1 and H1N1 strains. Novavax’s Johnny-on-the-spot vaccine
was prepared under the CDC’s “fast track” approval process speciously using these three strains never known to
infect any human in Mexico.
Therefore, the statistical probability this virus came from this company of “experts” is extremely high. Alter-
natively, anticipated arguments the virus arrived in Mexico by serendipity, at this precise time in Novavax’s
history, is ridiculously remote.
“These doctor’s conflicting corporate, scientific, and financial interests evidence criminal malfeasance,” said Dr.
Leonard Horowitz, an internationally known humanitarian, award winning consumer health activist, and author
of sixteen books including, Emerging Viruses: AIDS & Ebola—Nature, Accident or Intentional? (1998, Tetra-
hedron.org; 1-888-508-4787), His book, and associated scientific publications, have been cited by numerous
authorities as providing compelling evidence the AIDS virus came from a lab.
“The most chilling evidence against the Robertson-Novavax (RN) vaccine pipeline, besides Robertson being
the “gatekeeper” for multi-billion dollar vaccine stockpiling deals, is Robertson’s influence over the European
Medicines Agency (EMEA)—a quasi-corporate quasi-scientific think tank serving the European [Economic]
Union and drug industry’s special interests,” Dr. Horowitz said.
Dr. Robertson is the Principal Scientist in the Division of Virology at the National Institute for Biological
Standards and Control (NIBSC), akin to the USFDA in the UK. During a meeting in April, 2006, discussing
the standardization of influenza vaccines on behalf of the World Health Organization (WHO), it was disclosed,
“the NIBSC is involved in the serological testing of vaccine trials; the preparation and distribution of influenza
viruses to vaccine manufacturers; and the coordination of EU strain selection[s].” Participants disclosed the
EMEA persuades vaccine makers to bank on pandemics, and “invest in pandemic vaccines with the introduction
of mock up files,” which is their unassuming way of describing new laboratory engineered influenza viruses
also referred to as “biosimilars.” 4
The EMEA waves regulatory fees as an additional incentive to attract more business for allegedly “biodefense.”4
Dr. Robertson, the holder of intellectual property (IP) rights to the genetic technology used to produce the H5N1
and H1N1 “mock up files” used to develop Novavax’s vaccine, waived his ownership of the technology dur-
ing the company’s research phase with a guaranteed payoff “when the vaccine is commercialized.” Robertson’s
“Material Trade Agreement” (MTA), covering the transfer of these “biosimilars” to Novavax, is expected to
return millions of dollars when the vaccine is sold to governments worldwide. 4
Novavax’s commercialization and promotions of their vaccine is largely based on media hype fanning fears and
markets for their avian flu, Spanish flu, and swine flu concoctions. Never before this outbreak has such a virus,
combining the three most feared flu strains, been identified.
Mexico’s killer, therefore, evidences a laboratory creation sourcing from either Novavax’s lab directly, or their
partners at the CDC and NIBSC who maintain multi-million-dollar incentives. The company’s synchronously
timed professional publications, mass media releases, product representations and commercialization, evidence
financial motives to commit duplicity and mass murder.
Days ago, officials at the CDC expressed serious concerns about this novel flu strain causing a deadly pandem-
ic, not disclosing their obvious knowledge that the outbreak must have sourced from the materials used in their
cooperative studies with Novavax.5
2
“These doctor’s conflicting corporate, scientific, and financial interests evidence criminal malfeasance. Killing
dozens of people for publicity and duplicity in public health; to increase marketability of their new vaccine,
is best described as serial homicide to advance genocide—the mass killing of people for profit,” Dr. Leonard
Horowitz explained.
The most chilling evidence against Dr. Robertson’s EU research team, besides him being the gatekeeper and
chief promoter for multi-billion dollar flu vaccine stockpiling deals, and besides his collaborators being caught
red handed here by hard science and common sense, is his stated position that he believes it is wise to “prime”
populations worldwide by releasing viruses he and his colleagues are creating. This warning comes from a April
27, 2006, scientific discourse in which Dr. Robertson, and members of his WHO working group, recommended
his “biosimilars” be “used to prime the population in advance of the pandemic reaching the UK.”
In other words, the doctors that hold infectious disease responsibility for the world have already decided to
loose their viruses on unwitting populations in advance of threatened outbreaks.
-End-
Note to Journalists: For interviews with Dr. James Robertson, the NIBSC lists his contact as: NIBSC, Blanche
Lane, South Mimms Potters Bar, Herts EN6 3QG; Tel: +44 1707 641304; Fax: +44 1707 641050. Dr. Horowitz
can be reached for interviews in southern California, at 949-715-2337. Ruben O. Donis;s contact information at
the Influenza Branch, DVRD, NCID, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, is: Mailstop G16, 1600 Clif-
ton Rd, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA; fax: 404-639-2334; email: rdonis@ cdc.gov. Dr. Rick Bright can be reached
through Novavax.
REFERENCES:
(1) http://uk.reuters.com/article/governmentFilingsNews/idUKN2445216420090424
(2) http://ukpmc.ac.uk/articlerender.cgi?artid=1242433
(3) Reuters news release. FACTBOX-New flu strain is a genetic mix. April, 24, 2009. http://www.alertnet.org/
thenews/newsdesk/N23371192.htm
(4) (http://74.125.95.132/search?q=cache:SPJ1B5-EK3sJ:royalsociety.org/downloaddoc.asp%3Fid%3D3521+S
ummary+of+Oral+Evidence+Dr.+John+Wood&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us&client=firefox-a)
(5) “CDC Press Briefing Transcripts April 24, 2009”. Cdc.gov. 2009-04-24. http://www.cdc.gov/media/tran-
scripts/2009/t090424.htm. Retrieved on 2009-04-25.
(6) Note: The long term risks of governments purchasing, and people accepting, vaccines for the flu are un-
studied. Yet, the industry and corporate-controlled governments declare war on biology and discourage “green”
alternatives to vaccinations, such as the most advanced silver hydrosols (e.g., Oxysilver) in which nano-size
anti-microbial silver is bonded to the oxygen in Water (See: http://www.Oxysilver.com). There would be no
need for polluting people’s bodies, and the environment, with heavy metals such as mercury and aluminum,
or suffering side effects from antibiotics, if public health officials promoted the new powerfully protective and
curative silver hydrosols.

Jan Klimkowski
06-24-2009, 05:21 PM
David - thanks for posting that.

Leonard Horowitz is always interesting.

What is beyond doubt is that the revolving door between key vaccine/virus researchers, big pharma and regulatory authorities is a complete disgrace, and an open invitation to fraud and malfeasance.

At the scientific level, there is clearly something very strange about this so-called "swine flu" pandemic. Many of its elements suggest that, on a balance of probabilities, the "swine flu" is more likely to have been created in a laboratory than by Mother Nature.

We need a Garth Nicolson to examine the molecular minutiae and, if appropriate, blow the whistle.

Ideally before the logical implications of NSSM 200 play out....

Ed Jewett
06-24-2009, 07:36 PM
I know personally of a newly-minted doctor in genetics who has asserted privately that the little beastie could not have come from anywhere other than a lab run by two-legged white-coated types. If I get a chance...

Meanwhile:

From AP/Forbes
( http://www.forbes.com/feeds/ap/2009/06/22/ap6569873.html )
via Citizens for Legitimate Government
( http://www.legitgov.org/ ):


AVI BioPharma gets Defense Dept. swine flu pact (http://www.forbes.com/feeds/ap/2009/06/22/ap6569873.html) 22 Jun 2009 AVI BioPharma Inc. says it will receive up to $5.1 million under a contract with the U.S. government to develop swine flu drugs. AVI disclosed May 5 that it entered into the contract with the U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency, a section of the Department of Defense that focuses on chemical, biological, nuclear and other weapons.

Ed Jewett
06-25-2009, 02:50 AM
This is the first time I've seen this outlet or blog, so get the salt-shaker and keep it handy. It first came to my attention via Michael Rivero's WhatReallyHappened.com ...


http://cottontopssandbox.wordpress.com/
appears to be a running blog written by a self-professed
glazed donut addict.

Here is the most recent entry:

US company makes first batch of swine flu vaccine (http://cottontopssandbox.wordpress.com/2009/06/24/us-company-makes-first-batch-of-swine-flu-vaccine/)

Posted on June 24, 2009 by niarane


A US company that was awarded a 35-million-dollar contract to develop an influenza vaccine using insect cell technology has produced a first batch against (A)H1N1 flu, company boss Dan Adams said.


“We turned out our first batch of doses — about 100,000 — against (A)H1N1 flu last week and we’re continuing to manufacture it,” Adams, chief executive officer of Connecticut-based Protein Sciences Corporation, told AFP.


The US Department of Health and Human Services on Tuesday announced that it has awarded a 35-million-dollar contract to Protein Sciences, which could be extended for another five years to reach 147 million dollars.

The insect cell technology “has advanced in recent years to a point that we believe it could help meet a surge in demand for US-based vaccine for seasonal and pandemic flu,” Health Secretary Kathleen Sebelius said in a statement.


Continued:
http://tinyurl.com/lla7gr



Here's another from

European labs discover flu vaccines contaminated (http://cottontopssandbox.wordpress.com/2009/03/28/european-labs-discover-flu-vaccines-contaminated/)

Posted on March 28, 2009 by niarane
If “accidental” contamination is virtually impossible,
then intentional contamination likely.
Globally-practiced protocols and regulatory schemes governing the handling of pathogens in the research, development, manufacture and transport of vaccines make it virtually impossible for U.S. flu vaccine producer Baxter to accidentally contaminate and export vaccines containing live H5NI (avian) viruses. The implication, then, is that the inclusion of “bird flu” was intentional and shipped all over the world to trigger a pandemic.
Baxter’s facility in Austria makes annual flu vaccines but was also developing a human H5N1 vaccine for which a license was expected in the near future. Researchers claim the “serious error” could not have been accidental since it is virtually impossible for live avian flu virus to find its way into a vaccine by “accident”.


As health ranger Mike Adams of NaturalNews.com points out, “The shocking answer is that this couldn’t have been an accident. Why? Because Baxter International adheres to something called BSL3 (biosafety level 3)-a set of laboratory safety protocols that prevent the cross-contamination of materials. Laboratory personnel have specific training in handling pathogenic and potentially lethal agents and are supervised by competent scientists who are experienced in working with these agents. …All procedures involving the manipulation of infectious materials are conducted within biological safety cabinets or other physical containment devices, or by personnel wearing appropriate protective clothing and equipment. The laboratory has special engineering and design features.”


Under the BSL3 code of conduct, it is impossible for live avian flu viruses to contaminate production vaccine materials that are shipped to vendors throughout the world.


This leaves only two possibilities:


1. Baxter isn’t following BSL3 safety guidelines or is so sloppy in following them that it can make monumental mistakes that threaten the safety of the entire human race. And if that’s the case, then why are we injecting our children with vaccines made from Baxter’s materials?


2. A rogue employee (or an evil plot from the top management) is present at Baxter, whereby live avian flu viruses were intentionally placed into the vaccine materials in the hope that such materials might be injected into humans and set off a global bird flu pandemic.


Spreading bird flu would create an instantaneous surge of demand for bird flu vaccines. The profits that vaccine companies such as Baxter International could reap out of such a panic are astronomical.
“Baxter is acting a whole lot like a biological terrorism organization these days, sending deadly viral samples around the world. If you mail an envelope full of anthrax to your senator, you get arrested as a terrorist. So why is Baxter-which mailed samples of a far more deadly viral strain to labs around the world-getting away with saying, essentially, ‘Oops?’” Adams asked.


While public health officials at the time appeared concerned, claiming to investigate the cause for the contamination of flu vaccines distributed to 18 countries, as of March 21, 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) has not released a statement on the Baxter incident. Instead WHO is moving forward with stockpiling worldwide H5N1 containing vaccines in preparation for a global pandemic, the ingredients of which are “proprietary”.


It should also be noted that the federal regulators in the U.S. and the affected countries have not commented on the incident nor is there any evidence that they plan to sanction Baxter for its serious breach in security with regard to the handling of such tightly controlled pathogenic agents.


Continued:
http://www.proliberty.com/observer/20090308.htm


http://cottontopssandbox.wordpress.com/2009/03/28/european-labs-discover-flu-vaccines-contaminated/
(http://www.proliberty.com/observer/20090308.htm)

David Guyatt
06-25-2009, 09:31 AM
http://cottontopssandbox.wordpress.com/
appears to be a running blog written by a self-professed
glazed donut addict.


Temporary deflection only.

I like the term "self-possessed glazed donut addict". I really do. I am more than likely to steal it for future use without attribution.

Being a Brit unfamiliar with the term I'm not sure if it is meant as a compliment or not. Not, I think... hope and pray?

Okay, back to the serious stuff.

Ed Jewett
06-25-2009, 11:35 PM
She mentioned a specific product that I don't think is available outside the US ... Krispie Kreme... essentially fried sugar with some more sugar on top.

But then the best coffee in town (for those who like coffee) is produced with the aid of financing provided by the Carlyle Group.

Maybe there ought to be a section on things consumable that are not supporting what a State Department cable once called "demoncracy". :eating:

Jan Klimkowski
07-09-2009, 06:36 PM
BUENOS AIRES -(Dow Jones)- Argentina's private-sector banks will shut down Friday as part of a nationwide effort to contain the spread of the A/H1N1 swine flu, local press reported Friday.

The banks' decision coincides with Friday's special holiday for all government workers, which was declared by the Interior Ministry on Tuesday.

Friday's holiday rolls on from Thursday's Independence Day holiday, and authorities believe people will use the long weekend as an excuse to stay home and therefore help slow the spread of the virus.

The Argentine Health Ministry on Sunday reported that the official death toll in Argentina from swine flu has reached 60, and there are a total of 2,485 officially confirmed cases.

However, many believe the official numbers lag the actual rate of infection, and that the real numbers are much higher.


Note the source of the story:

http://www.nasdaq.com/aspx/stock-market-news-story.aspx?storyid=200907081023dowjonesdjonline000 623&title=argentinas-banks-to-shut-friday-as-swine-flu-measurereport

Meanwhile over at Bloomberg:


S&P Says ‘Time Is Running Out’ for Argentina as Economy Slows

http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601086&sid=aUaQ_Xp3hp0Q

I smell PIGSHIT on those shock therapy electrodes....

Ed Jewett
08-25-2009, 04:31 AM
Ed Jewett from E Pluribus Unum forum who we hope will join us soon. :wavey: :dancing:

Yes, indeed, I have, and now I can also upload a pdf of the white paper I wrote which was published by the International Association of Emergency Managers in March 2006 and which will show something about why I am so interested in this topic. (The pdf was created by the folks at IAEM and it has a glitch or two; someday I will get my own.) I worked as a subject matter expert and consultant on the design of a DARPA-funded, USDA-assisted "virtual tabletop drill" intended for a civilian emergency management audience through a leading designer of military-level simulations, a company started by the two software engineers responsible for the development of the TRADOC armored warfare simulators used before Desert Storm, and developers of a desktop-to-desktop 24/7/365 system used by the military to run simulations from squad/tactical level right on through to the top at grand global strategy. The five-player virtual exercise was to have taught civilian systems personnel how to respond to the outbreak of avian influenza. The project was killed by DARPA purportedly because of "financial improprieties" by the leading contractor.

Magda Hassan
08-25-2009, 08:41 AM
.... The project was killed by DARPA purportedly because of "financial improprieties" by the leading contractor.

Does any one else see the irony? A military drill simulation (death, maim, destruction) but they get all queasy about the financial impropriety of contractor.
"There will be no fighting in the War Room!"

Ed Jewett
08-26-2009, 06:12 PM
Take Two Placebos and Call Me in the Morning

http://z7.invisionfree.com/E_Pluribus_Unum/index.php?showtopic=8507&st=0&#entry3609655

Ed Jewett
08-26-2009, 09:06 PM
RAND advises pharmaceutical company on strategies in vaccinating low-income students (http://vactruth.com/2009/08/26/rand-advises-pharmaceutical-company-on-strategies-in-vaccinating-low-income-students/)


Jeffry John Aufderheide
VacTRUTH
August 26, 2009
(vactruth.com (http://vactruth.com/2009/08/26/)) The pieces of the pandemic puzzle are coming together as the H1N1 Swine Flu hysteria is reaching new heights. A largely uncovered white paper (http://www.rand.org/pubs/documented_briefings/DB577/) published by RAND Corporation in March of 2009, sponsored by pharmaceutical giant Sanofi Pasteur (http://www.sanofipasteur.com/), identifies parental consent laws, medical homes, and lack of access to medical records as main barriers “for immunizing low-income adolescents.” The solution proposed to Sanofi Pasteur? Turn schools into a vaccine wonderland.
The triad of barriers to mass-vaccinate adolescents which were identified in RAND Corp’s white paper are:
1. Parental Consent Laws
2. Absence of a reliable Medical Home
3. Access to vaccine registration information
There are many relevant quotes throughout the white-paper to support this claim. Here are just a few…
“It would appear at first blush that vaccinating teens in a school setting would be a
practical way to address the barriers posed by the lack of a medical home.
Schools are the only place where the vast majority of adolescents are found
consistently and predictably ([1] pg 19) (emphasis mine)
“Many of the barriers we identified—while seemingly distinct—were tied to current
consent laws. We found that the requirement that parental consent for
vaccination be provided in real time clearly limits the vaccination of adolescents
in venues such as schools, where parents and adolescents are not likely to be
together.” ([1] pg 27) (emphasis mine)
“Ambiguity and variability in consent laws also hinder the role of alternative vaccinators and the use of information technology to improve documentation, management, and communication. Current approaches for collecting consent … impede effective and efficient program management that might be possible with modernized parental consent laws.“ ([1] pg 27)(emphasis mine)
While immunization registries have traditionally focused on younger children,
improving their utility for the adolescent population has great potential to facilitate
improvement in the management of adolescent vaccination programs. One
natural partnership, not yet fully realized, is with local schools.([1] pg 44) (emphasis mine)

According to the preface of the document, this endeavor started in 2007 as Sanofi Pasteur desired information concerning the current logistical climate for vaccinating the less fortunate. However, the title of the document, ‘Strategies and Models for Promoting Adolescent Vaccination for Low-Income Population’ is misleading. The recommendations that RAND produced for Sanofi Pasteur have ramifications for the entire scholastic population, as shown in the following passage.
“Although our original charge was to focus on low-income adolescents,we found the current policy and practice infrastructure supporting the vaccination of the general population of adolescents to be underdeveloped and thus unlikely to yield substantial increases in vaccination uptake among low-income adolescents in the absence of structural change. For this reason, we addressed the issue of adolescent immunization from a broad perspective, identifying more general approaches that can be tailored to low-income populations, and addressed specific issues and challenges for low-income adolescents where appropriate. ” ([1] pg 5)(emphasis mine)
It is critical to bring into focus throughout the entirety of this article who is the intended audience of the RAND Corp dossier: Sanofi Pasteur.
UNDERSTANDING OF CONTEXT
We must understand where this report came from. It most certainly did not randomly fall out of the sky and softly land on the lap of an innocent onlooker at Sanofi. Nor is it by chance RAND was engaged for researching this specific topic. Interestingly, the subject of addressing a pandemic influenza has been on RAND Corporation’s radar for some period of time and it would only make sense that a manufacturer of vaccines would have a keen interest in RAND’s insider knowledge.
You may be asking yourself at this point, “Who is RAND Corporation?”
“RAND Corporation(Research ANd Development) is a nonprofit global policy think tank first formed to offer research and analysis to the United States armed forces by Douglas Aircraft Company and currently financed predominantly by the U.S. government, a private endowment, predominantly pharmaceutical corporations, universities and private individuals. The organization has long since expanded to working with other governments, private foundations, international organizations, and commercial organizations on a host of non-defense issues.” [2]
It is well established that members of RAND Corporation are on the dole from entities such as GlaxoSmithKline [3, 4], and Sanofi Pasteur[1]. Other projects concerning health, population control and pandemic issues have been funded by The California Endowment [5], Robert W Woodruff Foundation [5, 8], William and Flora Hewlett Foundation [9], David and Lucile Packard Foundation [9], the Rockefeller Foundation [9], United Nations Population Fund [9], the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI)[5, 8], The US Department of Health and Human Services [5-7, 10, 11 ] , The Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response [6,11] and the US Army[12] to name a few. Let us not be naive to the fact RAND Corporation has enormous influence in Washington D.C. as evidenced with the recent Gilmore Commission (1999-2003).
The Gilmore Commission “was a Congressional Advisory Panel…and…entered into a contract with the RAND National Defense Research Institute (NDRI), a federally funded research and development center (FFRDC), to establish the Advisory Panel. The Advisory Panel assessed the capabilities for responding to terrorist incidents in the U.S. involving weapons of mass destruction. Response capabilities at the Federal, State, and local levels were examined, with a particular emphasis on the latter two.” [13]
“Of the Gilmore Commission’s 164 recommendations, 146 have been adopted in whole or in part by the Congress and the federal government.” [13] Perhaps you would be comforted if you knew RAND recommended a National Vaccine Authority because private industry bears too much liability and risk? ([14] Appendix N, [15]) In a report to the congressional advisory panel, RAND decided to, “recommend the establishment of a government-owned, contractor-operated national facility for the research, development, and production of vaccines and therapeutics for specified infectious-especially contagious-diseases.” ([14] pg vi, 30)


GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), a ‘competing’ pharmaceutical company, funded RAND in mid-flu-season 2008 to make a determination on how many Americans received their flu shot. Roughly 1/3 of the respondents communicated that the flu jab “wasn’t needed.” ([3] pg 1)

At the end of the 2008/2009 flu season GSK tested the waters again and funded a study to discover 38% of Americans took the annual influenza vaccine. ([4] pg 1) RAND exposed that roughly 25% of the respondents flat out said they “don’t need it,” ([4] pg 3) despite the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) specifically recommending an annual influenza vaccination.
The data from the GSK-funded study also showed that minorities were also less likely to be vaccinated with the annual influenza vaccine. ([16] pg 2) Shortly after both of the flu shot coverage studies were completed by RAND, ‘Strategies and Models for Promoting Adolescent Vaccination for Low-Income Population’ was published in 2009.
Remarkably, this data comes on the coattails of hysteria surrounding the H5N1 Bird Flu([11] pg 1, [19]), West Nile Virus ([10] pg 145, [20]), Monkeypox ([10] pg 163), SARS ([10] pg 155), Smallpox ([12] pg 198) and Anthrax ([17]pg 3, [18]) scares after 9/11. These aforementioned outbreaks were evaluated by RAND Corporation at some capacity.
Astute students who are ‘in-the-know’ are well aware of the prophetic messages of individuals such as Dr. Sherri Tenpenny (http://drtenpenny.com/) as described in her book, “Fowl! It’s Not What You Think”, [21] in referring to the recent Bird Flu (H5N1). By example, Dr. Tenpenny refers to a patent application for the MF59 adjuvant that was going to be used for the Avian Flu Virus (H5N1). The same MF59 adjuvant is being used in the Swine Flu vaccine (H1N1). Here is an excerpt from US Patent 6299884 and then from a workshop on adjuvants and therapeutic vaccines, respectively.
“Any metabolizable oil, particularly from an animal, fish or vegetable source, may be used. It is essential that the oil be metabolized by the host otherwise the oil component may cause abscesses, granulomas or even carcinomas, or (when used in veterinary practice) may make the meat of vaccinated birds and animals unacceptable for human consumption due to the deleterious effect the unmetabolized oil may have on the consumer.” [22-23](emphasis mine)
“Carcinogenicity, we (Dr. Deborah Novicki of Novartis, another pharmaceutical company) have done no testing for the carcinogenicity of MF59 adjuvant or any of our preventive vaccines. We haven’t done it and we don’t plan to.” ([24] pg 391)(emphasis mine)

RAND also recommends funneling the responsibility of determining vaccine stockpile amounts be left to Homeland Security. ([12] pg vii) Ask yourself, when has your government been successful at anything and had a balanced budget?
When RAND speaks, America’s public servants willingly obey. ‘Lawmakers’ know who calls the shots. This is the history you must know as you need to understand that the recommendations RAND makes are made by seasoned veterans who are not simply giving arbitrary counsel.
FIVE POINTS FOR DISCUSSION
1. Why are parents not identified as stakeholders?
As the story unfolds, the RAND corporation identifies the key stakeholders interviewed for this project for Sanofi Pasteur. The stakeholders are defined as “school nurses and health professionals, researches and legal experts, trade and professional association representatives, immunization coalitions and programs, third-party billers, nontraditional vaccinators.” ([1] pg 8 ) Parents and adolescents are noticeably absent from the aforementioned list. In other words, the ’stakeholders’ being interviewed by RAND for Sanofi Pasteur have the ability to identify bottlenecks in the vaccination campaign.
2. How can RAND be confused concerning parental consent rules given the breadth and scope of their past projects in addition to state education departments having strict consent procedures?
RAND frequently refers to there being, “Confusion and lack of clarity surrounding parental consent rules are substantial barriers to broadening teen vaccination,” ([1] pg 17) and seemingly contradicts themselves “…informants remarked that state education departments’ fear of liability drove strict consent procedures for school-based immunization.” ([1] pg 19)

Are you aware your child does not have to be vaccinated to attend school? In most states a religious or medical exemption are available. Nineteen states have philosophical exemptions. Simply validate this by viewing the CDC’s website on state immunization laws (http://www2a.cdc.gov/nip/StateVaccApp/statevaccsApp/default.asp) [25] or view the National Vaccine Information Center’s (NVIC) website (http://www.nvic.org/Vaccine-Laws/state-vaccine-requirements.aspx).[26]
3. How do we know RAND Corporation is recommending to Sanofi Pasteur, a private company, to utilize and modify an existing mechanism developed by the CDC to promote ‘health’ instead of their own agenda(s)?
“CDC’s School Health Index (SHI) offers a framework for increasing school accountability for vaccine promotion and administration, either in the absence of or in conjunction with state mandates. The SHI was developed by the CDC in partnership with school staff, school health experts, parents, and other governmental agencies….the lack of a comprehensive focus is a barrier to promoting school accountability and moving toward more comprehensive school-based vaccination programs.” ([1] pg 37)
“A vaccine-specific module dovetails nicely with existing SHI modules, and would give schools a sense of where they fit on the continuum (from minimal education to vaccination on-site), and where there is room for improvement. As such, an SHI immunization module would help schools increase their involvement and accountability with respect to vaccine promotion and/or administration in ways that are consistent with available resources and levels of interest. In this way, the SHI could be a flexible tool for increasing school accountability for vaccine-related activities in the absence of potentially contentious school mandates, or it could help schools organize and carry out their responsibilities to ensure that students are vaccinated under mandates. “([1] pg 39)
4. What is RAND Corporation’s intention, specifically, for sharing this information with a company that vaccinates our youth for profit?
“To help providers and other key stakeholders address these issues (vaccinating adolescents), RAND has been developing a set of Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping and decision tools specifically designed for health care decisionmakers.” ([1] pg 41)
“Maps such as these may be used to facilitate the targeting of VFC vaccine, and prioritization of outreach and
education based on such factors as the proportion of students receiving free or subsidized school lunches, the availability of primary care providers participating in VFC, and the geographic clustering of Medicaid-eligible children.” ([1] pg 41)
“Because third-party billers can assess insurance status, submit insurance claims, and process credit card payments, they can engage in broad outreach beyond geographic areas with high concentrations of VFC-eligible(Vaccines for Children) adolescents and make vaccination more convenient for adolescents with and without health insurance.” ([1] pg 43)
5. Given the nature of past projects of RAND Corporation, it is concerning to know what specific recommendations they gave Sanofi Pasteur (and other business entities) regarding a public relations campaign specific to the ‘art of vaccination’. Is RAND Corporation and Sanofi Pasteur interested in promoting the TRUTH or their version(s) of it?

“..educated adolescents may be able to inform and influence skeptical parents and peers. ([1] pg 31)
“Tobaccofreekids.org is a potentially useful model for more directly engaging youth and developing adolescent vaccine “champions”. Ardent supporters of a cause, champions can bring about change by educating those around them and spurring others into action through local events, meetings, or publications…The vaccine industry may also provide opportunities for youth to organize local activities related to vaccination.” ([1] pg 35-36)
In the past, members of the RAND Corporation have been involved in researching how to best shape public behavior in avoidance of discrediting public health authorities in preparation for an influenza pandemic. ([17] pg 7) Accordingly, their recommendations involve gathering intelligence on community beliefs as well as recommending creating ‘active listening opportunities’ for members of the community. ([17] pg 8 )
Interesting terms such as “Tipping Point” are also used to convey the following message…
(Tipping Point is) meant to identify events, actions, or perceptions that strongly influence psychological reactions or social behaviors at the group or population level…Several individual and community level factors impact these tipping points and will influence the psychological or behavioral responses to pandemic influenza... ([17] pg 5)
“How a message is packaged and delivered, as well as how trustworthy and knowledgeable the messenger is also impact communications effectiveness in terms of behavioral response.” ([17] pg 7)
In summary, RAND Corporation has been touted as a preeminent ‘authority’ on questions of public health. Their past influence on the shaping of public policy is undeniable. Serious questions should be raised when RAND makes recommendations to a private company on how to supersede parental rights through the manipulation of local, state and federal law. Parents know what is best for their child, not RAND and certainly not Sanofi Pasteur.
“No problem can be solved from the same level of consciousness that created it.”
-Albert Einstein


References: 1. Harris, K. , Maurer, J. , Lurie, N., “Strategies and Models for Promoting Adolescent Vaccination for Low-Income Population”. March 2009. RAND Corporation.
2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rand_corp. Accessed August 24th, 2009.
3. Harris, K. , Maurer, J. , Lurie, N. “Midseason Influenza Vaccine Use by Adults in the U.S. : A Snapshot as of Mid-November 2008“. 2008. RAND Corporation.
4. Harris, K. , Maurer, J. , Lurie, N. “Influenza Vaccine Use by Adults in the U.S. : A Snapshot from the End of the 2008–2009 Vaccination Season“. 2009. RAND Corporation.
5. Dausey, D., et al. “Designing and conducting tabletop exercises to assess public health preparedness for manmade and naturally occurring biological threats“. 29 May 2007 BMC Public Health 2007, 7:92 doi:10.1186/1471-2458-7-92.
6. Lotstein, D., et al. “Enhancing Public Health Preparedness: Exercises, Exemplary Practices, and Lessons Learned, Phase III. Task B2: Final Report Promoting Emergency Preparedness and Readiness for Pandemic Influenza (PREPARE for PI) Pilot Quality Improvement Learning Collaborative“. June 2007. RAND Corporation.
7. Aledort, J., et al. “Facilitated Look Backs: A New Quality Improvement Tool for Management of Routine Annual
and Pandemic Influenza”.2006. RAND Corporation.
8. Jackson, B., et al. “Bioterrorism with Zoonotic Disease: Public Health Preparedness Lessons from a Multiagency Exercise.” Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice and Science Volume 4, Number 3, 2006.
9. Bloom D., et al. “The Demographic Dividend: A New Perspective on the Economic Consequences of Population Change.” 2003. RAND Corporation.
10. Stoto, M., et al. “Learning from Experience: The Public Health Response to West Nile Virus, SARS, Monkeypox, and Hepatitis A Outbreaks in the United States. 2005. RAND Corporation.
11. Moore, M., et al. “Improving Global Influenza Surveillance: Strategies for the US Government.” February 2007. RAND Corporation.
12. Olmsted, S. et al. “Use of an Electronic Monitoring System for Self-Reporting Smallpox Vaccine Reactions.” Biosecurity and Bioterrorism:Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science Volume 3, Number 3, 2005.
13. Gilmore Commission (1999-2003). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gilmore_Commission. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gilmore_Commission.%201999-2003)Accessed 08/19/2009.
14. “Third Annual Report To the President and the Congress of the Advisory Panel to Assess Domestic Response Capabilities for Terrorism Involving Weapons of Mass Destruction”. December 15, 2001. http://www.rand.org/nsrd/terrpanel/ – This document is a product of the Advisory Panel and NOT RAND Corporation although the link goes to the document hosted on RAND’s website.
15. Testimony of Michael A. Wermuth Senior Policy Analyst The RAND Corporation and Executive Project Director Advisory Panel to Assess Domestic Response Capabilities for Terrorism Involving Weapons of Mass Destruction Before the Committee on the Judiciary Council of the District of Columbia February 6, 2004.
16. Harris, K. , Maurer, J. , Lurie, N. “Influenza Vaccine Use by Adults in the U.S. : Detailed Survey Data Tables for the 2008–2009 Vaccination Season“. 2009. RAND Corporation.
17. Reissman, D. , et al., “Pandemic Influenza Preparedness: Adaptive Responses to an Evolving Challenge”. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management: Vol. 3 : Iss. 2, Article 13. 2006.
18. Williams, A.A.,. Parashar, U.D., Stoica, A, et al (2002). “Bioterrorism-Related Anthrax Surveillance, Connecticut, September–December, 2001,” Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 8, No. 10, 1078-1082, October 2002. Available from: URL: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidido/EID/vol8no10/02-0399.htm
19. United Nations (2005-09-29). “Press Conference By UN System Senior Coordinator For Avian, Human Influenza”. http://www.un.org/News/briefings/docs/2005/050929_Nabarro.doc.htm. Accessed 08/19/2009.
20. “West Nile virus activity—United States, 2007?. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 57 (26): 720–3. July 2008. PMID 18600197.
21. Tenpenny, S. “Fowl! Bird Flu: It’s Not What You Think“. http://drtenpenny.com/fowl.aspx.
22. Tenpenny, S. “FOWL! It’s Not What You Think.” PDF Presentation. http://drtenpenny.com/Documents/FOWL-ppt-pdf.pdf. Slide 21. Accessed 08/19/2009.
23. “United States Patent 6299884. Adjuvant formulation comprising a submicron oil droplet emulsion” Patent Storm. 9 October 2001. http://www.patentstorm.us/patents/6299884.html
24. Workshop on Adjuvants and Adjuvanted Preventative and Therapeutic Vaccines. Tuesday, December 2nd, 2008. Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease. http://www.fda.gov/downloads/BiologicsBloodVaccines/NewsEvents/WorkshopsMeetingsConferences/ucm095708.pdf
25. CDC information on State Vaccine Exemptions. http://www2a.cdc.gov/nip/StateVaccApp/statevaccsApp/default.asp. Accessed 08/19/09.
26. State Laws listed on NVIC’s website. http://www.nvic.org/Vaccine-Laws/state-vaccine-requirements.aspx. Accessed August 24th, 2009.


http://vactruth.com/2009/08/26/rand-advises-pharmaceutical-company-on-strategies-in-vaccinating-low-income-students/

Ed Jewett
12-06-2009, 11:20 PM
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http://www.kurzweilai.net/images/blank.gif Biowar for Dummies
by Paul Boutin (http://www.kurzweilai.net/bios/frame.html?main=/bios/bio0275.html)

How hard is it to build your own weapon of mass destruction? We take a crash course in supervirus engineering to find out.


Originally published on Paul Boutin blog (http://paulboutin.weblogger.com/stories/storyReader$1439) February 22, 2006. Reprinted with permission on KurzweilAI.net July 11, 2006.
Anthrax. Smallpox. Ebola. For thriller writers and policy crusaders, biological (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Biological%27%29) warfare (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Warfare%27%29) was a standard what-if scenario long before anyone mailed anthrax to government (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Government%27%29) and media (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Media%27%29) offices in 2001. Pentagon war games like Dark Winter, held just before 9/11, and this year's Atlantic Storm suggested that terrorists could unleash germs with the killing power of a nuclear weapon (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Weapon%27%29).
Scientists, though, have always been skeptical. Only massive, state-sponsored program (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Program%27%29)s—not terrorist cells or lone kooks—pose a plausible threat, they say. As the head of the Federation of American Scientists working group on bioweapons put it in a 2002 Los Angeles Times op-ed: "A significant bioterror attack today would require the support of a national program to succeed."
Or not. A few months ago, Roger Brent, a geneticist who runs a California biotech firm, sent me an unpublished paper in which he wrote that genetically engine (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Engine%27%29)ered bioweapons developed by small teams are a bigger threat than suitcase nukes.
Brent is one of a growing number (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Number%27%29) of research (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Research%27%29)ers who believe that a bioterrorist wouldn't need a team of virologists and state funding. He says advances in DNA (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27DNA%27%29)-hacking technology (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Technology%27%29) have reached the point where an evil lab assistant with the right resources could do the job.
Gene hacker (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Hacker%27%29)s could make artificial smallpox—or worse—from standard lab supplies.

I decided to call him on it. I hadn't set (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Single%20Electron%20Transfer%2 0%28SET%29%27%29) foot in a lab since high school. Could I learn to build a bioweapon? What would I need? What would it cost? Could I set up shop without raising suspicions? And, most import (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Import%27%29)ant, would it work?

http://www.kurzweilai.net/articles/images/Boutin_rogerbrentbw.jpg (http://www.molsci.org/Dispatch?action-PersonWidget:20-detail=1)

"An advanced grad student could do it." —Roger Brent, head of the Molecular Science (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Science%27%29)s Institute in Berkeley, California.
To find out, I meet with Brent at the Molecular Sciences Institute, his company in Berkeley. The 49-year-old researcher has a few million dollars a year in government funding and a staff of 25. He's the co-author of the must-read lab manual Current Protocols in Molecular Biology (http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/mrwhome/104554809/HOME?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0), and hardly seems like someone in the grip of apocalyptic fervor. As he shows me around the lab—a few quiet rooms of workbenches, pipette stands, pinky-sized test tubes and the odd PowerBook—we plan our attack.
Experts used to think that distributing a killer germ would require a few vats and a crop duster. Brent and I have a different idea. We'll infect a suicidal patient zero and hand him a round-the-world plane ticket. But we need a dangerous virus—smallpox, maybe. We won't be able to steal a sample; we'll have to make our own.
Too dangerous, Brent says. He gives me a proxy mission: Modify something mundane into something strange. In this case, rejigger standard brewer's yeast to manufacture a glowing cyan-colored protein (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Protein%27%29) usually found in jellyfish.
Great. I wanted to make something as lethal as an A-bomb, and instead I'm brewing ultraviolet beer.
Brent smiles and shrugs at my disappointment. "All life (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Life%27%29) is one," he says, and he's not just being Zen (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Zen%27%29). All over the world, laboratories like Brent's splice genes—the techniques are as common as the Pyrex beaker, and getting easier every day. Getting yeast to sport blue genes takes the same skills and gear as adding the genes for something toxic. DNA is just the stuff that tells cells what proteins to make—the only real difference between being able to insert a single gene and inserting all the genes that make a virus (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Virus%27%29) is experience (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Experience%27%29).
I start my to-do list: I have to acquire the right equipment. I have to track down the genetic sequence I want, then learn how to make the gene. Then I have to get it into the yeast. Brent offers me lab space (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Space%27%29) and staff advice, but insists that I do the work myself. And not everyone has the knack, he says. "Some people are natural-born labsters, some aren't." I know what he means. I used to be a software (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Software%27%29) engineer, and in that field, procedures are well documented and the source code (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Source%20Code%27%29) is readily available, but some people just aren't hackers.
It's time (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Time%27%29) to find out what kind of genetic engineer I am.
Making DNA turns out to be easy if you have the right hardware (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Hardware%27%29). The critical piece of gear is a DNA synthesizer (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Synthesizer%27%29). Brent already has one, a yellowing plastic machine (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Machine%27%29) the size of an office printer (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Printer%27%29), called an ABI 394. "So, what kind of authorization do I need to buy this equipment?" I ask.
"I suggest you start by typing 'used DNA synthesizer' into Google (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Google%27%29)," Brent says.
I hit eBay first, where ABI 394s go for about $5,000. Anything I can't score at an auction is available for a small markup at sites like usedlabequip.com (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Component%20Object%20Model%20% 28COM%29%27%29). Two days later I have a total: $29,700—taxes and shipping not included. Nucleosides (the A, C (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27C%27%29), T, G genetic building blocks) and other chemicals for the synthesizer cost more than the hardware—in the end, a single base pair of DNA runs about a buck to make. Enough raw material to build, say, the smallpox genome (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Genome%27%29) would take just over $200,000.

http://www.kurzweilai.net/articles/images/Boutin_abi_394.jpg
The ABI 394 synthesizer.
Think of it as an inkjet printer for DNA.
The real cost of villainy is in overhead. Even with the ready availability of equipment, you still need space, staff, and time. Brent guesses he would need a couple million dollars to whip up a batch of smallpox from scratch. No need for state sponsors or stolen top-secret germ samples. "An advanced grad student could do it," Brent says. Especially with the help of some high schoolers who actually went to lab classes.
But how would I find the gene sequence? Simple. I went to the Web site of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (http://www.ncbi.nih.gov/) (no password required) and download (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Download%27%29)ed the DNA sequence for a 770-base pair gene called the Enhanced Cyan Fluorescent Protein. That's what Brent wanted me to program into my yeast. It took me about 15 minutes to find. Far easier to track down was the 200,000-base pair sequence for smallpox (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=genome&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=Overview&list_uids=10477). Only two known samples of smallpox exist; the blueprints are free online.
It's glowing. Is that good?

I load my nucleosides into the ABI 394, and it's as easy as replacing a toner cartridge. I transmit a test sequence from my Mac and go to lunch. When I come back, I have a custom strand of genetic material waiting for me. This is the anyone-on-Slashdot (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Slashdot%27%29)-can-do-it part of the job.
These days, many labs don't even bother synthesizing their own genes. They order (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Order%27%29) nucleotide (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Nucleotide%27%29) chains online. That's right: mail-order genes. Just to test this out, I buy a sequence from MWG Biotech (http://www.mwg-biotech.com/html/all/index.php) in High Point, North Carolina, and have it shipped to my house. Three days later, I'm sitting on the train to Berkeley holding a FedEx box. MWG didn't do anything wrong, but not long ago New Scientist magazine approached sixteen other custom DNA shops (http://www.newscientist.com/channel/opinion/mg18825252.900.html) to find out if they scan incoming orders. Could a terrorist order a killer virus piece by piece? Only five of the sixteen said they screen every sequence.
Still, mail-order is cheating. If you were a smart terrorist, you'd make the thing yourself to avoid suspicion. You can't order smallpox, but anyone's allowed to buy raw genetic material and lab equipment—the government only monitors certain radioactive, toxic, or otherwise scary substances.
Getting living cells to absorb synthetic genes is where biotech stops looking like IT and turns into French cooking. The process, called transformation, happens in nature (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Nature%27%29) only rarely; it's part of the way microorganisms evolve. In the lab, you can improve the odds it'll work by softening up the host cells with chemicals and removing sections of their DNA with tailor-made enzymes. Douse the hosts with synthetic DNA and some fraction of them slurp it up. And some fraction of those start making the protein that the gene codes for. It doesn't matter (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Matter%27%29) if it's jellyfish fluorescence or smallpox (though obviously smallpox is more complicated).
It sounds like submicroscopic surgery, but all you do is squirt chemicals into a culture dish and let it all soak overnight. In the morning you come back to see if it worked or, more likely, didn't. My first batch flops. My second, too. One of the MSI researchers offers to break Brent's rules and do it for me while I watch. It doesn't work for him, either.
Eventually, we fumble our way to a plastic dish full of translucent goop. If I'd been working on smallpox—and really committed to my cause—this would have been the part where I'd inject a lab animal (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Animal%27%29) with the stuff to see if it got sick. Then I'd give myself a dose and head off on a days-long, multi-airport, transnational suicide run. But it was just yeast. Set on top of a black light (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Light%27%29), it glowed an eerie bright blue, like a Jimi Hendrix poster. My creation... lived.

Biotech's growth (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Growth%27%29) curves
leave Moore's Law (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Moore%5C%27s%20Law%27%29) in the dust.

Would the nations of the world kneel before my awesome power? I asked an expert. Three years ago, Eckard Wimmer (http://www.uhmc.sunysb.edu/microbiology/Wimmer.html) headed a team of researchers at SUNY Stony Brook that made live polio virus from scratch, part of a Defense Department project to prove the threat of synthetic bioweapons. So how much of a leap is that from cyan-tinged yeast?
"A simple laboratory technician would have trouble," he says. With smallpox, "the virus is very large and brings with it enzymes that it needs to proliferate. If you just made the genome and put it into a cell (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Cell%27%29), nothing would happen."
In the wild, viruses hijack host cells and turn them into virus replication factories. Wimmer was sure any one of the 2,847 members of the American Society for Virology (http://www.mcw.edu/asv/) could figure out how to do the same.
Soon, though, I might not even need that expertise. DNA synthesis (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Synthesis%27%29) is following a kind of accelerated Moore's law—the faster and easier it gets, the faster and easier it gets. Last year, a group of researchers synthesized DNA strands of more than 300,000 base pairs (http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/nature/journal/v432/n7020/abs/nature03151_fs.html)—longer than the smallpox genome—using a method (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Method%27%29) that eliminates most of the shake-and-bake lab steps I'd spent weeks learning (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Learning%27%29).
The rush toward DIY genetics (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Genetics%27%29) is reflected in so-called Carlson curves (http://synthesis.typepad.com/synthesis/2005/01/_oliver_mortons.html), plotted by Rob Carlson, a physicist-turned-biologist (and Brent's former lab partner at MSI) who worked them out in 2003. "Within a decade," Carlson wrote in the journal Biosecurity and Bioterrorism (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Bioterrorism%27%29), "a single person could sequence or synthesize all the DNA describing all the people on the planet (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Planet%27%29) many times over in an eight-hour day."
Today, when he's not tinkering with cellular-scale measurement gadgets at the University of Washington, Carlson designs custom proteins on a computer (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Computer%27%29) in his Seattle home. According to his calculations (http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/13.05/view.html?pg=2), if the current pace of biotech proceeds for another decade, cooking up a lethal bug (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Bug%27%29) will be as easy and cheap as building a Web site. "You don't need a national program," Carlson says. "The technology's changing fast, and there's nothing we can do about it."
Even if he's wrong about the timeframe, if someone solves the problem of synthesizing RNA (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Ribonucleic%20Acid%20%28RNA%29 %27%29) (the single-stranded adjunct to DNA), it would open the door to modifying influenza or retroviruses (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Retrovirus) like HIV—and in 1918 the flu managed to kill 20 million people without any help from bioterrorists.
"If we do what we need to for biodefense ... We could, as a planet, eliminate large lethal epidemics." —Tara O'Toole, Center for Biosecurity
Bolstered by what scientists like Carlson and Brent are saying, bioweapon policy wonks are calling for an all-out biodefense program. Worried about bacteria (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Bacteria%27%29) and viruses of mass destruction, the federal government pushes nearly $6 billion a year toward research. Tara O'Toole (http://www.upmc-biosecurity.org/pages/center/staff/tara.html), director of the University of Pittsburgh's Center for Biosecurity, says after-the-fact vaccines won't stop a plague; they take months to develop and deploy. She believes the only option is a general-purpose virus detector and destroyer, which has yet to be invented. The cost would be enormous, but don't think of it as just an antiterror tool. "If we do what we need to for biodefense, we're going to do an enormous amount of good for routine health care and global disease (http://javascript%3Cb%3E%3C/b%3E:loadBrain%28%27Disease%27%29)," says O'Toole. "We could, as a planet, eliminate large lethal epidemics of infectious disease in our lifetime."
Brent agrees. He's been tinkering on a general virus detector as a side project. "Of course I'd be thrilled to see a huge expenditure on defense," he says. "But the truth is, it'll probably take an attack to get us there."
We might not have long to wait. Every hands-on gene hacker I polled during my project estimated they could synthesize smallpox in a month or two. I remember that game from my engineering days, so I mentally scale their estimates using the old software manager's formula: Double the length, then move up to the next increment of time. That gives us two to four years—assuming no one has already started working.
© 2006 Paul Boutin

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Ed Jewett
05-24-2010, 04:26 PM
Flashback 2002: Australian Scientist Urged Government to Use Biological Weapons Against “Overpopulated” Countries (http://cryptogon.com/?p=15618)

May 24th, 2010 Via: The Age (http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2002/03/09/1015365751958.html):
World-famous microbiologist Sir Macfarlane Burnet, the Nobel prize winner revered as Australia’s greatest medical research scientist, secretly urged the government to develop biological weapons for use against Indonesia and other “overpopulated” countries of South-East Asia.
The revelation is contained in top-secret files declassified by the National Archives of Australia, despite resistance from the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade.
Sir Macfarlane recommended in a secret report in 1947 that biological and chemical weapons should be developed to target food crops and spread infectious diseases.
His key advisory role on biological warfare was uncovered by Canberra historian Philip Dorling in the National Archives in 1998.
The department initially blocked release of the material on the basis it would damage Australia’s international relations. Dr Dorling sought a review and the material was finally released to him late last year.
The files include a comprehensive memo Sir Macfarlane wrote for the Defence Department in 1947 in which he said Australia should develop biological weapons that would work in tropical Asia without spreading to Australia’s more temperate population centres.
“Specifically to the Australian situation, the most effective counter-offensive to threatened invasion by overpopulated Asiatic countries would be directed towards the destruction by biological or chemical means of tropical food crops and the dissemination of infectious disease capable of spreading in tropical but not under Australian conditions,” Sir Macfarlane said.
The Victorian-born immunologist, who headed the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, won the Nobel prize for medicine in 1960. He died in 1985 but his theories on immunity and “clonal selection” provided the basis for modern biotechnology and genetic engineering.
On December 24, 1946, the secretary of the Department of Defence, F.G. Shedden, wrote to Macfarlane Burnet saying Australia could not ignore the fact that many countries were conducting intense research on biological warfare and inviting him to a meeting of top military officers to discuss the question.
The minutes of a meeting in January, 1947, reveal that Sir Macfarlane argued that Australia’s temperate climate could give it a significant military advantage.
“The main contribution of local research so far as Australia is concerned might be to study intensively the possibilities of biological warfare in the tropics against troops and civil populations at a relatively low level of hygiene and with correspondingly high resistance to the common infectious diseases,” he told the meeting.
In September, 1947, Sir Macfarlane was invited to join a chemical and biological warfare subcommittee of the New Weapons and Equipment Development Committee.
He prepared a secret report titled Note on War from a Biological Angle suggesting that biological warfare could be a powerful weapon to help defend a thinly populated Australia.
Sir Macfarlane also urged the government to encourage universities to research those branches of biological science that had a special bearing on biological warfare.
A clinically scientific approach is evident in a note he wrote in June, 1948.
He said a successful attack with a microbiological agent on a large population would have such a devastating impact that its use was extremely unlikely while both sides were capable of retaliation.
“The main strategic use of biological warfare may well be to administer the coup de grace to a virtually defeated enemy and compel surrender in the same way that the atomic bomb served in 1945.
“Its use has the tremendous advantage of not destroying the enemy’s industrial potential which can then be taken over intact.
“Overt biological warfare might be used to enforce surrender by psychological rather than direct destructive measures.”
The minutes of a meeting at Melbourne’s Victoria Barracks in 1948 noted that Sir Macfarlane “was of the opinion that if Australia undertakes work in this field it should be on the tropical offensive side rather than the defensive. There was very little known about biological attack on tropical crops.”
After visiting the UK in 1950 and examining the British chemical and biological warfare research effort, Sir Macfarlane told the committee that the initiation of epidemics among enemy populations had usually been discarded as a means of waging war because it was likely to rebound on the user.
“In a country of low sanitation the introduction of an exotic intestinal pathogen, e.g. by water contamination, might initiate widespread dissemination,” he said.
“Introduction of yellow fever into a country with appropriate mosquito vectors might build up into a disabling epidemic before control measures were established.”
The subcommittee recommended that “the possibilities of an attack on the food supplies of S-E Asia and Indonesia using B.W. agents should be considered by a small study group”.
It 1951 it recommended that “a panel reporting to the chemical and biological warfare subcommittee should be authorised to report on the offensive potentiality of biological agents likely to be effective against the local food supplies of South-East Asia and Indonesia”.
Dr Dorling said that while Sir Macfarlane was a great Australian he was also a product of times when many Australians held deep fears about more populous Asian countries.
He said the Menzies government was more interested in trying to acquire nuclear weapons. “Fortunately this also proved impracticable and Australia never acquired a weapon of mass destruction.”
The secretary of the Federation of Australian Scientific and Technological Societies, Peter French, said he had not yet seen the files but the whole notion of biological warfare was something that Australian scientists would not be comfortable with today. “Viewed through today’s eyes it is clearly an abhorrent suggestion,” Dr French said.

Magda Hassan
07-28-2013, 02:17 AM
Document confirms germ warfare by Imperial Japanese Army



October 29, 2011 Tweet (http://twitter.com/share)

By NOBUYUKI WATANABE / Staff Writer
A classified document has been uncovered that provides further evidence that the Imperial Japanese Army used plague-infected fleas as biological weapons in China between 1940 and 1942.
An operations journal written by a high-ranking army officer found in 1993 had passages related to germ warfare, but the latest discovery is of a public document compiled by the research unit that was directly involved in germ warfare.
While the Tokyo District Court and Tokyo High Court have confirmed in verdicts related to compensation lawsuits filed by bereaved Chinese family members the use of biological weapons by the Imperial Japanese Army, the Japanese government has maintained the position that no evidence exists that such weapons were ever used.
The document uncovered is a report by the epidemic prevention research unit of the Imperial Army's medical school. A member of a citizens group based in Tokyo that is trying to uncover information about the infamous Unit 731 that was involved in germ warfare found the document in the Kansai-kan of the National Diet Library in Kyoto.
The cover of the document is marked "military secret" and also contains the name of a medical officer belonging to the epidemic prevention research unit and the date of Dec. 14, 1943, when the document was registered.
The report is about the effects of fleas infected with the plague bacteria and calculates the effects when the bacteria is spread during battle.
The document includes a list that describes the volume of fleas used and the number of people infected in six missions conducted in China between 1940 and 1942. The total number of infected people, including secondary infection, was 25,946.
The report appraises the plague bacteria as "the most outstanding weapon" and says about germ warfare, "it brings about psychological and economic panic."
There are two major parts to the reports compiled by the epidemic prevention research unit and about 800 documents from part two have been found in the United States. Those documents make it clear that the unit was involved in research on the plague epidemic in China.
The latest discovery is of 12 documents, including 11 from part one of the reports that include the more highly classified items.
The development of biological weapons by the Imperial Japanese Army first drew attention with the publication in 1981 of a novel by Seiichi Morimura titled "Akuma no hoshoku" (The Devil's Gluttony).
Subsequently, members of Unit 731 came out and admitted taking part in human experiments and the use of biological weapons in China. Unit 731 worked closely with the epidemic prevention research unit of the Imperial Army medical school.
The author of the classified document was a medical doctor who graduated from Tokyo Imperial University. An investigation by the U.S. military after the end of World War II stated that the doctor worked for three and a half years in Unit 731.

By NOBUYUKI WATANABE / Staff Writer
http://ajw.asahi.com/article/behind_news/AJ2011102916062

Jan Klimkowski
07-28-2013, 10:55 AM
There are two major parts to the reports compiled by the epidemic prevention research unit and about 800 documents from part two have been found in the United States. Those documents make it clear that the unit was involved in research on the plague epidemic in China.

Offensive or defensive research?

I think we should be told......

Magda Hassan
10-08-2013, 07:12 AM
I believe these documents are not otherwise available online. Just available now. Someone has posted a number of original documents of transcript of Lt. Col Murray Sanders interviewing with Unit 731 doctors also CBS 60 Min. 4/4/82 transcript - on how US kept secret Japanese germ warfare experiments on POWs
http://philippine-defenders.lib.wv.us/pdf/bios/sandy_and_search_for_truth.pdf