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Austin Kelley
02-17-2010, 04:04 PM
Hi-

This article is important enough to motivate me to come out of lurk mode in order to post it. Thanks to all concerned. Excellent work!

Austin


http://www.truthout.org/the-real-roots-cias-rendition-black-sites-program56956

The Real Roots of the CIA's Rendition and Black Sites Program

Wednesday 17 February 2010
by: H.P. Albarelli Jr. and Jeffrey Kaye, t r u t h o u t | Op-Ed

On Tuesday, February 10, the British High Court finally released a "seven-paragraph court document showing that MI5 officers were involved in the ill-treatment of a British resident, Binyam Mohamed." The document is itself a summary of 42 classified CIA documents given to the British in 2002. The US government has threatened the British government that the US-British intelligence relationship could be damaged if this material were released. The revelations regarding Mohamed's torture, which include documentation of the fact the US conducted "continuous sleep deprivation" under threats of harm, rendition, or being "disappeared," were criticized by the British court as being "at the very least cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment by the United States authorities," and in violation of the United Nations Convention Against Torture.

The Mohamed case is the most prominent of a number of cases that have come to public attention. While the timeline of Mohamed's torture places the implementation of the Bush administration's so-called "enhanced interrogation techniques" many months prior to their questionable legal justification in the August 1, 2002, Jay Bybee memo to the CIA, the use of torture and rendition has a much earlier provenance. Over the past decade, many Americans have been shocked and disturbed about the CIA's secret program of rendition and torture carried out in numerous secret sites (dubbed "black sites" by the CIA) around the globe. The dimensions of this program for the most part are still classified "Eyes Only" in the intelligence community, but the program's roots can be clearly discovered in the early 1950's with the CIA's Artichoke Project. Perhaps the best and strangest case illustrating this can be found in the agency's own files. This is the so-called "Lyle O. Kelly case." The facts of this case are drawn from declassified government documents.

An Early Example of Torture and Rendition: "The Kelly Case"

In late January 1952, Morse Allen, a CIA Security Office official, was summoned to the office of his superior, security deputy chief Robert L. Bannerman, where he met with another agency official to discuss what Bannerman initially introduced as "the Kelly case." Wrote Allen, in a subsequent memorandum for his files, the official "explained in substance the Kelly case as follows: "Kelly, (whose real name is Dimitrov), is a 29-year-old Bulgarian and was the head of a small political party based in Greece and ostentively [sic] working for Bulgarian independence." The official described Dimitrov [whose first name was Dimitre] to Allen as "being young, ambitious, bright ... a sort of a 'man-on-a-horse' type but a typical Balkan politician."

The official continued explaining to Allen that months earlier CIA field operatives discovered that Dimitrov was seriously considering becoming a double agent for the French Intelligence Service. "Accordingly," states the memo, "a plot was rigged in which [Dimitrov] was told he was going to be assassinated and as a protective he was placed in custody of the Greek Police." Successfully duped, Dimitrov was then thrown into prison. There he was subjected to interrogation and torture, and he witnessed the brutal torture of other persons the CIA had induced authorities to imprison. Greek intelligence and law enforcement agencies were especially barbaric in their methods. Highly respected Operation Gladio historian Daniele Ganser describes the treatment of prisoners: "Their toes and fingernails were torn out. Their feet were beaten with sticks, until the skin came off and their bones were broken. Sharp objects were shoved into their vaginas. Filthy rags, often soaked in urine, and sometimes excrement, were pushed down their throats to throttle them, tubes were inserted into their anus and water driven in under very high pressure, and electro shocks were applied to their heads."

According to Allen's memo, after holding Dimitrov for six months the Greek authorities decided he was no more than "a nuisance" and they told the CIA "to take him back." Because the agency was unable to dispose of Dimitrov in Greece, the memo states, the CIA flew him to a secret interrogation center at Fort Clayton in Panama. In the 1950's, Fort Clayton, along with nearby sister installations Forts Amador and Gulick, the initial homes of the Army's notorious School of the Americas, served as a secret prison and interrogation centers for double agents and others kidnapped and spirited out of Europe and other locations. Beginning in 1951, Fort Amador, and reportedly Fort Gulick, were extensively used by the Army and the CIA as a secret experimental site for developing behavior modification techniques and a wide range of drugs, including "truth drugs," mescaline, LSD and heroin. Former CIA officials have also long claimed that Forts Clayton and Amador in the 1950's hosted a number of secret Army assassination teams that operated throughout North and South America, Europe and Southeast Asia.

There in Panama, Dimitrov was again aggressively interrogated, and then confined as "a psychopathic patient" to a high-security hospital ward at Fort Clayton. Allen's memo makes a point of stating: "[Dimitrov] is not a psychopathic personality."

The Artichoke Treatment

This remarkable summary brought the official to the purpose of his meeting with CIA security official Morse Allen. After months of confinement in Panama, Dimitrov had become a serious problem for the agency and the military officials holding him in the hospital. Dimitrov had become increasingly angry and bitter about his treatment and he was insisting that he be released immediately. Dimitrov, through his strong intellect and observation powers, was also witnessing a great deal of Project Artichoke activity and on occasion would engage military and agency officials in unauthorized conversations. The official explained to Allen that the CIA could release Dimitrov to the custody of a friend of his in Venezuela, but was prone not to because Dimitrov was now judged to have become extremely hostile toward the CIA. "Hence," explained the official, "[CIA] is considering an 'Artichoke' approach to [Dimitrov] to see if it would be possible to re-orient [Dimitrov] favorably toward us."

Wrote Allen in his subsequent summary memorandum: "This [Artichoke] operation, which will necessarily involve the use of drugs is being considered by OPC with a possibility that Dr. Ecke and Mike Gladych will carry out the operation presumably at the military hospital in Panama. Also involved in this would be a Bulgarian interpreter who is a consultant to this Agency since neither Ecke nor Gladych speak Bulgarian." Allen noted in his memo that security chief Bannerman "pointed out" that this type of operation could "only be carried out" with his or his superior's (security chief Sheffield Edwards) authorization, and "that under no circumstances whatsoever, could anyone but an authorized M.D. administer drugs to any subject of this Agency of any type." (The "Dr. Ecke" mentioned above was Dr. Robert S. Ecke of Brooklyn, New York, and Eliot, Maine, where he died in 2001. "Mike Gladych," according to former CIA officials, was a decorated wartime pilot who after the war became "deeply involved in black market trafficking in Europe and the US," and then in the early 1950's was recruited to join a "newly composed Artichoke Team operating out of Washington, DC.")

Allen also wrote that Bannerman was concerned that the military hospital at Fort Clayton may not approve of or permit an Artichoke operation to be conducted on the ward within which Dimitrov was being held, thus necessitating the movement of Dimitrov to another location in Panama. Lastly, Bannerman stated to the official and Allen that "[the CIA's Office of] Security [through its Artichoke Committee] would have to be cognizant" of the operation, and may even want to "run the operation themselves since this type of work is one which Security handles for the Agency. Here it is interesting to note that among the many members of the agency's Artichoke Committee in 1952 was Dr. Frank Olson, who would about a year later be murdered in New York City.

Morse Allen concluded his memo: "While the [Artichoke] technique that Ecke and Gladych are considering for use in this case is not known to the writer [Allen], the writer believes the approach will be made through the standard narco-hypnosis technique. Re-conditioning and re-orientating an individual in such a matter, in the opinion of the writer, cannot be accomplished easily and will require a great deal of time.... It is also believed that with our present knowledge, we would have no absolute guarantee that the subject in this case would maintain a positive friendly attitude toward us even though there is apparently a successful response to the treatment. The writer did not suggest to that perhaps a total amnesia could be created by a series of electro shocks, but merely indicated that amnesia under drug treatments was not certain." Interesting also is that Allen noted in his memo, about thirty days prior to his meeting, an official in the CIA's Technical Services Division, Walter Driscoll, discussed "the Kelly case" with him. No details of that discussion were provided.

About a month later, according to former CIA officials, after Artichoke Committee approval to subject Dimitrov to Artichoke techniques, a high-ranking CIA official objected to treating Dimitrov in such a manner. That objection delayed application of the techniques for about "three weeks." In March 1952, according to the same former officials, Dimitrov was "successfully given the Artichoke treatment in Panama for a period of about five weeks."

In late 1956, the CIA brought Dimitrov, at his request, to the United States. Apparently, the Agency felt comfortable enough with Dimitrov's diminished hostility and anger to agree to bring him to America from Athens, where he had returned for undetermined reasons. CIA files state, "The Agency made no further operation use of Dimitrov after he came to the United States, however, former CIA officials dispute this and relate that Dimitrov was "used on occasion for sensitive jobs."

This, however, was not the end of Dimitre Dimitrov's story.

After being relocated to the United States, Dimitrov either remained bitter or resumed his bitterness toward the CIA. In June 1960, he contacted the CIA's Domestic Contact Division and requested financial assistance for himself and additional covert support and assistance for activities against Bulgaria. In 1961, he contacted an editor at Parade, a Sunday newspaper magazine then with reported strong ties to the CIA, with the intention of telling his story. A Parade editor contacted the CIA and was informed, according to CIA documents, that Dimitrov was "an imposter" who was "disreputable, unreliable, and full of wild stories about the CIA."

About ten years after the JFK assassination, Dimitrov, operating sometimes under the aliases Lyle Kelly, James Adams, General Dimitre Dimitrov and Donald A. Donaldson, informed a number of people that he had information about who ordered the murder of JFK and who had committed the act. Reportedly, he had encountered the assassins while he had been imprisoned in Panama. He also told several people that he knew about military snipers who had murdered Martin Luther King. In 1977, Dimitrov actually met with US Sen. Frank Church, head of a Senate Committee investigating the CIA, and President Gerald Ford to share his information. Dimitrov said after the meeting that Ford had asked him to keep the information confidential until he could verify a number of facts. Immediately following the March 29, 1977, death of Lee Harvey Oswald's friend George de Mohrenschildt, Dimitrov became extremely frightened and contacted a reporter with a foreign television station who either mistakenly, or intentionally, revealed Dimitrov's name publicly on American television. Not long after this, Dimitrov disappeared in Europe where he had fled. He has never been seen or heard from since. Former CIA officials say privately, "Dimitrov was murdered" and "His body will never be found."

A 1977 memorandum written, before Dimitrov's disappearance, by an attorney in the CIA's General Counsel's Office, A. R. Cinquegrana, states: "[It appears] to me that the nature of the Agency's treatment of Dimitrov might be something which should be brought to the attention of appropriate officials both within and outside the Agency. The fact that he is still active and is making allegations connected with the Kennedy assassination may add yet another dimension to this story."

[B]Binyam Mohamed's Torture

Dimtrov's story takes on added significance when one considers the latest stories of the unraveling torture conspiracy and operations conducted by the American CIA and Department of Defense, in conjunction with their British allied organizations, and a host of other governments, including Israel, Jordan, Morocco, Pakistan, Poland and numerous others. After a series of exposures during the 1970's, many assumed the worst excesses of the Cold War torture research program, and its implementation in programs such as the CIA's Operation Phoenix in Vietnam were a fixture of the past. However, subsequent revelations, e.g. the appearance of a US-sponsored torture manual for use in Latin America in the 1980's, including documentation of torture by US forces in the immediate aftermath of 9/11 and the invasion of Afghanistan, demonstrate that a direct line exists between the torture and rendition programs of the past and the practices of the present day. Recently, articles have detailed how the 2006 rewrite of the Army Field Manual allowed for use of ongoing isolation, sleep deprivation, sensory deprivation, induction of fear and the use of drugs that cause temporary derangement of the senses.

The Binyam Mohamed story is unfortunately not unique, but it does demonstrate that the implementation of a SERE-derived experimental torture program began months before it was given legal cover by the memos written by John Yoo and Jay Bybee. Other stories, for instance of "War on Terror" captives being drugged and tortured, have been related by the prisoners themselves, by their attorneys, and by US and international rights agencies, including the International Committee of the Red Cross, whose report on the torture of CIA "high-value detainees" was leaked to Mark Danner of the New York Review of Books.

While Binyam in many ways had a very different personal background than Dimitrov, like the Bulgarian political leader, he was rendered to a US foreign ally for torture. He was drugged. He was considered unreliable and a "disposal" problem for US leaders, who kept secret the actual treatment they endured. Both were victims of a torture program run by the CIA. Both were sent from their foreign torturer back to US custody, where they endured intense psychological torture.

Binyam Mohamed was arrested in Pakistan in April 2002, where his torture, as evidenced by the latest UK court release, was supervised by US agents. This torture was akin to the treatment meted out to Abu Zubaydah. Binyam was subsequently sent to Morocco in July 2002, where he was hideously tortured for 18 months, including a period where multiple scalpel cuts were made to his penis, and a hot stinging fluid poured on the wounds in an attempt to get him to confess to a false "dirty bomb" plot. (The US only dropped the bombing claims in October 2008.) At one point, a British informer was used to try to "turn" Mohamed into an informant for the US or Britain, just as the Artichoke treatment was used to "re-orient" Dimitrov in a pro-US direction. Mohamed also indicated that he had been drugged repeatedly.

In January 2004, Binyam Mohamed was flown to a CIA "black" site in Afghanistan, the infamous "Dark Prison." Mohamed is one of five plaintiffs in an ACLU suit against Boeing subsidiary Jeppesen DataPlan Inc., which ran the aircraft for the CIA's "extraordinary rendition" program. According to an ACLU account:

In US custody, Mohamed was fed meals of raw rice, beans and bread sparingly and irregularly. He was kept in almost complete darkness for 23 hours a day and made to stay awake for days at a time by loud music and other frightening and irritating recordings, including the sounds of "ghost laughter," thunder, aircraft taking off and the screams of women and children.

Interrogations took place on almost a daily basis. As part of the interrogation process, he was shown pictures of Afghanis and Pakistanis and was interrogated about the story behind each picture. Although Mohamed knew none of the persons pictured, he would invent stories about them so as to avoid further torture. In May 2004, Mohamed was allowed outside for five minutes. It was the first time he had seen the sun in two years.

Amazingly, this was not the end of Mohamed's ordeal. From the Dark Prison he was sent to Bagram prison, and then later to Guantanamo. In August 2007, the British government petitioned the US for release of their subject. Eighteen months later, and after being subjected to more abuse at Guantanamo, he was finally able to leave US custody and return to Britain.

The Use of Drugs in Torture by the United States

The allegations of drugging by Mohamed and other prisoners are redolent of the use of hallucinogenic and other powerful mind-altering drugs by the US in its Artichoke, MK-ULTRA and other programs. A recent account, by Joby Warrick of The Washington Post, described some of these allegations of drugging of "detainees." The Post article subsequently led to an ongoing DoD Inspector General investigation into Possible Use of Mind Altering Substances by DoD Personnel during Interrogations of Detainees and/or Prisoners Captured during the War on Terror (D2007-DINT01-0092.005) "to determine if DoD personnel conducted, facilitated, or otherwise supported interrogations of detainees and /or prisoners using the threat or administration of mind altering drugs." According to his attorney's filings in the Jose Padilla case, Padilla, who was also originally implicated in the "dirty bomb" so-called plot with Binyam Mohamed, was forced to take LSD or other powerful drugs while held in solitary confinement in the Navy brig in South Carolina.

Another former Guantanamo prisoner, Mamdouh Habib, an Egyptian-born Australian Muslim released in 2005, has consistently told his tale of being subjected to electroshock, beatings and drugging while in US custody.

The CIA has been accused of involvement in continuing interrogation experimentation upon prisoners. The recent release of the previously censored summary of Mohamed's treatment in Pakistan notes that "The effects of the sleep deprivation were carefully observed." As Stephen Soldz notes in an article on the British court revelations, "Why were these effects being 'carefully observed' unless to determine their effectiveness in order to see whether they should be inflicted upon others? That is, the observations were designed to generate knowledge that could be generalized to other prisoners. The seeking of "generalizable knowledge" is the official definition of "research," raising the question of whether the CIA conducted illegal research upon Binyan Mohamed." The role of doctors, psychologists and other medical professionals in the CIA/DoD torture program has been condemned by a number of individuals in their respective fields, and by organizations such as Center for Constitutional Rights and Physicians for Human Rights.

Most recently, in an important article by Scott Horton at Harpers, the reexamination of the evidence in the supposed 2006 suicides of three prisoners at Guantanamo pointed to the possibility that the prisoners were killed in a previously unknown black site prison on the Guantanamo base - "Camp No" - run by the CIA or Joint Special Operations Command. This raises the question of why they were taken off site at all. One prisoner, 22-year-old Yasser Talal Al-Zahrani, had needle marks on both of his arms. The marks were notably not documented in the US military's autopsy report.

Where Do We Go From Here?

The tale of Dmitri Dimitrov documents the existence of a US-run torture and rendition program decades before the post-9/11 scandals of the Bush administration. Both the CIA and the Department of Defense have been implicated in both the research and implementation of torture for much of post-World War II US history. And yet, aside from the famous Church and Pike Congressional investigations of the 1970's, and the hearings and report from the Senate Armed Services Committee in 2008-09 on detainee abuse, the perpetrators of these crimes have gone unpunished. The current administration of President Barack Obama has clearly stated that it had little appetite to "look backwards" and seek accountability for the abuses of the past. Yet these abuses are never really "past," as the suffering of the victims and their families continues into the present. Additionally, the practice of torture, or use of "cruel, inhumane and degrading treatment" of prisoners has not ended, and the same generals, colonels, admirals and intelligence agency bureaucrats and politicians who have been linked to past programs are free to research or implement ongoing abuse of prisoners and experimentation.

This country needs a clear and definite accounting of its past and present use of torture. Like a universal acid, torture breaks down the sinews of its victims, and in the process, the links between people and their government are transformed into the naked exercise of pure sadistic power of rulers over the ruled. The very purpose of civilization is atomized in the process. We need a full, open and thorough public investigation into the entire history of the torture program, with full power to subpoena, and to refer those who shall be held accountable for prosecution under the due process of law.

Jan Klimkowski
02-17-2010, 06:38 PM
Austin - welcome to DPF, and thank you for posting that article.

Below is an obituary I found of Dr Ecke when I was researching the Dimitrov case a few years ago. The obituary acknowledges Ecke's CIA work:



ROBERT SKIDMORE ECKE

http://www.zoominfo.com/Search/PersonDetail.aspx?PersonID=76467548



1. Portsmouth Herald Obituaries from May 26, 2001
www.seacoastonline.com/news/5_ - [Cached]

Published on: 5/26/2001 Last Visited: 8/12/2001

Dr. Robert S. Ecke

ELIOT , Maine - Dr. Robert Skidmore Ecke , of Eliot , passed away Saturday , May 19 , 2001 , at Portsmouth Regional Hospital after a short illness.

Born in Brooklyn , N.Y. , Nov. 22 , 1909 , he was the son of the late Albert D. and Grace ( Dekker ) Ecke.

He was educated in New York City public schools and in 1931 graduated from Bowdoin College , receiving an A.B. degree cum laude in German , chemistry and biology. At college he also was a member of the varsity football team and president of Alpha Delta Phi fraternity.

In 1935 , he received his M.D. degree from Johns Hopkins University and following that was a surgical intern with the Baltimore City Hospitals in 1936 and a research fellow with Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in 1937. Prior to World War II , he was on the staff of Notre Dame Memorial Hospital in Twillingate , Newfoundland , Canada. His experiences there are recounted in his recent book , Snowshoe & Lancet..

During World War II , he served in the United States Army in the Medical Corps. Most of his service was in the European Theatre where he was decorated for meritorious service in connection with his work for the Typhus Commission. The work with the Typhus Commission took him to a number of countries in southern Europe and Africa during the latter stages of the war. During the last six months of the war , he served with the partisan forces in Yugoslavia and he pioneered typhus control in that country.

Immediately after World War II , while still in the Army , he served as a consultant to SHAEF and subsequently was honorably discharged as a lieutenant colonel. Following the war , he briefly served as medical director for Notre Dame Memorial Hospital. He left after a short term there and took on special projects with the CIA. He continued to work for the CIA until 1964. His official comment on this portion of his career was always No comment..

He then engaged himself in medical research until 1969. From 1969 through 1979 , he was in the private practice of medicine in Hartsdale , N.Y. In 1979 , he retired and moved to Eliot.

Jan Klimkowski
02-17-2010, 07:00 PM
“While the technique that Ecke and Gladych are considering for use in this case is not known to the writer, the writer believes the approach will be made through the standard narco-hypnosis technique. Re-conditioning and re-orienting an individual in such a matter, in the opinion of the writer, cannot be accomplished easily and will require a great deal of time and the fact that an interpreter is required in this case complicates it considerably more. It is also believed that with our present knowledge, we would have no absolute guarantee that the subject in this case would maintain a positive friendly attitude toward us even though there is apparently a positive response to the treatment. The writer did not suggest to [ 06 ] that perhaps a total amnesia could be created by a series of electro shocks, but merely indicated that amnesia under drug treatments were not certain.
MORSE ALLEN"

http://www.maryferrell.org/mffweb/archive/...amp;relPageId=8

This excerpt from the Artichoke documentation is further confirmation that narco-hypnosis and electro-shock techniques both to "re-condition" and "re-orient" the attitudes of individuals, and to attempt to wipe out memory, "total amnesia", were fairly advanced and operational by 1952.

The officially approved history of MK-ULTRA suggests that the CIA "discovered" Ewen Cameron's use of electroshock and "psychic driving" in a civilian programme in Canada in 1957. I contend that this is a cover story, or a limited hangout.

The official story suggests this aspect of mind control research travelled from the Civilian sphere (Cameron in Canada) to the Intelligence/Military sphere (MK-ULTRA funding) in the late 1950s. The opposite is almost certainly the case.

This conditioning/memory programming research was developed in the Intelligence/Military sphere (Bluebird/Artichoke) and was sufficiently successful for it to be tried in the Civilian sphere (Cameron's post-partum depression victims).

As usual, the official history is rubbish.

------------------------------------

On the specific issue of Dimitrov/Dmetroff/Donaldson/Kelly - the fact that he was linked to extreme anti-communist circles and was a Bulgarian working on "secret missions" in the Balkans in the immediate post-WW2 years (perhaps even
with US Presidential authorization), is reminiscent of DeMohrenschildt's White Russian background. I smell the likes of Gehlen & Gladio...

http://www.maryferrell.org/mffweb/archive/...mp;relPageId=11

Austin Kelley
02-17-2010, 08:59 PM
I do agree that the official history is rubbish, but I would daresay that some of the alternative histories (e.g. Acid Dreams) don't get to the roots of the problem either.

Assuming that these sorts of techniques were indeed rather well-developed by 1952, I'd venture a guess that their history had to have gone back further, including for example Cameron's activities with Rudolf Hess in the mid-'40's, Camp King in Germany in the period immediately after WW2, not to mention the Nazi endeavor during the War which somehow blessed the American program with its technique and knowledge. I'd also wonder what sort of activities like this might have preceded WW2...

I have a question also concerning the Panama allegations: Does anybody know the original source of these sorts of claims? Certainly there was something about black sites in the Canal Zone back in the '50's in Tim Weiner's Legacy of Ashes, and there were also claims made about Dan Mitrione's involvement with terminal experiments/teaching demonstrations of interrogation technique using homeless people from the streets of Panama City, but anything anyone knows concerning corroborating evidence would be greatly appreciated...

Jan Klimkowski
02-17-2010, 09:26 PM
Re Panama, here's some material:


Panama is a luverly place to mix up some potions:


US Army Tropic Test Site
As providers of equipment for use around the globe, it is frequently necessary for military materiel developers to meet the challenges posed by the world’s harsh climatic extremes. To ensure that humid tropic challenges are met, Army systems began to be tested systematically in the Panama Canal Zone in 1962, with the establishment of the Tropic Test Center (TTC) under the U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command. However, TTC history goes back much farther.

Several "crash" testing programs were instituted in Panama during World War II to ensure that military equipment deployed to tropical locations remained effective. Many years after the war, in 1962, the surviving activities were consolidated into one agency – the Tropic Test Center. Numbering well over 300 people during the Vietnam War days of the 1960’s, the organization has since been downsized and placed under the management of U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground.

The Tropic Test Center mission is to plan and conduct tropic environmental development tests on a wide variety of military systems, materials, weapons, and equipment of all conceivable types, sizes, configurations, and uses. The center’s laboratory facilities provide detailed information on tropic-induced failures and other environmental effects. All testing in Panama is conducted to the same stringent environmental protection standards as similar activities in the United States.

http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/facility/fort-clayton.htm

It all started with some covert Nazi business in the jungle:


The 5th Infantry left after WWI and returned to stay in Camp Paraiso from 1939 to 1943. The 2nd FA is the only other major US Army unit to be stationed at Clayton in those Pre WWII years. But we can claim the 33rd as our Canal Zone Reg. since it was born in the Zone.

The 33rd Infantry stayed in Clayton until December 7,1941 when virtually within hours they shipped out to Trinidad to set up the protection for the newly acquired Lend Lease Bases in Trinidad.

With German occupation of Holland the Dutch Queen had fled to Dutch Guiana and soon units of the 33rd Inf. came over to render protection for the queen and to thwart any attempt by Germany to move in more than was already happening. For secret Nazi bases had been set up in the jungles to supply U-Boats that would come up the river for provisions.

The troops of the 33rd Inf. battled hostile indians, the German camps and waylaid the U-Boats in ambush on the river. They were also there to insure the safe passage out of Bauxite ore which was so vital to our aircraft industry. These activities were kept a secret during the war and the 33rd Inf. returned home to Ft. Clayton in Feb.1946.

When the 33rd Inf. departed for war in 1941 they had at 25 years the longest record of continuous CZ service for any unit of the U.S. Army and were rightly considered the premier jungle trained unit in the Army. They were truly Zonians for no other unit like that had been born on the Zone.


http://www.czimages.com/CZMemories/Fort_Clayton/FC_index.htm


More than 130 tests were conducted on San Jose Island between May 1944 and the end of 1947.36 Many of the tests were "drop tests" involving aircraft that dropped chemical munitions into target areas. Others required troops to fire chemical mortars into the test areas, and still others involved more controlled use of munitions. In a very few cases, project reports indicate the use of chemical simulants, but in most live agent was employed.

The project divided the island into eleven areas, six of which were laid in grids for target areas. The three largest target areas, made up of overlapping squares, were about one square mile each in size. The chemical agents tested (and their military codes) included: mustard gas and distilled mustard (H, HD), phosgene (CG), cyanogen chloride (CK), hydrogen cyanide (AC), and Butane.37 One participant remembers that Lewisite was also tested.38

From available documents, the number of munitions tested are known for 18 of the 130 tests conducted on San Jose Island. Some 4,397 chemical munitions were fired in these 18 tests, for an average of 244 munitions fired in each test. Most of the munitions fired - 3,816 - were 4.2" mortars charged with Cyanogen Chloride, mustard, or phosgene, but the chemical munitions also included bombs from 100 pounds to 1,000 pounds in weight and 105mm Howitzer shells.

The San Jose Project also tested chemical munitions on the sea off of Panama in order to determine whether chemical warfare could be effective against enemy ships.39 In addition, according to a military map drawn up in 1946, tests included chemical spray on Iguana Island, which was also used as a conventional bombing range.40

A later military summary stated that "no nerve agents were tested" in San Jose.41 One participant in the project, however, tentatively asserted that nerve agent was tested there. Eugene Reid, a professional chemist by training, was drafted into the Chemical Warfare Service and served in Florida, Dugway Proving Ground and Edgewood Arsenal, as well as on San Jose. "Besides mustard, they were also testing newer things. Nerve gases, that was the hot thing then," Reid said in 1997. When subsequently asked for confirmation, he was less certain whether nerve agents were tested on San Jose. "I suspect very much that they were, but I can't say for sure they were used," he said.42

While neither the United States nor Great Britain had developed nerve agents of its own by 1945, the Allies had captured significant quantities of nerve agent from the Nazis as Germany receded before advancing Allied troops in the Spring of 1945, which is when Reid arrived in San Jose. The British felt that some of the stocks of captured German nerve agent should be "retained for possible use in the Far East" should the Allies invade Japan, an eventuality for which the San Jose Project was preparing.43

[...................................]

One of the San Jose tests, carried out between August 9 and August 15, 1944, sought "to determine if any difference existed in the sensitivity of Puerto Rican and Continental U.S. Troops to H gas [mustard]." A preliminary test involved ten Puerto Rican troops and ten "continental" (i.e., Anglo-Saxon) troops, which was followed by a fuller test involving 45 Puerto Rican soldiers and 44 "continental" soldiers. The men, who were "unfamiliar with the use of chemical agents," were "given a stiff course in gas discipline and the significance of H [mustard] lesions to casualty production." The tests involved applying liquid mustard to the under-surface of the forearms of each subject, then observed for three days. A summary of the test produced by Defense Secretary William Cohen in April 1998 implied that some men were hospitalized after they "sustain[ed] severe body burns or eye lesions." Men with less severe burns were simply returned to their barracks and expected to meet company formations.

http://www.forusa.org/programs/panama/archives/chem-report/part9.htm

During World War II, the military developed an increased interest in biological warfare, both defensive and offensive. The first action of the War Research Service, which was established in 1942 to investigate a variety of unconventional weapons, was to set up antibiological warfare programs in the United States and abroad -- including the Canal Zone and Puerto Rico -- under the auspices of the Surgeon General's office. These programs instructed medical and military officers in defensive measures against biological weapons.99 (This and all subsequent endnotes can be found here.)

In late 1947, the British Navy proposed to use U.S. facilities on San Jose Island to support biological warfare trials at sea, beginning in October 1948. Under the plan, the United States would provide 20 technicians, care for animals used in the experiments, and "shore base facilities" for recreation and ship maintenance. The military's Joint Strategic Plans Committee favored the experiments because they would "facilitate the obtaining of essential basic research data in the BW [biological warfare] field." But with the evacuation of San Jose Island in January 1948, the plan for using that island was scuttled. The experiments may have been carried out instead on Parham Sound in Antigua, which was considered as an alternate site.100

Since plans for the military use of biological agents focused on their transmission through aerial spray techniques, studies of aerosol spray patterns in Panama may have been designed to explore how biological agents could be used there. Dugway Proving Ground's technical library lists a number of such studies.101 However, chemical sprays and smoke devices also rely on aerial and meteorological data.

The National Institutes of Health's Middle America Research Unit (MARU) actively used biological agents in Panama. MARU was established in the 1950s, and worked closely with the Gorgas Memorial Laboratory. Located in a building in Ancon Heights, MARU "handled some of the deadliest and most infectious diseases known to medicine at the time," according to Carl J. Peters, a scientist who worked there in the 1960s. Peters emphasized the measures taken to contain the agents that the MARU technicians were working on, but noted that one lab technician accidentally contracted Bolivian hemorrhagic fever at the lab and died within a few days.

One disease in particular that MARU worked with was Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE), a naturally-occurring virus which incapacitates but generally does not kill its human victims. Instead, VEE begins abruptly with high fever, chills and aches and an intense aversion to light, then typically is gone within a week or two. In Central America in the 1960s, VEE attacked horses and mules, leaving many dead, and MARU sought to stem the disease's migration toward the United States through development of a vaccine. But Peters writes:


Nobler designs aside, however, the U.S. government had other reasons to be interested in VEE. The symptoms in humans are so incapacitating that VEE had been seen as a potential biological weapon. The army wanted to develop different categories of biological warfare agents: incapacitators as well as killers. With a relatively short incubation period of two to three days, VEE could be an ideal incapacitator: neutralizing an enemy population right before a battle without risk of killing innocent civilians or committing wartime atrocities. With that as a plan, the army had developed a vaccine to protect our troops in case an enemy tried to use it on them, or presumably in case the wind blew the wrong way the day they tried to use it on someone else.102

The army authorized MARU to test a live-attenuated vaccine on horses in the field, and Peters describes such tests on Costa Rica's Pacific coast. The Gorgas Memorial Laboratory also studied VEE among humans in Almirante from 1960 to 1962 and in Darién and the urban communities of Patoistown and Zegla in 1968, as well as in laboratory animals during the same periods. The studies included testing live vaccines of VEE on animal subjects.103

Exercises to test the military usefulness of VEE were carried out in Vietnam in the 1960s and on deserted islands in the Pacific, according to one account, but were put aside because allied troops could not be protected.104

VEE has persisted for long periods in Panama. Troops training at Fort Sherman in 1981 contracted it, an exposure that was linked to VEE in 1970, when the military was actively experimenting with VEE. The Walter Reed Army Institute of Research reported:


An outbreak of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE) occurred in a unit of military personnel who had gone to Panama for jungle training in 1981. Exposure was linked to training in October in an area of Fort Sherman that was previously implicated over ten years ago. An intensive serological survey identified five cases presenting with fever, chills and headaches. VEE remains a threat to U.S. forces deployed to specific areas of Central America.105

In addition, 1977 news accounts cited intelligence sources who claimed that in 1971 U.S. intelligence agents brought Swine flu from Fort Gulick (Espinar) in Panama to Cuba, where the flu apparently contaminated a large number of pigs. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization called the epidemic of swine flu that hit Cuba in 1971 the "most alarming event" of that year. According to the accounts, an intelligence agent was given a sealed unmarked container and instructed to deliver it to an anti-Castro group in Panama. Cuban exiles interviewed for the report said they received the container off Bocas del Toro in Panama and brought it to contacts to the small island of Navassa, whence it was shipped to Cuba in late March 1971. The first Cuban pigs contracted the flu on about May 6.106 Cuban authorities slaughtered half a million pigs in order to contain the epidemic.107

Apart from the above information, however, we have not located documentation of current contamination by military biological agents in Panama. We also have not found documents indicating the testing or use of Agent Orange or other defoliants in Panama, though we do not discount the possibility that defoliants may have been tested there.

In November 1969, President Nixon issued an executive order renouncing the use of all biological warfare agents, effectively ending any lawful development of the agents. The declaration led to the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention, which outlawed efforts to "develop, produce, stockpile, or otherwise acquire or retain" any biological weapons. The United States became one of the first parties to the convention. The U.S. military subsequently converted stockpiled biological agents into harmless fertilizer.


http://www.forusa.org/programs/panama/archives/chem-report/part4.htm

http://www.deeppoliticsforum.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1359

Jan Klimkowski
02-17-2010, 09:55 PM
In terms of trying to understand MK-ULTRA from the surviving record, this 1953 (partially declassified) memorandum on "Two Extremely Sensitive Research Programs" is crucial.

One of the "Extremely Sensitive Research Programs" is identified as "Covert studies of biological and chemical warfare", further defined as:



Research to develop a capability in the covert use of biological and chemical materials. This area involves the production of various physiological conditions which could support present or future clandestine operational. Aside from offensive potential, the development of a comprehensive capability in this field of covert chemical and biological warfare gives us a thorough knowledge of the enemy's theoretical potential, thus enabling us to defend ourselves against a foe who might not be as restrained in the use of these techniques as we are. For example: we intend to investigate the development of a chemical material which causes a reversible non-toxic aberrant mental state, the specific nature of which can be reasonably well predicted for each individual. this material could potentially aid in discrediting individuals, eliciting information, implanting suggestion and other forms of mental control.

The other "Extremely Sensitive Research Program" is totally redacted. However, it is possible to make educated guesses as to the redacted research area from examining the subject matter of MK-ULTRA sub-projects. It should be noted that it was considered acceptable for "Covert studies of biological and chemical warfare" to be visible (un-redacted) as part of the declassification process, but it was not considered acceptable for the other research area to be identified.



TAB A

xxxxxxx 87624
Copy # 1 of 5 copies

3 April 1953

MEMORANDUM FOR: Director, Central Intelligence

SUBJECT: Two Extremely Sensitive Research Programs

1. Approximately 6% of the TSS research and development effort lies in two highly sensitive fields in which it is not possible to conduct the work through the customary contracts for security reason and other considerations.

2. These two sensitive fields are:

a) Covert studies of biological and chemical warfare

B ) xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

3. Permission of the DCI is requested to handle work in these two fields in the manner outlined in Tab A without contracts and with reimbursement to be made against invoices properly certified by TSS.

4. All controls established in the PRC approval of the original Research Program (other than signing a contract) would remain unchanged. Periodic financial and progress reports will be made. All documents will be retained by TSS.

5. No new funds are involved. This procedure would apply to funds xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx previously approved for research.

6. Tab B is a memorandum to the Deputy Director (Administration) for your signature authorizing this procedure.



[Signature]
Richard Helms
Acting Deputy Director (Plans)

Attachments: (2)

Tab A - Description of Project MKULTRA and the controls which will be exercised over its execution

Tab B - Suggested Memorandum from DCI to DD/A authorizing payment of invoices under Project MKULTRA

Distribution:

Addressee - Orig & 1 w/attachments
DD/P - 1 w/attachments
TSS/OC - 1 w/attachments
Exec. REg. - 1 w/attachments

xxxxxxx 87624
Copy # 1 of 5 copies

TAB A

PROJECT MKULTRA

Extremely Sensitive Research and Development Programs

1. On 5 June 1952, the Project Review Committee approved the TSS Research Program for Fiscal Year 1953. [Three lines redacted]

2. The PRC approval authorized the Director of Research, at his discretion and with the approval of the Research Chairman, to apportion and obligate the research funds among individual projects, such projects to be subject to the usual Agency procedures and administrative controls.

3. This Research Program has been actively underway since the middle of 1952 and has gathered considerable momentum during the past few months. It is now evident on the basis of work currently underway that approximately 94% of the projects contemplated can be handled through regular procurement channels by means of customary contracts signed jointly by the Agency and the organization undertaking to carry out the work. It has also become apparent that approximately 6% of the projects are of such ultra-sensitive nature that they cannot and should not be handled by means of contracts which would associate CIA or the Government with the work in question. This 6% of the current research effort now lies entirely within two well-defined fields of endeavor, namely:

(a) Research to develop a capability in the covert use of biological and chemical materials. This area involves the production of various physiological conditions which could support present or future clandestine operational. Aside from offensive potential, the development of a comprehensive capability in this field of covert chemical and biological warfare gives us a thorough knowledge of the enemy's theoretical potential, thus enabling us to defend ourselves against a foe who might not be as restrained in the use of these techniques as we are. For example: we intend to investigate the development of a chemical material which causes a reversible non-toxic aberrant mental state, the specific nature of which can be reasonably well predicted for each individual. this material could potentially aid in discrediting individuals, eliciting information, implanting suggestion and other forms of mental control.

B ) [10 lines redacted]

4. It is highly undesirable from a policy and security point of view that contracts should be signed indicating Agency or government interest in either of these two fields. In a great many instances the work in field (a) must be conducted by individuals who are not and should not be aware of our interest. In all cases dealing with field (B ), it is mandatory that any connection with the Agency should be known only to an absolute minimum number of people who have been specifically cleared for this purpose. In no case should any manufacturer or supplier be aware of Government interest.

5. In many cases in field (a) where the researcher can be cleared and may be aware of our interest in the program, he is unwilling to have his name on a contract which remains out of his control in his files. Experience has shown that qualified, competent individuals in the field of pharmacological, physiological, psychiatric and other biological sciences are most reluctant to enter into signed agreements of any sort which connect them with this activity since such a connection would jeopardize their professional reputations.

6. Even internally in CIA, as few individuals as possible should be aware of our interest in these fields and of the identity of those who are working for us. At present this results in ridiculous contracts, often with cut-outs, which do not spell out the scope or intent of the work and which contain terms which the cut-out cannot incorporate in his contract with the researcher without revealing Government interest. Complete Government audits of such contracts are impossible for the same reason.

7. It is, therefore, requested that the DCI authorize TSS to handle 6% xxxxxxxx of the previously approved research budget for FY '53 without the establishment of formal contractual relations. This program will be known as Project MKULTRA.

8. It is suggested that payment of invoices under Project MKULTRA forwarded by TSS be authorized, provided that:

(a) the total of such invoices does not exceed 6% for Fiscal Year 1953;

(B ) the invoices carry a certification by the TSS Research Director that payment of funds is authorized and that the invoices represent work accomplished within the program approved by the DCI under Project MKULTRA as outlined in this memorandum;

c ) the invoices carry the certification of the Executive Secretary of the Research Board that the scope of the program has been approved;

(d) the invoices carry the certification of the cognizant TSS Division Chief that the work has been satisfactory from a technical point of view.

9. It should be emphasized that this authorization does not involve any new allocation of funds, but merely applies to a portion of a previously approved budget. The TSS certifications mentioned above will mean that:

(a) the project is being handled under the conditions set forth in this description and specifically falls within one of the two ultra-sensitive field mentioned above;

(B ) the project has been approved in the manner provided for in the PRC document which originally set up and approved the over-all TSS Research Program. Each project will thus have been presented by the Chief of the Division monitoring the work to the Research Director and to the Research Chairman and will have, as in the past, to be approved by both before any expenditures are made;

c ) technical control over the project will be exercised by the TSS Division Chief and Project Engineers to the same extent now applying to projects handled in the normal fashion. Technical reports will be rendered when necessary and advisable and will be available for inspection in TSS files at any time;


(d) in the case of each project, TSS will reach an understanding with the individuals who will perform the work as to the conditions under which the work will be performed and reimbursement arranged. No standard contract will be signed. In some cases when possible, a memorandum of agreement will be signed and retained in the TSS files. Under no circumstances would copies of such agreements leave TSS files where they will be kept available for inspection;

(e) the manner in which the work will be handled and methods of maintaining Agency and Government sterility will be worked out with the Inspection & Security Office as in the past, and clearance of individuals to the extent deemed necessary by TSS and I & SO will be obtained;

(f) invoices, when received by TSS, will be forwarded to Finance Division for payment and will be certified as outlined in Paragraph 8 above. Whenever documents are available supporting a portion or all of a given invoice, such as cancelled checks, receipted bills, etc., these will be requested by TSS and retained in TSS files in support of the invoice, where they will at all times be available for inspection. They will not be forwarded with the invoices. Such documents at best will cover only a portion of the total expenditures, and regular audit procedures will not be followed;

(g) other provisions and controls over the Research Program specified in the original PRC approval will remain unaltered. Technical progress under the separate projects handled under Project MKULTRA will be included whenever necessary in the regular progress reports now submitted by the Director of Research. The monthly budget and financial report being submitted by TSS to DD/A will include full financial information on these projects, including how much of the 6% has been committed, how much has been spent and how much remains.

20. The establishment and approval of Project MKULTRA will allow TSS to undertake highly desirable and necessary research in these two sensitive fields which would not be possible unless the work can be handled in this manner.

Distribution:

Address - Orig. & 1
DD/P - 1
TSS/OC - 1
Exec. Registry - 1

http://cryptome.org/mkultra-0003.htm

Austin Kelley
02-17-2010, 10:12 PM
Thank you, Jan- all great stuff.

I'm wondering where specifically this can lead us in deciphering the various techniques of MKULTRA, in particular the reprogramming methodology described in the original post.

Certainly CHATTER, BLUEBIRD, MKULTRA and MKSEARCH explored a wide variety of psychoactive substances that have potential applications for such activity. If I were guessing from what I have seen in the public record, I would wonder what role is played by anticholinergics such as Scopolamine, dissociatives such as PCP and Ketamine, hypnotics such as Benzodiazepines and Opioids, depressants such as Barbituates, stimulants such as Amphetamines, as well as the most commonly mentioned hallucinogens such as LSD and Mescaline.

I should emphasize that the above is mostly educated guesses, based on the little that is really known to me, so if anyone has a more informed opinion on this feel free to share it here.

Peter Lemkin
02-18-2010, 08:01 AM
Thank you, Jan- all great stuff.

I'm wondering where specifically this can lead us in deciphering the various techniques of MKULTRA, in particular the reprogramming methodology described in the original post.

Certainly CHATTER, BLUEBIRD, MKULTRA and MKSEARCH explored a wide variety of psychoactive substances that have potential applications for such activity. If I were guessing from what I have seen in the public record, I would wonder what role is played by anticholinergics such as Scopolamine, dissociatives such as PCP and Ketamine, hypnotics such as Benzodiazepines and Opioids, depressants such as Barbituates, stimulants such as Amphetamines, as well as the most commonly mentioned hallucinogens such as LSD and Mescaline.

I should emphasize that the above is mostly educated guesses, based on the little that is really known to me, so if anyone has a more informed opinion on this feel free to share it here.

Somewhere on this site, Magda {I think} had posted a link to a book written by someone who worked on all this. While the book is clearly trying to partly whitewash the worst of the events/crimes etc. [modified-limited hangout], he does seem to mention many important people and places used to testing....can't find the link...can anyone help point to it? Might be helpful to get and apply the negative template, with what we do already know......

Myra Bronstein
02-18-2010, 08:29 AM
...
Somewhere on this site, Magda {I think} had posted a link to a book written by someone who worked on all this. While the book is clearly trying to partly whitewash the worst of the events/crimes etc. [modified-limited hangout], he does seem to mention many important people and places used to testing....can't find the link...can anyone help point to it? Might be helpful to get and apply the negative template, with what we do already know......

Is it this book Peter?
Walter Bowart's book "Operation Mind Control - The Cryptocracy's Plan to Psychocivlise You"
http://www.deeppoliticsforum.com/forums/showthread.php?t=313

Magda Hassan
02-18-2010, 12:07 PM
Hi-

This article is important enough to motivate me to come out of lurk mode in order to post it. Thanks to all concerned. Excellent work!

Austin


http://www.truthout.org/the-real-roots-cias-rendition-black-sites-program56956

The Real Roots of the CIA's Rendition and Black Sites Program

Wednesday 17 February 2010
by: H.P. Albarelli Jr. and Jeffrey Kaye, t r u t h o u t | Op-Ed

On Tuesday, February 10, the British High Court finally released a "seven-paragraph court document showing that MI5 officers were involved in the ill-treatment of a British resident, Binyam Mohamed." The document is itself a summary of 42 classified CIA documents given to the British in 2002. .....

Thanks so much for posting this Austin (and welcome to the forum btw!) Hank Albarelli sent me this link this morning by email but when I checked it it was a 404 error. Don't know what happened over at Truth Out. Yes! important article so it was great to read it here.

Chris Bowen
02-18-2010, 03:21 PM
fascinating posts - thanks
I was actually googling William Sargent - the British spychiatrist - as some sources claim he influenced / preceded Cameron & came across this : interesting on chronology
( hopefully not corn )

http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/History/e1950/mkultra/Hearing04.htm

"TRUTH" DRUGS IN INTERROGATION

The search for effective aids to interrogation is probably as old as man's need to obtain information from an uncooperative source and as persistent as his impatience to shortcut any tortuous path. In the annals of police investigation, physical coercion has at times been substituted for painstaking and time-consuming inquiry in the belief that direct methods produce quick results. Sir James Stephens, writing in 1883, rationalizes a grisly example of "third degree" practices by the police of India: "It is far pleasanter to sit comfortably in the shade rubbing red pepper in a poor devil's eyes than to go about in the sun hunting up evidence."

More recently, police officials in some countries have turned to drugs for assistance in extracting confessions from accused persons, drugs which are presumed to relax the individual's defenses to the point that he unknowingly reveals truths he has been trying to conceal. This investigative technique, however humanitarian as an alternative to physical torture, still raises serious questions of individual rights and liberties. In this country, where drugs have gained only marginal acceptance in police work, their use has provoked cries of "psychological third degree" and has precipitated medico-legal controversies that after a quarter of a century still occasionally flare into the open.

The use of so-called "truth" drugs in police work is similar to the accepted psychiatric practice of narco-analysis; the difference in the two procedures lies in their different objectives. The police investigator is concerned with empirical truth that may be used against the suspect, and therefore almost solely with probative truth: the usefulness of the suspect's revelations depends ultimately on their acceptance in evidence by a court of law. The psychiatrist, on the other hand, using the same "truth" drugs in diagnosis and treatment of the mentally ill, is primarily concerned with psychological truth or psychological reality rather than empirical fact. A patient's aberrations are reality for him at the time they occur, and an accurate account of these fantasies and delusions, rather than reliable recollection of past events, can be the key to recovery.

The notion of drugs capable of illuminating hidden recesses of the mind, helping to heal the mentally ill and preventing or reversing the miscarriage of justice, has provided an exceedingly durable theme for the press and popular literature. While acknowledging that "truth serum" is a misnomer twice over -- the drugs are not sera and they do not necessarily bring forth probative truth -- journalistic accounts continue to exploit the appeal of the term. The formula is to play up a few spectacular "truth" drug successes and to imply that the drugs are more maligned than need be and more widely employed in criminal investigation than can officially be admitted.

Any technique that promises an increment of success in extracting information from an uncompliant source is ipso facto of interest in intelligence operations. If the ethical considerations which in Western countries inhibit the use of narco-interrogation in police work are felt also in intelligence, the Western services must at least be prepared against its possible employment by the adversary. An understanding of "truth" drugs, their characteristic actions, and their potentialities, positive and negative, for eliciting useful information is fundamental to an adequate defense against them.

This discussion, meant to help toward such an understanding, draws primarily upon openly published materials. It has the limitations of projecting from criminal investigative practices and from the permissive atmosphere of drug psychotherapy.


SCOPOLAMINE AS "TRUTH SERUM"

Early in this century physicians began to employ scopolamine, along with morphine and chloroform, to induce a state of "twilight sleep" during childbirth. A constituent of henbane, scopolamine was known to produce sedation and drowsiness, confusion and disorientation, incoordination, and amnesia for events experienced during intoxication. Yet physicians noted that women in twilight sleep answered questions accurately and often volunteered exceedingly candid remarks.

In 1922 it occurred to Robert House, a Dallas, Texas obstetrician, that a similar technique might be employed in the interrogation of suspected criminals, and he arranged to interview under scopolamine two prisoners in the Dallas county jail whose guilt seemed clearly confirmed. Under the drug, both men denied the charges on which they were held; and both, upon trial, were found not guilty. Enthusiastic at this success, House concluded that a patient under the influence of scopolamine "cannot create a lie... and there is no power to think or reason." [14 (http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/History/e1950/mkultra/Hearing04.htm#f14)] His experiment and this conclusion attracted wide attention, and the idea of a "truth" drug was thus launched upon the public consciousness.

The phrase "truth serum" is believed to have appeared first in a news report of House's experiment in the Los Angeles Record, sometime in 1922. House resisted the term for a while but eventually came to employ it regularly himself. He published some eleven articles on scopolamine in the years 1921-1929, with a noticeable increase in polemical zeal as time when on. What had begun as something of a scientific statement turned finally into a dedicated crusade by the "father of truth serum" on behalf of his offspring, wherein he was "grossly indulgent of its wayward behavior and stubbornly proud of its minor achievements." [11 (http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/History/e1950/mkultra/Hearing04.htm#f11)]
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Only a handful of cases in which scopolamine was used for police interrogation came to public notice, though there is evidence suggesting that some police forces may have used it extensively. [2 (http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/History/e1950/mkultra/Hearing04.htm#f02),16 (http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/History/e1950/mkultra/Hearing04.htm#f16)] One police writer claims that the threat of scopolamine interrogation has been effective in extracting confessions from criminal suspects, who are told they will first be rendered unconscious by chloral hydrate placed covertly in their coffee or drinking water. [16 (http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/History/e1950/mkultra/Hearing04.htm#f16)]

Because of a number of undesirable side effects, scopolamine was shortly disqualified as a "truth" drug. Among the most disabling of the side effects are hallucinations, disturbed perception, somnolence, and physiological phenomena such as headache, rapid heart, and blurred vision, which distract the subject from the central purpose of the interview. Furthermore, the physical action is long, far outlasting the psychological effects. Scopolamine continues, in some cases, to make anesthesia and surgery safer by drying the mouth and throat and reducing secretions that might obstruct the air passages. But the fantastically, almost painfully, dry "desert" mouth brought on by the drug is hardly conducive to free talking, even in a tractable subject.


THE BARBITURATES

The first suggestion that drugs might facilitate communication with emotionally disturbed patients came quite by accident in 1916. Arthur S. Lovenhart and his associates at the University of Wisconsin, experimenting with respiratory stimulants, were surprised when, after an injection of sodium cyanide, a catatonic patient who had long been mute and rigid suddenly relaxed, opened his eyes, and even answered a few questions. By the early 1930's a number of psychiatrists were experimenting with drugs as an adjunct to established methods of therapy.

At about this time police officials, still attracted by the possibility that drugs might help in the interrogation of suspects and witnesses, turned to a class of depressant drugs known as the barbiturates. By 1935 Clarence W. Muehlberger, head of the Michigan Crime Detection Laboratory at East Lansing, was using barbiturates on reluctant suspects, though police work continued to be hampered by the courts' rejection of drug-induced confessions except in a few carefully circumscribed instances.

The barbiturates, first synthesized in 1903, are among the oldest of modern drugs and the most versatile of all depressants. In this half-century some 2,500 have been prepared, and about two dozen of these have won an important place in medicine. An estimated three to four billion doses of barbiturates are prescribed by physicians in the United States each year, and they have come to be known by a variety of commercial names and colorful slang expressions: "goofballs," Luminal, Nembutal, "red devils," "yellow jackets," "pink ladies," etc. Three of them which are used in narcoanalysis and have seen service as "truth" drugs are sodium amytal (anobarbital), pentothal sodium (thiopental), and to a lesser extent seconal (seconbarbital).

As one pharmacologist explains it, a subject coming under the influence of a barbiturate injected intravenously goes through all the stages of progressive drunkenness, but the time scale is on the order of minutes instead of hours. Outwardly the sedation effect is dramatic, especially if the subject is a psychiatric patient in tension. His features slacken, his body relaxes. Some people are momentarily excited; a few become silly and giggly. This usually passes, and most subjects fall asleep, emerging later in disoriented semi-wakefulness.

The descent into narcosis and beyond with progressively larger doses can be divided as follows:

I. Sedative stage.

II. Unconsciousness, with exaggerated reflexes (hyperactive stage).

III. Unconsciousness, without reflex even to painful stimuli.

IV. Death.

Whether all these stages can be distinguished in any given subject depends largely on the dose and the rapidity with which the drug is induced. In anesthesia, stages I and II may last only two or three seconds.

The first or sedative stage can be further divided:

Plane 1. No evident effect, or slightly sedative effect.

Plane 2. Cloudiness, calmness, amnesia. (Upon recovery, the subject will not remember what happened at this or "lower" planes or stages.)

Plane 3. Slurred speech, old thought patterns disrupted, inability to integrate or learn new patterns. Poor coordination. Subject becomes unaware of painful stimuli.
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Plane 3 is the psychiatric "work" stage. It may last only a few minutes, but it can be extended by further slow injection of drug. The usual practice is to back into the sedative stage on the way to full consciousness.


CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES

The general abhorrence in Western countries for the use of chemical agents "to make people do things against their will" has precluded serious systematic study (at least as published openly) of the potentialities of drugs for interrogation. Louis A. Gottschalk, surveying their use in information-seeking interviews, [13 (http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/History/e1950/mkultra/Hearing04.htm#f13)] cites 136 references; but only two touch upon the extraction of intelligence information, and one of these concludes merely that Russian techniques in interrogation and indoctrination are derived from age-old police methods and do not depend on the use of drugs. On the validity of confessions obtained with drugs, Gottschalk found only three published experimental studies that he deemed worth reporting.

One of these reported experiments by D.P. Morris in which intravenous sodium amytal was helpful in detecting malingerers. [12 (http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/History/e1950/mkultra/Hearing04.htm#f12)] The subjects, soldiers, were at first sullen, negativistic, and non-productive under amytal, but as the interview proceeded they revealed the fact of and causes for their malingering. Usually the interviews turned up a neurotic or psychotic basis for the deception.

The other two confession studies, being more relevant to the highly specialized, untouched area of drugs in intelligence interrogation, deserve more detailed review.

Gerson and Victoroff [12 (http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/History/e1950/mkultra/Hearing04.htm#f12)] conducted amytal interviews with 17 neuropsychiatric patients, soldiers who had charges against them, at Tilton General Hospital, Fort Dix. First they were interviewed without amytal by a psychiatrist, who, neither ignoring nor stressing their situation as prisoners or suspects under scrutiny, urged each of them to discuss his social and family background, his army career, and his version of the charges pending against him.

The patients were told only a few minutes in advance that narcoanalysis would be performed. The doctor was considerate, but positive and forthright. He indicated that they had no choice but to submit to the procedure. Their attitudes varied from unquestioning to downright refusal.

Each patient was brought to complete narcosis and permitted to sleep. As he became semiconscious and could be stimulated to speak, he was held in this stage with additional amytal while the questioning proceeded. He was questioned first about innocuous matters from his background that he had discussed before receiving the drug. Whenever possible, he was manipulated into bringing up himself the charges pending against him before being questioned about them. If he did this in a too fully conscious state, it proved more effective to ask him to "talk about that later" and to interpose a topic that would diminish suspicion, delaying the interrogation on his criminal activity until he was back in the proper stage of narcosis.

The procedure differed from therapeutic narcoanalysis in several ways: the setting, the type of patients, and the kind of "truth" sought. Also, the subjects were kept in twilight consciousness longer than usual. This state proved richest in yield of admissions prejudicial to the subject. In it his speech was thick, mumbling, and disconnected, but his discretion was markedly reduced. This valuable interrogation period, lasting only five to ten minutes at a time, could be reinduced by injecting more amytal and putting the patient back to sleep.

The interrogation technique varied from case to case according to the background information about the patient, the seriousness of the charges, the patient's attitude under narcosis, and his rapport with the doctor. Sometimes it was useful to pretend, as the patient grew more fully conscious, that he had already confessed during the amnestic period of the interrogation, and to urge him, while his memory and sense of self-protection were still limited, to continue to elaborate the details of what he had "already described." When it was obvious that a subject was withholding the truth, his denials were quickly passed over and ignored, and the key questions would be rewarded in a new approach.

Several patients revealed fantasies, fears, and delusions approaching delirium, much of which could readily be distinguished from reality. But sometimes there was no way for the examiner to distinguish truth from fantasy except by reference to other sources. One subject claimed to have a child that did not exist,
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another threatened to kill on sight a stepfather who had been dead a year, and yet another confessed to participating in a robbery when in fact he had only purchased goods from the participants. Testimony concerning dates and specific places was untrustworthy and often contradictory because of the patient's loss of time-sense. His veracity in citing names and events proved questionable. Because of his confusion about actual events and what he thought or feared had happened, the patient at times managed to conceal the truth unintentionally.

As the subject revived, he would become aware that he was being questioned about his secrets and, depending upon his personality, his fear of discovery, or the degree of his disillusionment with the doctor, grow negativistic, hostile, or physically aggressive. Occasionally patients had to be forcibly restrained during this period to prevent injury to themselves or others as the doctor continued to interrogate. Some patients, moved by fierce and diffuse anger, the assumption that they had already been tricked into confessing, and a still limited sense of discretion, defiantly acknowledged their guilt and challenged the observer to "do something about it." As the excitement passed, some fell back on their original stories and others verified the confessed material. During the follow-up interview nine of the 17 admitted the validity of their confessions; eight repudiated their confessions and reaffirmed their earlier accounts.

With respect to the reliability of the results of such interrogation, Gerson and Victoroff conclude that persistent, careful questioning can reduce ambiguities in drug interrogation, but cannot eliminate them altogether.

At least one experiment has shown that subjects are capable of maintaining a lie while under the influence of a barbiturate. Redlich and his associates at Yale [25 (http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/History/e1950/mkultra/Hearing04.htm#f25)] administered sodium amytal to nine volunteers, students and professionals, who had previously, for purposes of the experiment, revealed shameful and guilt-producing episodes of their past and then invented false self-protective stories to cover them. In nearly every case the cover story retained some elements of the guilt inherent in the true story.

Under the influence of the drug, the subjects were crossexamined on their cover stories by a second investigator. The results, though not definitive, showed that normal individuals who had good defenses and no overt pathological traits could stick to their invented stories and refuse confession. Neurotic individuals with strong unconscious self-punitive tendencies, on the other hand, both confessed more easily and were inclined to substitute fantasy for the truth, confessing to offenses never actually committed.

In recent years drug therapy has made some use of stimulants, most notably amphetamine (Benzedrine) and its relative methamphetamine (Methadrine). These drugs, used either alone or following intravenous barbiturates, produce an outpouring of ideas, emotions, and memories which has been of help in diagnosing mental disorders. The potential of stimulants in interrogation has received little attention, unless in unpublished work. In one study of their psychiatric use Brussel et al. [7 (http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/History/e1950/mkultra/Hearing04.htm#f07)] maintain that methedrine gives the liar no time to think or to organize his deceptions. Once the drug takes hold, they say, an insurmountable urge to pour out speech traps the malingerer. Gottschalk, on the other hand, says that this claim is extravagant, asserting without elaboration that the study lacked proper controls. [13 (http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/History/e1950/mkultra/Hearing04.htm#f13)] It is evident that the combined use of barbiturates and stimulants, perhaps along with ataraxics (tranquilizers), should be further explored.


OBSERVATIONS FROM PRACTICE

J.M. MacDonald, who as a psychiatrist for the District Courts of Denver has had extensive experience with narcoanalysis, says that drug interrogation is of doubtful value in obtaining confessions to crimes. Criminal suspects under the influence of barbiturates may deliberately withhold information, persist in giving untruthful answers, or falsely confess to crimes they did not commit. The psychopathic personality, in particular, appears to resist successfully the influence of drugs.

MacDonald tells of a criminal psychopath who, having agreed to narco-interrogation, received 1.5 grams of sodium amytal over a period of five hours. This man feigned amnesia and gave a false account of a murder. "He displayed little or no remorse as he (falsely) described the crime, including burial of the body. Indeed he was very self-possessed and he appeared almost to enjoy the examination. From time to time he would request that more amytal be injected." [21 (http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/History/e1950/mkultra/Hearing04.htm#f21)]

MacDonald concludes that a person who gives false information prior to re-
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ceiving drugs is likely to give false information also under narcosis, that the drugs are of little value for revealing deceptions, and that they are more effective in releasing unconsciously repressed material than in evoking consciously suppressed information.

Another psychiatrist known for his work with criminals, L.Z. Freedman, gave sodium amytal to men accused of various civil and military antisocial acts. The subjects were mentally unstable, their conditions ranging from character disorders to neuroses and psychoses. The drug interviews proved psychiatrically beneficial to the patients, but Freedman found that his view of objective reality was seldom improved by their revelations. He was unable to say on the basis of the narco-interrogation whether a given act had or had not occurred. Like MacDonald, he found that psychopathic individuals can deny to the point of unconsciousness crimes that every objective sign indicates they have committed. [10 (http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/History/e1950/mkultra/Hearing04.htm#f10)]

F.G. Inbau, Professor of Law at Northwestern University, who has had considerable experience observing and participating in "truth" drug tests, claims that they are occasionally effective on persons who would have disclosed the truth anyway had they been properly interrogated, but that a person determined to lie will usually be able to continue the deception under drugs.

The two military psychiatrists who made the most extensive use of narcoanalysis during the war years. Roy R. Grinker and John C. Spiegel, concluded that in almost all cases they could obtain from their patients essentially the same material and give them the same emotional release by therapy without the use of drugs, provided they had sufficient time.

The essence of these comments from professionals of long experience is that drugs provide rapid access to information that is psychiatrically useful but of doubtful validity as empirical truth. The same psychological information and a less adulterated empirical truth can be obtained from fully conscious subjects through non-drug psychotherapy and skillful police interrogation.


APPLICATION TO CI INTERROGATION

The almost total absence of controlled experimental studies of "truth" drugs and the spotty and anecdotal nature of psychiatric and police evidence require that extrapolations to intelligence operations be made with care. Still, enough is known about the drugs' actions to suggest certain considerations affecting the possibilities for their use in interrogation.

It should be clear from the foregoing that at best a drug can only serve as an aid to an interrogator who has a sure understanding of the psychology and techniques of normal interrogation. In some respects, indeed, the demands on his skill will be increased by the baffling mixture of truth and fantasy in drug-induced output. And the tendency against which he must guard in the interrogate to give the responses that seem to be wanted without regard for facts will be heightened by drugs: the literature abounds with warnings that a subject in narcosis is extremely suggestible.

It seems possible that this suggestibility and the lowered guard of the narcotic state might be put to advantage in the case of a subject feigning ignorance of a language or some other skill that had become automatic with him. Lipton [20 (http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/History/e1950/mkultra/Hearing04.htm#f20)] found sodium amytal helpful in determining whether a foreign subject was merely pretending not to understand English. By extension, one can guess that a drugged interrogatee might have difficulty maintaining the pretense that he did not comprehend the idiom of a profession he was trying to hide.

There is the further problem of hostility in the interrogator's relationship to a resistance source. The accumulated knowledge about "truth" drug reaction has come largely from patient-physician relationships of trust and confidence. The subject in narcoanalysis is usually motivated a priori to cooperate with the psychiatrist, either to obtain relief from mental suffering or to contribute to a scientific study. Even in police work, where an atmosphere of anxiety and threat may be dominant, a relationship of trust frequently asserts itself: the drug is administered by a medical man bound by a strict code of ethics; the suspect agreeing to undergo narcoanalysis in a desperate bid for corroboration of his testimony trusts both drug and psychiatrist, however apprehensively; and finally, as Freedman and MacDonald have indicated, the police psychiatrist frequently deals with a "sick" criminal, and some order of patient-physician relationship necessarily evolves.
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Rarely has a drug interrogation involved "normal" individuals in a hostile or genuinely threatening milieu. It was from a non-threatening experimental setting that Eric Lindemann could say that his "normal" subjects "reported a general sense of euphoria, ease and confidence, and they exhibited a marked increase in talkativeness and communicability." [18 (http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/History/e1950/mkultra/Hearing04.htm#f18)] Gerson and Victoroff list poor doctor-patient rapport as one factor interfering with the completeness and authenticity of confessions by the Fort Dix soldiers, caught as they were in a command performance and told they had no choice but to submit to narco-interrogation.

From all indications, subject-interrogation rapport is usually crucial to obtaining the psychological release which may lead to unguarded disclosures. Role-playing on the part of the interrogator might be a possible solution to the problem of establishing rapport with a drugged subject. In therapy, the British narco-analyst William Sargent recommends that the therapist deliberately distort the facts of the patient's life-experience to achieve heightened emotional response and abreaction. [27 (http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/History/e1950/mkultra/Hearing04.htm#f27)] In the drunken state of narcoanalysis patients are prone to accept the therapist's false constructions. There is reason to expect that a drugged subject would communicate freely with an interrogator playing the role of relative, colleague, physician, immediate superior, or any other person to whom his background indicated he would be responsive.

Even when rapport is poor, however, there remains one facet of drug action eminently exploitable in interrogation -- the fact that subjects emerge from narcosis feeling they have revealed a great deal, even when they have not. As Gerson and Victoroff demonstrated at Fort Dix, this psychological set provides a major opening for obtaining genuine confessions.


POSSIBLE VARIATIONS

In studies by Beecher and his associates, [3-6 (http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/History/e1950/mkultra/Hearing04.htm#f03)] one-third to one-half the individuals tested proved to be placebo reactors, subjects who respond with symptomatic relief to the administration of any syringe, pill, or capsule, regardless of what it contains. Although no studies are known to have been made of the placebo phenomenon as applied to narco-interrogation, it seems reasonable that when a subject's sense of guilt interferes with productive interrogation, a placebo for pseudo-narcosis could have the effect of absolving him of the responsibility for his acts and thus clear the way for free communication. It is notable that placebos are most likely to be effective in situations of stress. The individuals most likely to react to placebos are the more anxious, more self-centered, more dependent on outside stimulation, those who express their needs more freely socially, talkers who drain off anxiety by conversing with others. The non-reactors are those clinically more rigid and with better than average emotional control. No sex or I.Q. differences between reactors and non-reactors have been found.

Another possibility might be the combined use of drugs with hypnotic trance and post-hypnotic suggestion: hypnosis could presumably prevent any recollection of the drug experience. Whether a subject can be brought to trance against his will or unaware, however, is a matter of some disagreement. Orne, in a survey of the potential uses of hypnosis in interrogation, [23 (http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/History/e1950/mkultra/Hearing04.htm#f23)] asserts that it is doubtful, despite many apparent indications to the contrary, that trance can be induced in resistant subjects. It may be possible, he adds, to hypnotize a subject unaware, but this would require a positive relationship with the hypnotist not likely to be found in the interrogation setting.

In medical hypnosis, pentothal sodium is sometimes employed when only light trance has been induced and deeper narcosis is desired. This procedure is a possibility for interrogation, but if a satisfactory level of narcosis could be achieved through hypnotic trance there would appear to be no need for drugs.

DEFENSIVE MEASURES

There is no known way of building tolerance for a "truth" drug without creating a disabling addiction, or of arresting the action of a barbiturate once induced. The only full safeguard against narco-interrogation is to prevent the administration of the drug. Short of this, the best defense is to make use of the same knowledge that suggests drugs for offensive operations: if a subject knows that on emerging from narcosis he will have an exaggerated notion of how much he has revealed he can better resolve to deny he has said anything.
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The disadvantages and shortcomings of drugs in offensive operations become positive features of the defensive posture. A subject in narco-interrogation is garbled and irrational, the amount of output drastically diminished. Drugs disrupt established thought patterns, including the will to resist, but they do so indiscriminately and thus also interfere with the patterns of substantive information the interrogator seeks. Even under the conditions most favorable for the interrogator, output will be contaminated by fantasy, distortion, and untruth.

Possibly the most effective way to arm oneself against narco-interrogation would be to undergo a "dry run." A trial drug interrogation with output taped for playback would familiarize an individual with his own reactions to "truth" drugs, and this familiarity would help to reduce the effects of harassment by the interrogator before and after the drug has been administered. From the viewpoint of the intelligence service, the trial exposure of a particular operative to drugs might provide a rough benchmark for assessing the kind and amount of information he would divulge in narcosis.

There may be concern over the possibility of drug addiction intentionally or accidentally induced by an adversary service. Most drugs will cause addiction with prolonged use, and the barbiturates are no exception. In recent studies at the U.S. Public Health Service Hospital for addicts in Lexington, Ky., subjects received large doses of barbiturates over a period of months. Upon removal of the drug, they experienced acute withdrawal symptoms and behaved in every respect like chronic alcoholics.

Because their action is extremely short, however, and because there is little likelihood that they would be administered regularly over a prolonged period, barbiturate "truth" drugs present slight risk of operational addiction. If the adversary service were intent on creating addiction in order to exploit withdrawal, it would have other, more rapid means of producing states as unpleasant as withdrawal symptoms.

The hallucinatory and psychotomimetic drugs such as mescaline, marihuana, LSD-25, and microtine are sometimes mistakenly associated with narcoanalytic interrogation. These drugs distort the perception and interpretation of the sensory input to the central nervous system and affect vision, audition, smell, the sensation of the size of body parts and their position in space, etc. Mescaline and LSD-25 have been used to create experimental "psychotic states," and in a minor way as aids in psychotherapy.

Since information obtained from a person in a psychotic drug state would be unrealistic, bizarre, and extremely difficult to assess, the self-administration of LSD-25, which is effective in minute dosages, might in special circumstances offer an operative temporary protection against interrogation. Conceivably, on the other hand, an adversary service could use such drugs to produce anxiety or terror in medically unsophisticated subjects unable to distinguish drug-induced psychosis from actual insanity. An enlightened operative could not be thus frightened, however, knowing that the effect of these hallucinogenic agents is transient in normal individuals.

Most broadly, there is evidence that drugs have least effect on well-adjusted individuals with good defenses and good emotional control, and that anyone who can withstand the stress of competent interrogation in the waking state can do so in narcosis. The essential resources for resistance thus appear to lie within the individual.


CONCLUSIONS

The salient points that emerge from this discussion are the following. No such magic brew as the popular notion of truth serum exists. The barbiturates, by disrupting defensive patterns, may sometimes be helpful in interrogation, but even under the best conditions they will elicit an output contaminated by deception, fantasy, garbled speech, etc. A major vulnerability they produce in the subject is a tendency to believe he has revealed more than he has. It is possible, however, for both normal individuals and psychopaths to resist drug interrogation; it seems likely that any individual who can withstand ordinary intensive interrogation can hold out in narcosis. The best aid to a defense against narco-interrogation is foreknowledge of the process and its limitations. There is an acute need for controlled experimental studies of drug reaction, not only to depressants but also to stimulants and to combinations of depressants, stimulants, and ataraxics.
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REFERENCES

1. Adams, E. Barbiturates. Sci. Am., Jan. 1958, 198 (1), 60-64

2. Barkham, J. Truth Drugs: The new crime solver. Coronet, Jan. 1951, 29, 72-76.

3. Beecher, H. K. Anesthesia. Sci. Am., Jan. 1957, 198, p. 70.

4. -----. Appraisal of drugs intended to alter subjective responses, symptoms. J. Amer. Med. Assn., 1955, 158, 399-401.

5. -----. Evidence for increased effectiveness of placebos with increased stress. Amer. J. Physiol., 1956, 187, 163-169.

6. -----. Experimental pharmacology and measurement of the subjective response. Science, 1953, 116. 157-162.

7. Brussel, J. A., Wilson, D. C., Jr., & Shankel, L. W. The use of methedrine in psychiatric practice. Psychiat. Quart., 1954, 28, 381-394.

8. Delay, J. Pharmacologic explorations of the personality: narcoanalysis and "methedrine" shock. Proc. Roy. Soc. Med., 1949, 42, 492-496.

9. deRopp, R. S. Drugs and the Mind. New York: Grove Press, Inc., 1960.

10. Freedman, L. Z. "Truth" drugs. Sci. Am., March 1960. 145-154.

11. Geis, G. In scopolamine veritas. The early history of drug-induced statements. J. of Crim. Law., Criminal, & Pol. Sci., Nov.-Dec. 1959, 50 (4), 347-358.

12. Gerson, M. J. & Victoroff, V. Experimental investigation into the validity of confessions obtained under sodium amytal narcosis. J. Clin. and Exp. Psychopath., 1948, 9, 359-375.

13. Gottschalk, L. A. The use of drugs in information-seeking interviews. Technical report #2, ARDC Study SR 177-D Contract AF 18 (600) 1797. Dec. 1958. Bureau of Social Science Research, Inc.

14. House, R. E. The use of scopolamine in criminology. Texas St. J. of Med., 1922, 18, 259.

15. Houston, F. A preliminary investigation into abreaction comparing methedrine and sodium amytal with other methods. J. Ment. Sci., 1952, 98, 707-710.

16. Inbau, F. G. Self-incrimination. Springfield: C. C. Thomas, 1950.

17. Kidd, W. R. Police interrogation. 1940.

18. Legal dose of truth. Newsweek, Feb. 23, 1959, 28.

19. Lindemann, E. Psychological changes in normal and abnormal individuals under the influence of sodium amytal. Amer. J. Psychiat., 1932, 11, 1083-1091.

20. Lipton, E. L. The amytal interview. A review. Amer. Practit. Digest Treatm., 1950, 1, 148-163.

21. MacDonald, J. M. Narcoanalysis and criminal law. Amer. J. Psychiat., 1954, 111, 283-288.

22. Morris, D. P. Intravenous barbiturates: an aid in the diagnosis and treatment of conversion hysteria and malingering. Mil. Surg., 1945, 96, 509-513.

23. Orne, M. T. The potential uses of hypnosis in interrogation. An evaluation. ARDC Study SR 177-D Contract AF 18 (600) 1797, Dec. 1958. Bureau of Social Science Research, Inc.

24. Pelikan, E. W., & Kensler, C. J. Sedatives: Their pharmacalogy and uses. Reprint from The Medical Clinics of North America. W. B. Saunders Company, Sept. 1958.

25. Redlich, F. C., Ravitz, L. J., & Dression, G. H. Narcoanalysis and truth. Amer. J. Psychiat., 1951, 107, 586-593.

26. Rolin, J. Police Drugs. Translated by L. J. Bendit. New York: Philosophical Library, 1956.

27. Sargant, W., & Slater, E. Physical methods of treatment in psychiatry. (3rd. ed.) Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1954.

28. Snider, R. S. Cerebellum. Sci. Am., Aug. 1958, 84.

29. Uhr, L., & Miller, L. G. (eds.). Drugs and Behavior. New York-London: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1960.

Austin Kelley
02-18-2010, 04:11 PM
Chris, I think you are right about William Sargant- he is a very significant figure in all this, and he was certainly part of a British military psychology initiative that was very active during WW2. Many of his associates had history with studies of shell-shocked soldiers before the War, too. As far as the early Cold War alliance that included Britain, the United States and Canada in a secret quest to develop mind control techniques, Cameron and Sargant both loom large.

As to the MKULTRA document on truth drugs, like most of what came out of those hearings in the 70's, it conceals as much as it reveals. While I do think it catalogues some drugs of operational interest, it creates a misleading standard of a instantaneous and completely effective "truth serum" and then concludes that there is no such perfect nostrum for instant and total truth in interrogation. End of story?

In reality, what these people succeeded in developing are sophisticated combinations of techniques for varied and nuanced goals. "Hypnosis" or "narco-hypnosis" can be considered as code-words for an array of techniques centered on programming in all the possible senses which that can be applied to the human mind, albeit programming that occurs during an especially dissociated and suggestible state.

Cameron's notorious "psychic-driving" experiments point us in this direction but no doubt there is much more to the story as practiced by Orne, West, Bryan, Roquet and the many, many others of that ilk. Related technologies have also increased exponentially in the years since that early Cold War era as well, notably in the realms of psychopharmacology and virtual reality.

So what are the actual techniques of today's mind controllers?

It's difficult to know for sure, but certainly fear, trauma, physical pain, dread, drugs, mileu control, sensory deprivation, selective award of favors, "hypnosis", etc., etc., etc., all have their place. NLP, Ericksonian Hypnosis, DDD (Dependence, Debility, Dread), Learned Helplessness Theory and the more secretive methodologies all have their place in guiding the use of these techniques but this must be only the tip of the proverbial iceberg...

Keith Millea
02-18-2010, 05:39 PM
So what are the actual techniques of today's mind controllers?

I can't answer that question,but I have another.Why is it that drugs such as ketamine are readily available to the masses today?I've read that ketamine(aka Keyhole)is gaining much popularity amongst the subculture,and especially at gatherings like "Raves".Ketamine (dissociative) is a terrible drug,and highly addictive.Dr.John Lilly(MK-Ultra)even became addicted to it.


From my readings,it seems that the CIA tried to manipulate and control the counter culture of the sixties with the widespread dissemination of drugs like LSD in order to destroy it.It really didn't work.Many people found LSD to be a life altering experience,and for the better.Many even having intense (real) spiritual awakenings.This matter of the spirituallity of some substances is probably a subject for another thread.


So what I'm getting at here,is maybe the same kinds of operations are ongoing today.Although with the use of dissociatives instead of psychedelics.Sort of a lessons learned evolution for those who would use any means possible to destroy any rebellious sub-culture.

Austin Kelley
02-18-2010, 06:08 PM
Hi Keith-

My perspective is that all types of illegal drugs trafficked in the U.S. have flourished in part through selective enforcement, and indeed through outright collaboration between traffickers and enforcement/military/intel agencies. This includes psychedelics like LSD, and quite possibly Ketamine also- not just white powders by any means.

Assuming this is so, one inevitably arrives at questions concerning social engineering, human experimentation, profiteering and etc. as possible motivation.

Maybe your friendly neighborhood rave is ground zero for some kind of experiments involving Ketamine- not sure. I do remember that "Dr. Death" and his associates in the South African chemical/biological warfare underground made a huge amount of now-unaccounted-for Mandrax and MDMA, ostensibly for "crowd control". Did some of it wind up in local- or international- discos and house parties?


Austin

Jan Klimkowski
02-18-2010, 06:50 PM
I often use "MK-ULTRA" as an umbrella term to apply to the various attempts, conducted by various covert agencies, to control human minds.

There's plenty of material in the thread linked below, which includes a sketch of my sense, based on decades of research and numerous interviews with people who believe they were the subjects of mind control experimentation, of the scientific and logistical framework in which these events took place:

http://www.deeppoliticsforum.com/forums/showthread.php?t=223

I am 100% certain that there were British "MK-ULTRA" programmes. I am also certain that the merest glimpses of those programmes have become visible.

However, William Sargant (note spelling) is clearly implicated as a military doctor engaged in entirely unethical and apparently unconstrained "mind control" research on human subjects.


Magda - good find, thank you for posting.

There are a couple of interesting footsteps in the snow, blizzard-swept tracks, of the secret British "MK-ULTRA" programme in the article above.

Ultimately though, no real attempt is made to pursue them, to follow those traces to their source.

In addition, no mention is made of Prof Major Kennedy's likely military and Maudsley Hospital colleague, Dr William Sargant.

I wrote the following about Sargent here:


Many soldiers whose psyches had been fragmented by the experience of terrible events, and were suffering from what we now term Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, effectively became experimental subjects. Whilst many of the shellshock doctors had the best of intentions, others were directly involved in the mind control programmes. For instance, perhaps the most famous of all the British shellshock doctors, William Sargant, collaborated extensively with Ewen Cameron and Sidney Gottlieb of MK-ULTRA notoriety. Sargant even betrayed CIA doctor Frank Olson to Gottlieb when Olson described his horror at witnessing terminal mind control experiments in 1953, probably either in Britain or in former IG Farben buildings in Frankfurt which were by then occupied by the CIA. Olson's son, Eric, has good evidence that his father was subsequently murdered by CIA elements

The top level glimpse into Prof Major Kennedy's CV, and the fact that he spoke about British use of brainwashing techniques, requiring a rebuttal from the Prime Minister no less, suggests that this military shrink was a British version of America's Naval Lt Cmdr Dr Narut, with his confession of constructed assassins.

http://www.deeppoliticsforum.com/forums/showpost.php?p=9276&postcount=10


Some wiki material about Sargant. It contains some errors of interpretation, in my judgement:


William Walters Sargant (24 April 1907 - 27 August 1988), was a British psychiatrist who is now famous for his work with shell-shocked servicemen during World War Two, and later for his book entitled Battle for the Mind in which he discusses the nature of the process by which our minds are subject to influence by others. Sargant was also heavily involved to the end of his career with the Intelligence Services, including the CIA Project MKULTRA.

Trained at the Maudsley Hospital, South London. Sargant established a unit at Belmont Hospital during World War Two for the treatment of shell-shocked servicemen. There, along with Eliot Slater, he was a pioneer and advocate of physical methods of treatment in psychiatry such as ECT, continuous narcosis, insulin coma therapy and psychosurgery. His enthusiasm for such methods grew partly out of contempt for psychoanalysis, which was hugely popular among British psychiatrists between the wars. As an exponent of biological psychiatry, he regarded psychoanalysis as worse than useless in treating severe mental illness.

Founder and Director of the Department of Psychological Medicine at St Thomas' Hospital in London, where he promoted physical treatments in psychiatry, and had his in-patients referred by consultants from all over the UK at the adjacent Royal Waterloo Hospital. He was also a consultant to the British Secret Intelligence Service (MI5/MI6). In 1953 he associated with Frank Olson, Deputy Acting Head of Special Operations for the CIA, investigating the use of mind-bending drugs at the Biological Warfare Centre at Porton Down.[1]

In 1944 he collaborated with Slater in writing An Introduction to Physical Methods of Treatment in Psychiatry, a textbook on biological psychiatry that included lobotomy and shock therapy and remained in print for three decades.

In 1957 William Sargant published one of the first books on the psychology of brainwashing, Battle for the Mind. While this book is often referred to as a work on 'brainwashing', and indeed it is subtitled a Physiology of Conversion and Brainwashing, Sargant emphasises that his aim is to elucidate the processes involved rather than advocate uses. In the book he refers particularly to religious phenomena and in particular Christian methodism, emphasising the apparent need for those who would change people's minds to first excite them, as did the founder of Methodism, John Wesley.

Sargant connected Pavlov’s findings to the ways people learned and internalized belief systems. Conditioned behavior patterns could be changed by stimulated stresses beyond a dog’s capacity for response, in essence causing a breakdown. This could also be caused by intense signals, longer than normal waiting periods, rotating positive and negative signals and changing a dog’s physical condition, as through illness. Depending on the dog’s initial personality, this could possibly cause a new belief system to be held tenaciously. Sargant also connected Pavlov’s findings to the mechanisms of brain-washing in religion and politics.[2]

William Sargant was a pioneer in methods of placing false memories into patients. He attested at the 1977 U.S. Senate hearing, "that the therapist should deliberately distort the facts of the patient's life-experience to achieve heightened emotional response and abreaction. In the drunken state of narcoanalysis patients are prone to accept the therapist's false constructions."

[edit] Mind Control
[edit] Sargant, Ewen Cameron and MKULTRA
Sargant and Dr Ewen Cameron of Project MKULTRA notoriety, were friends and colleagues who shared and exchanged views and information on brainwashing and de-patterning techniques and their mutual researches in this area. Both men had extensive CIA and British Secret Intelligence Service connections.[3]

The aim of Cameron, Sargant and the CIA’s researches was to find a way to obliterate the memories of an allied spy ('de-patterning') and implant false memories at a deep level so that if that spy was captured in his adoptive country, he would be incapable under duress or even torture of revealing his true American/British allegiance. He would only be able to reveal the falsely implanted memories that supported his assumed persona. This concept became termed 'The Manchurian Candidate' after the novel. The extensive use of 'heroic' doses of ECT combined with Deep Sleep Treatment (narcosis), anti-depressants, tape-loops, insulin coma therapy, and other drugs in this context, was designed to induce catastrophic memory loss which would then supposedly be replaced with false memories and ideas (via tape loops, hypnosis, LSD or conversations while the person was drugged).

The CIA eventually became disillusioned with the research, saying it produced only 'amnesiacs and vegetables', but not until Cameron and Sargant between them had destroyed the health, memories and lives of countless patients.[4]

The author and psychiatrist Harvey Weinstein has established a direct link between Sargant's research on brainwashing and political conversion, and the research aspect of Cameron's work for MKULTRA. Cameron wrote in a paper on 'The Transition Neurosis': 'Sargant has described what little we know of the dynamics of these political and religious conversions and has attempted to duplicate them but from what we gather, with somewhat limited success. He used depleting emetics. We have explored this procedure in one case, using sleeplessness, disinhibiting agents, and hypnosis.'[5] Cameron often sought Sargant's advice and on one occasion Sargant sent Cameron a note saying 'Whatever you manage in this field, I thought of it first.' [6]

In addition to LSD, Cameron also experimented with various paralytic drugs, as well as electroconvulsive therapy at 30 to 40 times the normal power. His "driving" experiments consisted of putting subjects into drug-induced coma for months on end (up to three in one case) while playing tape loops of noise or simple repetitive statements. His experiments were typically carried out on patients who had entered the institute for minor problems such as anxiety disorders and post-partum depression, many of whom suffered permanently from his actions.

[edit] Sargant's Covert Research at St. Thomas'
In St. Thomas' Hospital Sargant had a 'Sleep Room' modelled on the one Cameron had created at the Allan Memorial Institute for the MKULTRA programme. Here he treated many British citizens – mainly women - over the years, experimenting usually without their consent (see below) using ECT combined with Deep Sleep Treatment (narcosis), drugs, insulin coma therapy and tape loops – the same techniques as Cameron employed in Canada.[7]

Scores of English patients were involved in illegal, unethical and dangerous experiments for which they almost certainly never gave their consent. Sargant was one of the dominant figures in psychiatry in his day, the 1970s. No one would dare to challenge him. Patients were'incarcerated in the 'Sleep Room' and subjected to horrendous experimental treatments for which no consent forms were signed. Patients were kept in a drug-induced sleep. This was part of what Sargant called 'depatterning'. They were only briefly awoken to receive electroshocks. Sargant would wheel into the 'Sleep Room' a portable electroshock machine. The normal procedure would have been to deliver a single 110 volt shock. Sargant used shocks 20 to 40 times more intense, two or three times daily, with the power turned up to 150 volts. Some patients received multiple electro shocks over a period of 65 days. Patients were put to sleep for long periods and received all kinds of drugs. They were in no condition to question him.

In direct parallel with Cameron's techniques, Sargant used tape loops played through a recorder placed under the patient’s pillow to implant false memories or ideas. Leonard Rubenstein, a technician who had created the tape loops for Cameron was flown to England to advise Sargant on how the tape loops were made.[7]

Possibly going even further than Cameron, both at Belmont Hospital in Surrey and St.Thomas' in London, Sargant subjected patients to up to three months' combined ECT, deep sleep treatment, insulin coma therapy and drugs. He said in a talk delivered in Leeds: 'For several years past we have been treating severe resistant depression with long periods of sleep treatment. We can now keep patients asleep or very drowsy for up to 3 months if necessary. During sleep treatment we also give them ECT and anti-depressant drugs'.[8]

Sargant routinely advocated and practised ways of circumventing the whole issue of consent to treatment, in direct violation of the Nuremberg Code. Drawn up after World War II in an attempt to prevent any repetition of the kind of terrible experimentation performed by Nazi doctors on various ethnic groupings, prisoners of war or disabled people they deemed worthless, the Nuremberg Code protects the rights of those subject to medical experiments. The most important point is voluntary consent, without any element of 'force, fraud, deceit, duress, over-reaching, or other ulterior form of constraint or coercion'. There should be made known 'the nature, duration, and purpose of the experiment; the method and means by which it is to be conducted; all inconveniences and hazards reasonably to be expected; and the effects upon his health or person which may possibly come from his participation in the experiment. The duty and responsibility for ascertaining the quality of the consent rests upon each individual who initiates, directs or engages in the experiment.' Every effort should be made to protect the participant against 'even remote possibilities of injury, disability or death,' and '…the human subject should be at liberty to bring the experiment to an end if he has reached the physical or mental state where continuation of the experiment seems…impossible.'[9]

Sargent, by contrast, used enforced narcosis (sleep treatment) to obliterate a patient’s ability to refuse ECT. He wrote in his standard textbook An Introduction to Physical Methods of Treatment in Psychiatry: 'Many patients unable to tolerate a long course of ECT, can do so when anxiety is relieved by narcosis ... What is so valuable is that they generally have no memory about the actual length of the treatment or the numbers of ECT used ... After 3 or 4 treatments they may ask for ECT to be discontinued because of an increasing dread of further treatments. Combining sleep with ECT avoids this ...'. Sargant also advocated increasing the frequency of ECT sessions for those he describes as 'resistant, obsessional patients' in order to produce 'therapeutic confusion' and so remove their power of refusal. In addition he states: 'All sorts of treatment can be given while the patient is kept sleeping, including a variety of drugs and ECT [which] together generally induce considerable memory loss for the period under narcosis. As a rule the patient does not know how long he has been asleep, or what treatment, even including ECT, he has been given. Under sleep ... one can now give many kinds of physical treatment, necessary, but often not easily tolerated. We may be seeing here a new exciting beginning in psychiatry and the possibility of a treatment era such as followed the introduction of anaesthesia in surgery'.[10] Sargant's methods inspired Australian doctor Harry Bailey who employed Deep Sleep treatment at Chelmsford Private Hospital, eventually leading to the death of 26 patients. Bailey and Sargant were in close contact and apparently competed to see which of them could keep a patient in the depest coma.[11]

Sargant constantly underplayed in public the very damaging effects of these treatments on his patients' memories. However John Marks found that Cameron himself detailed the stages of memory loss resulting from such 'de-patterning' techniques, saying that 'his typical de-patterning patient – usually a woman – moved through three distinct stages. In the first, the subject lost much of her memory. Yet she still knew where she was, why she was there, and who the people were who treated her. In the second phase, she lost her 'space-time image,' but still wanted to remember. In fact not being able to answer questions like, 'Where am I?' and 'How did I get here?' caused her considerable anxiety. In the third stage, all that anxiety disappeared. Cameron described the state as 'an extremely interesting constriction of the range of recollections which one ordinarily brings in to modify and enrich one’s statements. Hence, what the patient talks about are only his sensationsof the moment and he talks about them almost exclusively in highly concrete terms. His remarks are entirely uninfluenced by previous recollections – nor are they governed in any way by his forward anticipations. He lives in the immediate present. All schizophrenic symptoms have disappeared . There is complete amnesia for all events in his life.'[12]

When Sargant left St.Thomas' Hospital he, like Cameron when he left the Allen Memorial Institute, took with him all the case notes of those who had received this intensive treatment. Again like Cameron, on enquiry the notes were subsequently found to have disappeared after his death.[13]

[edit] BBC Radio Documentary
On 1 April 2009, BBC Radio 4 broadcast a programme researched and introduced by James Maw entitled Revealing the Mind Bender General dealing with Sargant's activities and concentrating on his Sleep Room treatments at St Thomas's Hospital. Among the interviewees were his one-time registrar Dr David Owen (better known as a leading Labour and SDP politician) and a number of patients from St Thomas's as well as a survivor of the Porton Down experiments, who testified that their lives had been shattered by Sargant's treatments. Among the points that were brought out were the routine violation of patients' rights as regards giving consent for treatment, the fact that Sargant admitted in correspondence with an Australian lawyer that patients had died under his Deep Sleep regime, and that all patient records at St Thomas's and the related health authorities relating to Sargant's activities have been destroyed, making it difficult if not impossible for patients to seek redress through the courts.

[edit] Quotes
"...Jesus Christ might simply have returned to his carpentry following the use of modern [psychiatric] treatments." - William Sargant

"Though men are not dogs, they should humbly try to remember how much they resemble dogs in their brain functions, and not boast themselves as demigods. They are gifted with religious and social apprehensions, and they are gifted with the power of reason; but all these faculties are physiologically entailed to the brain. Therefore the brain should not be abused by having forced upon it any religious or political mystique that stunts the reason, or any form of crude rationalism that stunts the religious sense." (p. 274)[2]

[edit] Books written by William Sargant
Battle for the Mind: The Mechanics of Indoctrination, Brainwashing & Thought Control by William Sargant, Pan Books, 1957
Battle for the Mind: A Physiology of Conversion and Brainwashing , by William Sargant, Malor Books, 1997, ISBN 1-883536-06-5
Mind Possessed, The : A Physiology of Possession, Mysticism, and Faith Healing, 1975, ISBN 0-14-004034-X
The Unquiet Mind - an autobiography, by William Sargant 1967 Heinemann ISBN 0-434-67150-9
An Introduction to Somatic Methods of Treatment in Psychiatry, by William Sargant and Eliot Slater, Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1946
An Introduction to Physical Methods of Treatment in Psychiatry, by William Sargant and Eliot Slater, Edinburgh : E&S Livingstone, 1944 [1st ed.]
An Introduction to Physical Methods of Treatment in Psychiatry, by William Sargant, Eliot Slater and Desmond Kelly, Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1972 5th edn ISBN 0-443-00868-X

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Sargant

http://www.deeppoliticsforum.com/forums/showthread.php?p=13575&highlight=sargant#post13575

Keith Millea
02-18-2010, 07:32 PM
Therefore the brain should not be abused by having forced upon it any religious or political mystique that stunts the reason, or any form of crude rationalism that stunts the religious sense."

So,Dr.Sargant who "cracked the brains"of who knows how many innocent humans really says this!


"Though men are not dogs, they should humbly try to remember how much they resemble dogs in their brain functions, and not boast themselves as demigods.

I submit that Dr. Sargant was not only some kind of demigod,but humbly forgot to remind himself that he was truly a DOG!

Jan Klimkowski
02-18-2010, 07:45 PM
"Though men are not dogs, they should humbly try to remember how much they resemble dogs in their brain functions, and not boast themselves as demigods.

I submit that Dr. Sargant was not only some kind of demigod,but humbly forgot to remind himself that he was truly a DOG!

Pavlov influenced an entire generation of "scientists", and his legacy in the deep black world is malign.

As an aside, in the late 90s, I was granted access to some classified medical research conducted under a Pentagon budget. It was in the field of trauma battlefield medicine, and was being conducted in a foundation-funded wing of a major US university medical school.

It involved killing dogs, bringing them back to life, observing their behaviour, then killing them again to perform histopathology.

Many of the junior scientists were young and bright, the brightest of the bright. When I talked with them, I found that, since joining the programme, several of them had bought puppies and would go home from a long day's work killing dogs and cutting up their brains, to play with their own special puppy.

It was a resonant observation.

:bandit:

Austin Kelley
02-18-2010, 08:43 PM
I often use "MK-ULTRA" as an umbrella term to apply to the various attempts, conducted by various covert agencies, to control human minds.

There's plenty of material in the thread linked below, which includes a sketch of my sense, based on decades of research and numerous interviews with people who believe they were the subjects of mind control experimentation, of the scientific and logistical framework in which these events took place:

http://www.deeppoliticsforum.com/forums/showthread.php?t=223

I am 100% certain that there were British "MK-ULTRA" programmes. I am also certain that the merest glimpses of those programmes have become visible.

However, William Sargant (note spelling) is clearly implicated as a military doctor engaged in entirely unethical and apparently unconstrained "mind control" research on human subjects.

I also use "MKULTRA" or sometimes "MK" as shorthand for extreme psychological manipulation that is tied to official (though usually secret) programs of various governments, including the USA and also its allies. In this research, I have personally been most focused on activities of the English-speaking nations: England, Canada, Australia and the United States, who do seem to have formed a strategic alliance on these matters since at least the early years of the Cold War.

As to similar programs run by China, the Former Soviet Union, Israel or other governments- there is much less verifiable information on these topics which I have been able to find in English. I believe there was and is an organized effort from such sectors and more should be written on these programs.

William Sargant was an very important figure in all this but I think it's important what schemata we use to understand his efforts. Jim Keith did important work on all this but he missed the boat by emphasizing a LaRouche/Far Right model which posited British agents at the root of all evil when the American spooks seem to have needed no outside inducement to violate human rights in furtherance of such goals.

That said, and in line with Keith's concerns, I do suspect the fact that an early member of the Grateful Dead inner circle, Alan Trist, was the son of a very important psychologist from the Tavistock Institute with ties to social engineering efforts- Eric Trist (who was on a visiting fellowship to Stanford at that time in the early '60's) is very, very significant somehow. Once again though, I strongly reject the LaRouchian thesis of an outside conspiracy led by Huxley, Hollingshead, Trist et al as somehow corrupting the "pure and noble" American Empire- my country was built on institutional corruption- it's as American as apple pie.

As to the theoretical framework behind it all, it seems that the place where Pavlov's concept of Transmarginal Inhibition meets Seligman's concept of Learned Helplessness and Sargant/Cameron's concept of Depatterning there you might find a place from which re-programming could occur...

Peter Lemkin
02-18-2010, 09:31 PM
From my readings,it seems that the CIA tried to manipulate and control the counter culture of the sixties with the widespread dissemination of drugs like LSD in order to destroy it.It really didn't work.Many people found LSD to be a life altering experience,and for the better.Many even having intense (real) spiritual awakenings.This matter of the spirituallity of some substances is probably a subject for another thread.

So what I'm getting at here,is maybe the same kinds of operations are ongoing today.Although with the use of dissociatives instead of psychedelics.Sort of a lessons learned evolution for those who would use any means possible to destroy any rebellious sub-culture.

From my research and own been-there, done-that past I know that you are correct that the Borg was disseminating LSD, but not so much to cause harm with that drug alone [they knew very well what it was like]. What they would do is introduce it and then add adulterants of nasty chemicals/drugs to cause bad trips. Part of it was to cause general chaos in the alternative and politically active communities and part was 'testing'. You put X with the LSD in Detroit and Y with the LSD in San Diego, Z in San Francisco and then have your agents tell you about hospitalizations, suicides, freak-outs, bad-trips, violent reactions, etc. et al. Sometimes, after people had come to trust their sources and dealers, they not have any LSD in it at all, but something much nastier, but looking the same as the last LSD. Nice, Huh?!

As for less self-actualizing drugs like ketamine, one can only speculate that it might also be coming from the Borg and might also be [or soon to be] adulterated with other drugs in a similar manner.

Jan Klimkowski
02-18-2010, 11:34 PM
From my readings,it seems that the CIA tried to manipulate and control the counter culture of the sixties with the widespread dissemination of drugs like LSD in order to destroy it.It really didn't work.Many people found LSD to be a life altering experience,and for the better.Many even having intense (real) spiritual awakenings.This matter of the spirituallity of some substances is probably a subject for another thread.


Keith - this is a core matter.

My own view, which is speculative, is rooted in the following observations:

Firstly, covert science is often inherently poor quality or junk science, precisely because of the lack of open peer review, controlled clinical trials and ethical oversight. In addition, many deep black scientists are arrogant, driven and resistant to criticism.

Secondly, "MK-ULTRA" is in reality a large number of competing programmes, run by competing organisations - alphabet letter intelligence agencies, military intelligence, naval intelligence, air force intelligence, agencies that don't officially exist, sub-contracts to plausibly deniable fronts such as cults, leaking of "technologies" to foreign militaries or groups. Etc.

Thirdly, this lack of information sharing coupled with the arrogant and obsessive-compulsive nature of those running the programmes led and leads to ghastly excrudescences. There may also be a malevolent metaphysical dimension to this, rooted perhaps in aspects of the human psyche and its responses to overwhelming trauma and horror.

So, to ask a question: if LSD can lead to spiritual enlightenment, why would intelligence agencies facilitate the mass distribution of acid to an entire generation in the sixties?

Peter is correct that some of it was probably contaminated for nefarious purposes.

It's also the case that many black operations have been funded primarily by the profits of the illegal narcotics trade.

However, when considered in the context of "MK-ULTRA", I believe there is a broader, more all-encompassing reason.

The deep black doctors were not interested in spiritual enlightenment. They were interested in how LSD could be used to channel and control behaviour.

So, there are previously classified comments from Louis Jolyon West that I have posted elsewhere on DPF which reveal his deep and early obsession with dissociation. Indeed, he states that he can create every textbook type of dissociation in the laboratory. By which he means that he'd managed to create it in his MK-ULTRA human guinea pigs.

Was West interested in the spiritual enlightenment of his test subjects? Hell no. He wanted to implant false memories, see if he could get them to do things their conscious self would never do - such as shoot another person - etc.

I'm sure everyone here has seen the grainy footage of soldiers trying to complete obstacle courses after being dosed with LSD or BZ. That also has nothing to do with spiritual enlightenment.

In fact, there is a lot of circumstantial evidence that BZ was used as a battlefield munition in Vietnam, later in Iraq, and during the Balkan Wars.

The military rationale for using BZ has always been clear: it is an INCAPACITANT.

In other words, it fucks the enemy up without necessarily killing them.

Which seems to me to be a perfect rationale for intelligence agency use of LSD on the sixties counterculture: fucking the enemy up without killing them.

:boxing:

Austin Kelley
02-19-2010, 12:18 AM
Thank you for your astute comments, Jan.

My sense is that the real insiders of the black ops psych/chem warfare world were well aware of the effects of LSD by the mid-'50's. A significant number had tried it themselves and knew the ups and downs of it all quite well.

It's clear that it could promote an exalted, enlightened feeling that could catalyze rapid changes in core values, especially in the direction of a less grounded, less rationally-oriented way of being. It would make the tripper especially ripe pickings for new religious and personal growth movements, even for saucer cults, quasi-Templar drug dealing brotherhoods and etc.

The release of LSD into the popular culture was implemented by people with very real ties to the deep power structure: Hollingshead (British Embassy), Leary & Alpert (MKULTRA research), Kesey, Hunter, Garcia (MKULTRA test subjects), Stewart Brand (US Army Intel), Owsley (Stanley Family, Skull & Bones), Ron Stark (CIA/DIA), Hubbard (OSS) etc. etc.

So why not kill a few birds with the same "stone"?

You get thousands or even millions of guinea pigs, you blast emerging social movements, fund secret bank accounts and give operatives access in to people who are undergoing rapid psychological transformation and baring their inner souls.

It's a spook's dream...

Keith Millea
02-19-2010, 05:59 AM
Austin,
Like Jan you have a wide grasp of the subject at hand.I like this thread alot.I didn't know that Alan Trists' father was involved with the Tavistock Institute,Hmmm.I know that Kesey and Robert Hunter were MK-Ultra test subjects,but I have not read that Garcia was also.I really don't think he was.If someone could point me to this information,I would greatly appreciate it.



It's clear that it could promote an exalted, enlightened feeling that could catalyze rapid changes in core values, especially in the direction of a less grounded, less rationally-oriented way of being. It would make the tripper especially ripe pickings for new religious and personal growth movements, even for saucer cults, quasi-Templar drug dealing brotherhoods and etc.


This is a good paragraph,but I would take it one step "further".LSD can not only promote an exalted,enlightened feeling,but can in the right circumstance actually "pierce the veil",and give the seeker a short glimps of that which is timeless (eternal).OK,getting too metaphysical now.......

David Guyatt
02-19-2010, 12:35 PM
It would make the tripper especially ripe pickings for new religious and personal growth movements, even for saucer cults, quasi-Templar drug dealing brotherhoods and etc.


I actually think this is a most important point. The whole story about "The Council of Nine" involving Andrija Puharich (and assorted spooks) which we have previously discussed on this forum (I think HERE (http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2010/02/19/article-1252137-02F081EA00000578-886_233x423.jpg) but am not certain), points to religious, rather than social, engineering. The same is true of the behind-the-scenes background to the creation of the Priory of Sion. The importance of choosing the new religion to be believed by great numbers of people is that you effectively control it and thus, control the deeper pulses and minds of those who believe in it.

Austin Kelley
02-19-2010, 04:52 PM
...I know that Kesey and Robert Hunter were MK-Ultra test subjects,but I have not read that Garcia was also.I really don't think he was.If someone could point me to this information,I would greatly appreciate it...


...LSD can not only promote an exalted,enlightened feeling,but can in the right circumstance actually "pierce the veil",and give the seeker a short glimps of that which is timeless (eternal)...

Keith, you are absolutely correct that Garcia was not a MKULTRA test subject- my bad, I wrote in haste. I do believe that he, the Dead, the Pranksters and the whole Northern Cal psychedelic scene all developed in the shadow of Stanford, but that's a different story.

As to the power of entheogenic substances to catalyze real insight, well sure, but they also make people more manipulable at times, and I see that as a more compelling motivation for the spooks rather than that they all turned into psychedelic pied-pipers...

Austin Kelley
02-19-2010, 04:59 PM
The whole story about "The Council of Nine" involving Andrija Puharich (and assorted spooks) which we have previously discussed on this forum (I think HERE (http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2010/02/19/article-1252137-02F081EA00000578-886_233x423.jpg) but am not certain), points to religious, rather than social, engineering. The same is true of the behind-the-scenes background to the creation of the Priory of Sion. The importance of choosing the new religion to be believed by great numbers of people is that you effectively control it and thus, control the deeper pulses and minds of those who believe in it...

I very much agree and the implications of this are huge for the development of the New Age Movement and the Human Potential Movement. Not to say that it's all a conspiracy nor that transcendental impulses are inherently bad, but the development of these movements was clearly shaped by hidden forces tied to the deep power structure also...

David Guyatt
02-19-2010, 05:23 PM
Agreed Austin. The expansion of consciousness is, for the most part, a laudable human endeavour. Even helping to shape this for the general betterment of mankind can be applauded.

However, using those pulses for the narrow interests of a ruling elite or in order to effect control of minds on a grand scale is quite repulsive.

Keith Millea
02-19-2010, 09:09 PM
Keith, you are absolutely correct that Garcia was not a MKULTRA test subject- my bad, I wrote in haste. I do believe that he, the Dead, the Pranksters and the whole Northern Cal psychedelic scene all developed in the shadow of Stanford, but that's a different story.

Yes Austin you are correct.Stanford is absolutely critical in the initial development of the psychedelic,and counter culture scene on the West Coast.And we can add into that Stanford mix Andrija Puharich as David has mentioned.Also as Jan has documented here on the forum,the Stanford/Scientology connections to CIA remote viewing programs.


I also want to reiterate here the fact that as far as social engineering,THE PLAN FAILED imho.The movement could not be engineered.It was too big and powerful.And the directions that it traveled,just like the Grateful Deads music,was basically improvisational.You cannot "control" what somebody improvises.


Now 40 years later,I believe the movement is basically going nowhere.This can be seen most recently with that ridiculous incident down in Arizona where that so called New Age Guru charged people thousands of dollars so that they could cleanse their souls (through sweatlodge),and managed to kill three of his soul seekers.I no longer see a revolutionary movement in America.Nothing Lasts!!!!!!!!!!!!

David Guyatt
02-19-2010, 10:11 PM
Keith, you are absolutely correct that Garcia was not a MKULTRA test subject- my bad, I wrote in haste. I do believe that he, the Dead, the Pranksters and the whole Northern Cal psychedelic scene all developed in the shadow of Stanford, but that's a different story.

Yes Austin you are correct.Stanford is absolutely critical in the initial development of the psychedelic,and counter culture scene on the West Coast.And we can add into that Stanford mix Andrija Puharich as David has mentioned.Also as Jan has documented here on the forum,the Stanford/Scientology connections to CIA remote viewing programs.


I also want to reiterate here the fact that as far as social engineering,THE PLAN FAILED imho.The movement could not be engineered.It was too big and powerful.And the directions that it traveled,just like the Grateful Deads music,was basically improvisational.You cannot "control" what somebody improvises.


Now 40 years later,I believe the movement is basically going nowhere.This can be seen most recently with that ridiculous incident down in Arizona where that so called New Age Guru charged people thousands of dollars so that they could cleanse their souls (through sweatlodge),and managed to kill three of his soul seekers.I no longer see a revolutionary movement in America.Nothing Lasts!!!!!!!!!!!!

Very sadly, according to one poll I have seen online, 79% believed in UFO's. Arguably, the experiment has succeeded. But this is simply a case of education. The more who understand the true origin of "Flying Saucers" and the inner-world master Lam, template of Whiteley Streiber's Grey alien, the more who will come to self reliance. "Faith" and "belief" are like putty - they are inherently subject to being shaped by other hands.

Having had many teachers in my past, I can only now applaud the greatest teacher one may ever have: the Self. But therein lies another story and an even more arduous journey. But it is, at least, dollar free. And never, ever lies.

Damn it!

Imo of course.

And my apologies for possibly intruding in this subject Keith and Austin. My only excuse is that these are subjects very close to my heart.

Austin Kelley
02-20-2010, 02:48 AM
..I also want to reiterate here the fact that as far as social engineering,THE PLAN FAILED imho.The movement could not be engineered.It was too big and powerful.And the directions that it traveled,just like the Grateful Deads music,was basically improvisational.You cannot "control" what somebody improvises...


I see things as somewhere in between total success and total failure. Given that there was a rising tide of organizing whose goal was to profoundly change the institutions of society, I would say that the psychedelic subculture did make people somewhat less competent in achieving their political goals.

Of course nothing is absolutely black and white however.

The insurgent youth culture represented a compromise between the untamable power that pervaded the grassroots and the hierarchical power of the System and the ruling elite. Both have had their moments, though I don't think LSD changed the planet in the way that many once hoped.

Keith Millea
02-20-2010, 06:19 AM
OK,just because this is a fresh news story,and a bit synchronistic.

http://www.counterpunch.org/yearsley02192010.html

February 19 - 21, 2010
The Musical Patriot

The Night of the Living Deadheads

By DAVID YEARSLEY
One of my college friends was a Deadhead. He had crates of cassette tapes with labels like “Bucknell, 1971”, Stanford 1973”; “Fillmore East 1970.” Of an evening he would navigate through these hundreds of cassettes and pull out “the greatest version” of a given Dead song, “Truckin’”, “Crazy Fingers”, whatever. He’d put the tape in the player and work the fast-forward or rewind button with the virtuosity of a concert pianist and get right to the start of the number and then let it pour out of the tinny little crate as if it were ambrosia. Everything sounded good under those listening conditions, largely molded by cannabis and cheap beer. The band famously did not forbid bootlegging but encouraged it: piracy was thereby converted into democratic dissemination; what was viewed as thievery by most “recording artists” fueled the unique brand of Deadheadish connoisseurship He became devotee and pedagogue, pointing out the tastiest licks from Jerry Garcia’s guitar, reveling in the ecstasy of solo voice and the rapture of harmony.
One of those college weekends I played the harpsichord with the Bach Society Orchestra for Bach’s Brandenburg Concerto no. 5 and my Deadhead friend came along. He like the performance but remarked that during the famous cadenza, in which the harpsichord goes berserk in a frenzy of whirling notes and careening chromatic chords, I took too many rhetorical pauses. Music, he believed, should keep truckin’ along, those two drummers with the Dead making sure that the rhythmic lifeblood kept pumping without a stutter.
Those college evenings listening the Dead were fun though at the remove of a couple of decades things begin to blur, albeit with a different kind of fuzziness than that which attended the evenings themselves. The year after I graduated from college my friend organized a road trip up the coast to hear the Dead in Oxford, Maine over the Fourth of July weekend of 1988, and I joined in. We stayed in a cheap motel, made a long, long walk to the Oxford Plains Speedway past the vibrant Deadhead scene of VW buses, sprawling encampments, barbecues and other kinds of smoke-outs and much Dead mercantilism: everywhere handicrafts, food stuffs, and other substances for sale or for barter or just to be had. The Maine Woods was ablaze in tie-dye.
Little Feat opened the show and then the Dead came and did their two sets. I remember thinking that a motor speedway wasn’t the best place to hear music of any sort and that it puzzled me why the band felt it needed two drummers, whom together seemed to my ears to obscure rather than enhance the rhythmic energy of the rock ‘n roll resounding across the oval.
The entire spectacle and the culture surrounding such a concert certainly needed the sort of space a race track provided. There was clearly more to it all than just the tunes; the conception of music fostered by the Dead, or at least its adherents, was far bigger, more encompassing simply a combination of melody, harmony, and rhythm. At least for the weekend, music appeared to be life. Have now returned, courtesy of the internet, to the Grateful Dead’s past and my ephemeral intersection with it. At www.dead.net (http://www.dead.net/) I find the playlist of the Oxford, Maine show, many comments exalting the event in its entirety as the greatest ever: “This was an amazing scene. Totally lawless yet peaceful.” “Great weather, great, crowd, great scene, great shows. Definitely one of my peak Head experiences.”
One of the received truths of Grateful Dead criticism is that sometimes the band was inspired and other times played poorly. My college friends could draw cassettes from his massive collection to make this point, and then further elucidate it with expert commentary.
At least around these parts of central New York, home to many a counterculture escapee from the urban centers of the Northeast in the 1960s, the 1977 Grateful Dead concert in Cornell University’s Barton Hall is held as one of the group’s ultimate concerts. The chair of the physics department happens to be a neighbor and was playing a CD (not a cassette) of that a couple months back when she gave me a lift in her Prius. She’d been an undergraduate at Cornell and been to the concert.
Jerry Garcia’s ashes have long ago been scattered over the Golden Gate and the Ganges in like part, and death itself has visited the group’s keyboardists on several occasions. But two of the founding members of the band, bassist Phil Lesh and guitarist Bob Weir brought their own group Furthur, formed way back in 2009, to Barton Hall this past Sunday, flushing Deadheads out of the wooded hills for leagues around Ithaca, and indeed from across the Empire State and country—all with much talk of the epochal 1977 show.Converted schoolbuses with chimneys sticking out the side windows and vintage VW campers appeared on Ithaca’s streets. The Holiday Inn was filled beyond capacity.
Barton Hall is an almost surreal building, and especially so for a rock concert. It was built in 1915 in the run-up to America’s entry into World War I as a drill hall for the Department of Military Science; it was an armory in World War II. Barton still serves as the home of the Cornell ROTC and is also the field house. The structure has a looming heft and indulges in much spurious crenellation. It’s like a Gothic fortress pumped up on steroids, a scary building that was apparently designed with the idea of imbuing recruits with a bit of the honor code of the medieval knight. The vast leaded-glass windows and soaring trusses of the interior inspire doubts that these architectural features can hold up the hulking stone of its walls: it is a huge castle with one vast room. The Grateful Dead scene in full force beneath all this war-like architecture must have been something to behold in 1977 in the aftermath of Vietnam with the local counter-culture still in the vigor of youth.
On the evening of what was hailed as the “return” show the aura of the famous 1977 appearance fluttered down with the snow, a wintery setting that stood in stark contrast to that hot summer of 1988 in Maine. The loose-linen dresses, and bright colors, half-naked Dead devotees were this time bundled up in parkas, the wild hair stuffed under woolen hats, the flesh sealed from the elements.
As the long line filed into the castle keep dozens of people milled about with their index fingers in the air, not gauging the icy wind, but looking for a single ticket. The 5,000 tickets had sold-out almost immediately when they went on sale back in December. The police, a strong presence outside the venue, estimated that between 1,000 and 1,5000 fans waited outside Barton during the show. Subsequent newspapers reports boasted of the “unusually large number” of drug and alcohol related arrests and with some bigger drug busts added to the nightly catch.
I did feel a bit guilty as I moved past these desperate Deadheads, but took small, if opportunistic comfort in reasoning that such exclusion is also part of the “scene”—come rain or come shine there will always be those left outside. Enough energy would certainly extrude through the thick stone walls of Barton to warm them.
Lesh is seventy years old sprightly and seemingly full of optimism on stage and in his music. Weir sports bushy mutton chops, looking like a Civil War general in shin-length trousers and Birkenstocks. Both can play and sing and seem to love it still. In the present incarnation, Furthur, they’ve assembled a younger generation of musicians for whom the Grateful Dead’s music was mother’s milk. Guitarist John Kadlecik was born in 1969 and initially made his mark in the Dar Star Orchestra, a Grateful Dead tribute band. My college friend tells me his guitar playing sounds (almost) just like Jerry Garcia, and he has fine, clear and penetrating voice. Jeff Chimenti on keyboards—among them a Steinway grand and a Hammond B-3—is also in his early forties, a downright baby by the present standard of revival bands and Super Bowl half-time shows, and certainly seen as youthful by the large body of the audience that have followed the Dead from their inception. Chimenti is a virtuoso of the kind of keyboarding gesture—thunderous octaves and karte chords—that can fill up college field house not just aurally (for the massive speakers do that), but visually. It’s as much about sight as it is about sound.
Although the music is highly mediated by the electronics there is nothing like being there. When the Jerry Garcia/Robert Hunter song “Sugaree” filled Barton with its hypnotic grind, and the pscyhedlic lights volleyed off ROTC banners through the wafting marijuana clouds like battlefield smoke, one was glad to be inside and not out, in the present and in the past.
High quality digital video of the show was up on YouTube the next day: the economy of personal exchange that was such part of Dead culture seems to have been supplanted by the unlimited access allowed of the internet.
The age of the cassette is behind us, though doubtless many still use the old-fashioned technology, just as my boyhood neighbor’s grandmother clung to her gramophone. The 1977 Cornell concert can be downloaded for free from the internet. Youtube allows many a look at the Dead and those concerts; even the parking lot of that Oxford show can be scanned for those stuck in the past.
I remember now that my college friend also had the first personal computer I think I’d ever seen, certainly the first Mac, the original 128K, which sold for upwards of $2,000 back in the mid 80s when it came out. Now his own late-model Mac holds his voluminous Grateful Dead catalog in digital form in the Connecticut suburbs. During the week he’s on Wall Street using computers to predict the ups-and-downs of the stock market.
David Yearsley teaches at Cornell University. He is author of Bach and the Meanings of Counterpoint (http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0521803462/counterpunchmaga)His latest CD, “All Your Cares Beguile: Songs and Sonatas from Baroque London”, has just been released by Musica Omnia (http://www.musicaomnia.org/index2.htm). He can be reached at dgy2@cornell.edu (dgy2@cornell.edu)


http://i111.photobucket.com/albums/n152/KLM_010/home/DEADBLK1.jpg

Austin Kelley
02-20-2010, 03:20 PM
Very sadly, according to one poll I have seen online, 79% believed in UFO's. Arguably, the experiment has succeeded. But this is simply a case of education. The more who understand the true origin of "Flying Saucers" and the inner-world master Lam, template of Whiteley Streiber's Grey alien, the more who will come to self reliance. "Faith" and "belief" are like putty - they are inherently subject to being shaped by other hands.


David, I think that you and I are in agreement that the UFO theme has been the vehicle for a massive psy-op that includes cultural/religious engineering as well as providing cover for mind control experiments.

You allude to Aleister Crowley's "inner-world master Lam", who was kind of a proto-Grey Alien. Crowley of course also linked to various endeavors such as the interrogation of Rudolf Hess, the rise of California's psychedelic underground, the Solar Lodge of the OTO, as well as the efforts of various intelligence agencies to pursue their own inscrutable agenda.

It would be great to hear more of your thoughts on these sorts of themes, especially since Crowley does seem to link somehow to MKULTRA, in the broader sense of the term.

David Guyatt
02-20-2010, 05:27 PM
Thanks Austin. Rudolf Hess was, of course, a deep disciple of the occult, especially the peculiar German variant named Thule Gesellschaft, which leads into the whole Shamballa morass. James Bond author Ian Fleming also had an interest in matters occult, hence his friendship with Crowley. And Crowley's O.T.O derived from a German Order.

However, I don't think Crowley ever interviewed or interrogated Hess. Crowley had a reputation for engaging in tricks and deceits. It was his amusement to encourage readers of his books to undertake potentially dangerous occult operations. His writing on, for example, Jack the Ripper, was simple old-fashioned tosh and deflected attention away from what actually was behind the Ripper deaths. Deflection was probably his aim.

Having said all that I am not knowledgeable on Crowley. I've read some of his books, and several by those of his secretary, Israel Regardie, who is far more wholesome. But the O T O and Thelema do not trigger my interest or sympathies.

Austin Kelley
02-20-2010, 05:59 PM
True that Crowley did not end up interviewing Hess, though he was considered for the job. Also true that the author of The Book of Lies had a penchant for misrepresenting the truth...

I do think though that the influence of the OTO in California's psychedelic underground is significant somehow- and not just regarding Leary, Wilson and maybe, Manson. The question that interests me most, which Keith has alluded to previously, concerns to what degree this was all a spontaneous, grassroots phenomenon vs. a conspiracy orchestrated from on high...

David Guyatt
02-20-2010, 06:38 PM
One possible answer to your question is that it was both.

The second half of the last century has clearly shown a developing trend of individual interest into what we might call spiritual subjects. It was only a hundred or so years earlier that religious thought was almost completely controlled by the established Church. Still earlier than that and any form of overt interest in the subject that did not include the intercession of an agent of the religious franchise of the day (the Vatican) often resulted in a terrible and agonizing death. In other words we have individuals more able and more willing to delve into these vital subjects without either fear of reprisal or being sent to social Coventry.

But at the same time we see elements of the intelligence community undertaking some really very weird projects. I feel sure that some of this, if not a large part, derived from the Nazi interest in the occult. Numerous former OSS men returned from WWII with a personal interest in these occult subjects. Those that I know of were very much on the political right. Indeed, they are to right of Attila the Hun, to use a well-known phrase. We can include in this such individuals as Jack Parsons, founding father of Nasa's JPL in Pasadena. Parsons comes from a line of Parsons who were deeply involved in the occult, notably the Satanic variant of it - the Hell Fire Club. This connects, of course, to Crowley who was Parsons master. And Parsons connects directly to nazis such as Werner von Braun and others brought to the US to oversee the development of advanced nazi technology. Space travel was very much something the Thule-ists wished to achieve. The Nazis also opened up the human mind for purposes of control. The US, and to a lesser extent the UK, simply took over this research and focused it more rigorously.

If I were pushed to draw a conclusion from this, I would say that what we are seeing is an even stronger pulse than before, of the ages old battle between the two great forces that control life and existence.

Of course, neither can win this battle, as the end of one is the end of the other. But the clash of these opposites causes - or can cause - greater human understanding. Supposing that is, that individuals are prepared to embrace the personal journey that is required.

But will they?

Magda Hassan
02-21-2010, 12:22 AM
Austin, have you read Dave Mac Gowan's Laurel Canyon series of articles?
http://www.davesweb.cnchost.com/
Its a mixed bag but very interesting.

Austin Kelley
02-21-2010, 12:45 AM
Yes, I have. I think he's on the right trail but I also found the series very frustrating. After all many musicians could have had fathers with military backgrounds, given the times, to cite just one example. That said, I do think his series is chock-full of interesting tidbits for the discerning reader.

That said, I do agree that the American youth culture of the 60's was shaped by hidden forces- not completely controlled, but certainly shaped, to some degree...

Austin Kelley
02-21-2010, 04:51 PM
Possibly this video has been mentioned here before, but it is certainly a very good educational tool on ARTICHOKE, Olson, Biowar, etc.:

Code Name: Artichoke - The CIA's Secret Experiments on Humans (http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-3680213969478096327&ei=WWKBS4PwD5u2qwLfxvXmCQ)

Jan Klimkowski
02-21-2010, 05:19 PM
Possibly this video has been mentioned here before, but it is certainly a very good educational tool on ARTICHOKE, Olson, Biowar, etc.:

Code Name: Artichoke - The CIA's Secret Experiments on Humans (http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-3680213969478096327&ei=WWKBS4PwD5u2qwLfxvXmCQ)

Yup - it's on the DPF playlist:

http://www.deeppoliticsforum.com/video_playlist.html

And discussed briefly here:

http://www.deeppoliticsforum.com/forums/showthread.php?p=9447&highlight=artichoke#post9447

The documentary's insider witness testimony has been of course been ignored by both MSM and nearly all historians because not only does it demonstrate that Olson was murdered because he was planning to blow the whistle on unethical human experimentation but also that America probably used CBW munitions in the Korean War.

And MSM and western historians simply refuse to go there.

There's tangential, but possibly important material on Artichoke and MK-ULTRA here:

http://www.deeppoliticsforum.com/forums/showthread.php?p=4727&highlight=artichoke#post4727

Austin Kelley
02-21-2010, 08:47 PM
Thank you, Jan- the playlist is a great resource which I hadn't seen. And thanks to those who worked so hard and so well to make this all possible!

The last thread cited refers to three different MKULTRA sub-projects related to Hungarians. This made me think of something I stumbled upon regarding Hungarian anti-communist emigres employed at the Defense Language Institute in Monterey, California. One in particular, a prominent social psychologist, was helping the Boy Scouts of America to form pilot youth leadership groups back in the 50's and 60's, in secret partnership with the U.S. Army. It seems that they may have been studying group dynamics amongst the youth- especially leadership issues, and also the use of old European myths ("the White Stag") as ideals to motivate their test subjects.

Jan Klimkowski
02-21-2010, 09:54 PM
Thank you, Jan- the playlist is a great resource which I hadn't seen. And thanks to those who worked so hard and so well to make this all possible!

Magda and Myra are the indefatigable duo who make DPF possible.

With regard to the DPF playlist, Magda should take a special bow. :handkiss:




The last thread cited refers to three different MKULTRA sub-projects related to Hungarians. This made me think of something I stumbled upon regarding Hungarian anti-communist emigres employed at the Defense Language Institute in Monterey, California. One in particular, a prominent social psychologist, was helping the Boy Scouts of America to form pilot youth leadership groups back in the 50's and 60's, in secret partnership with the U.S. Army. It seems that they may have been studying group dynamics amongst the youth- especially leadership issues, and also the use of old European myths ("the White Stag") as ideals to motivate their test subjects.

All of the post-WW2 eastern European refugee groups were of great interest to security services in the Cold War fight against the "Red Menace".

Some of those eastern Europeans were honourable men and women, who believed they were fighting for their "country".

However, thanks to Paperclip and other programmes, a substantial number of Nazis and fascists were brought to the West and south America - particularly Ukrainians, Croatians and Latvians - and recruited into covert and front programmes.

Gehlen and Gladio tentacles can be seen in the activities of certain branches of such as the Orthodox Catholic Church, and the wandering bishops who are of great interest to the likes of Peter Levenda, David Guyatt, Charles Drago and myself.

:stickyman:

Did someone whisper Keyser Söze..... :listen:

Austin Kelley
02-21-2010, 11:28 PM
The last thread cited refers to three different MKULTRA sub-projects related to Hungarians. This made me think of something I stumbled upon regarding Hungarian anti-communist emigres employed at the Defense Language Institute in Monterey, California. One in particular, a prominent social psychologist, was helping the Boy Scouts of America to form pilot youth leadership groups back in the 50's and 60's, in secret partnership with the U.S. Army. It seems that they may have been studying group dynamics amongst the youth- especially leadership issues, and also the use of old European myths ("the White Stag") as ideals to motivate their test subjects.

All of the post-WW2 eastern European refugee groups were of great interest to security services in the Cold War fight against the "Red Menace".

Some of those eastern Europeans were honourable men and women, who believed they were fighting for their "country".

However, thanks to Paperclip and other programmes, a substantial number of Nazis and fascists were brought to the West and south America - particularly Ukrainians, Croatians and Latvians - and recruited into covert and front programmes...



Yes- there were and are very honorable people who somehow aligned with "the West" because they opposed the domination of their homelands by authoritarian powers. Nothing wrong with that.

I'm not sure where the founders of the White Stag program (http://www.whitestag.org/history/history.html), which I referred to earlier, fit along that continuum. People like Paul Sujan, Béla Bánáthy, and Joseph Szentkiralyi may have simply found themselves aligned with the Nazi-backed forces fighting against the Soviets for all kinds of reasons. Certainly after the war there were ties from their circle to the Cold War apparatus.

So no disrespect whatsoever intended to those who sincerely may have wanted a different deal for Eastern Europe than what the big boys agreed to at Yalta. That said, the White Stag program in the U.S. Boy Scouts reeks of military psychology, blended with the pre-Christian mythos of Europe, and possibly some fascist tendencies. So at minimum I feel that there's cause for further investigation...


More on the life of Béla Bánáthy here (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Béla_H._Bánáthy).

Magda Hassan
02-22-2010, 07:48 AM
Yes- there were and are very honorable people who somehow aligned with "the West" because they opposed the domination of their homelands by authoritarian powers. Nothing wrong with that.

I'm not sure where the founders of the White Stag program (http://www.whitestag.org/history/history.html), which I referred to earlier, fit along that continuum. People like Paul Sujan, Béla Bánáthy, and Joseph Szentkiralyi may have simply found themselves aligned with the Nazi-backed forces fighting against the Soviets for all kinds of reasons. Certainly after the war there were ties from their circle to the Cold War apparatus.

So no disrespect whatsoever intended to those who sincerely may have wanted a different deal for Eastern Europe than what the big boys agreed to at Yalta. That said, the White Stag program in the U.S. Boy Scouts reeks of military psychology, blended with the pre-Christian mythos of Europe, and possibly some fascist tendencies. So at minimum I feel that there's cause for further investigation...


More on the life of Béla Bánáthy here (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B%C3%A9la_H._B%C3%A1n%C3%A1thy).
Interesting site Austin. I notice they don't like mention that the ugly Bela was fighting for the fascists.

It is very difficult to find a youth group anywhere here which isn't a paramilitary outfit or preying on young children souls and psyches. Boy Scouts combine both :thumpdown:

Austin Kelley
02-22-2010, 12:39 PM
Interesting site Austin. I notice they don't like mention that the ugly Bela was fighting for the fascists.

It is very difficult to find a youth group anywhere here which isn't a paramilitary outfit or preying on young children souls and psyches. Boy Scouts combine both :thumpdown:

Yes- since Boy Scouts USA has chosen to continue with White Stag as a showcase program long after its Cold War origins, there is an especially strong reason to want to clean up Mr. Bánáthy's image.

The fact that HumRRo- the military psychology/science organization which tested human guinea pigs, as for example at atom bomb tests- was involved with the origins of White Stag, is also glossed over.

Austin Kelley
05-21-2010, 02:23 PM
Did Abu Zubaydah Have Dissociative Identity Disorder? And Why It Matters (http://valtinsblog.blogspot.com/2010/05/did-abu-zubaydah-have-dissociative.html)

Magda Hassan
05-22-2010, 04:58 AM
Austin, I'm having trouble with this link.

Austin Kelley
05-22-2010, 05:16 AM
Thanks for pointing this out, Magda- I've fixed it now.

Jan Klimkowski
05-22-2010, 12:52 PM
Colin Ross MD, a former President of the International Society for the Study of Dissociation, has undertaken much important work into understanding the mechanisms which might be used to programme a person to perform a particular action. His original book, Bluebird, was updated and reissued in 2006 as The CIA Doctors.

Ross' own definition of Manchurian Candidate is as follows:


According to my definition, the Manchurian Candidate is an experimentally created dissociative identity disorder that meets the following four criteria:

1) Created deliberately
2) A new identity is implanted
3) Amnesia barriers are created
4) Used in simulated or actual operations.

From Ross, The CIA Doctors, p 35.

The known predecessor programmes to MK-ULTRA included BLUEBIRD and ARTICHOKE, and Ross found many documents which clearly reveal the ultimate intention of the projects. For instance:


A document entitled "Hypnotic Experimentation and Research, 10 February 1954", describes a simulation experiment of relevance to the creation of Manchurian Candidate assassins:


Miss (whited out) was then instructed (having previously expressed a fear of firearms in any fashion) that she would use every method at her disposal to awaken Miss (whited out) (now in a deep hypnotic sleep) and failing in this, she would pick up a pistol nearby and fire it at Miss (whited out). She was instructed that her rage would be so great that she would not hesitate to "kill" Miss (whited out) for failing to awaken. Miss (whited out) carried out these suggestions to the letter including firing the (unloaded pneumatic pistol) gun at (whited out) and then proceeding to fall into a deep sleep. After proper suggestions were made, both were awakened and expressed complete amnesia for the entire sequence. Miss (whited out) was again handed the gun, which she refused (in an awakened state) to pick up or accept from the operator. She expressed absolute denial that the foregoing sequence had happened.
From Ross, The CIA Doctors, p 46

Ross further states that there are four primary routes leading to the creation of Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) (see eg p233ff The CIA Doctors:

i) childhood abuse; ii) childhood neglect; iii) factitious (ie self-created to attract attention); iv) iatrogenic - which means created by a doctor or therapist.

Manchurian Candidates are prime examples of iatrogenic DID.

Austin Kelley
05-23-2010, 10:38 PM
http://www.truthout.org/cries-from-past-tortures-ugly-echoes59738

Cries From the Past: Torture's Ugly Echoes
Sunday 23 May 2010
by: H.P. Albarelli Jr. and Jeffrey Kaye, t r u t h o u t | Report

http://www.truthout.org/files/images/052310kaye.jpg


In a superb op-ed, written by Leonard S. Rubenstein and Stephen N. Xenakis, published recently in the New York Times (Doctors Without Morals, March 1, 2010, p. A23), the issue of holding physicians and psychologists accountable for their ethical breaches in participating in the conduct of torture is expertly raised, along with a well-needed call for investigations into such violations and violators. Rubenstein and Xenakis wrote: "[Despite overwhelming evidence] no agency - not the Pentagon, the CIA, state licensing boards or professional medical societies - has initiated any action to investigate, much less discipline, these individuals. They have ignored the gross and appalling violations by medical personnel. This is an unconscionable disservice to the thousands of ethical doctors and psychologists in the country's service. It is not too late to begin investigations. They should start now."

Rubenstein and Xenakis are absolutely correct in their call for action now, as they are in their accounting of what has gone on historically the past ten years with torture at Guantanamo and elsewhere. However, their op-ed says nothing about the decades preceding the terrible events of 9-11. An examination of these well-hidden, past torture activities might serve well in shedding light on the causes for reluctance and inaction in holding torturers and their professional cohorts responsible.

Operation Dormouse

Contemporary torture's earliest, deepest and most influential roots are found in the CIA's Artichoke Project. Indeed, it is Project Artichoke that encapsulates the CIA's real traveling road show of horrors and atrocities, not MK/ULTRA which, although responsible for its own acts of mindless cruelty, pales in comparison.

That MK/ULTRA received, and continues to receive, the lion's share of the media's attention and public outrage over CIA mind control programs was a deliberately planned outcome on the part of the Agency. This outcome was the central objective of a never before revealed covert operation launched in 1975 and informally code-named Dormouse.

Dormouse, operated out of the CIA's Security Research branch, had its genesis in the 1975 Rockefeller Commission report and in the subsequent Congressional hearings into CIA illegal activities chaired by Senators Frank Church and Teddy Kennedy. Following the initial revelation of Frank Olson's alleged "suicide" by the Rockefeller Commission, a number of high-level meetings occurred between President Gerald Ford's White House and CIA General Counsel Lawrence Houston.

Houston, who had served the Agency as its doyen general counsel for over 25 years, secretly huddled on at least two occasions in June 1975 with Ford's chief of staff, Donald Rumsfeld, and his chief assistant, Richard Cheney. Houston impressed upon both men that any prolonged and intense media scrutiny of Project Artichoke would lead to opening a Pandora's box of legal, institutional, international and public relations problems that could destroy the CIA.

Houston explained that the Agency's MK/ULTRA program was far less problematic for the CIA because it had been a research-based program that initiated 153 contracts to colleges, universities and research institutions nationwide. These contractors, all stalwart and prestigious institutions like Harvard, Columbia, and Tulane Universities, could serve as viable buffers to any harsh outside attacks.

Houston stressed that deliberate exposure of the MK/ULTRA program by essentially offering it to the press would serve to placate the brewing feeding frenzy over so-called mind control projects, and would divert any investigative attempts into the multi-faceted Artichoke Project.

Houston additionally explained to Rumsfeld and Cheney that, along with the release of MK/ULTRA details to the media, the names of a few former CIA employees, such as Dr. Sidney Gottlieb, would also be released to the press. Incredibly, when the subject of possible federal prosecutions of CIA officials for capital crimes and felonies, such as murder and drug trafficking, came up in their discussion, Houston informed Rumsfeld and Cheney that there was little cause for concern.

Explained the Agency's General Counsel, since early 1954, following the death of Army biochemist Frank Olson, a secret agreement between the CIA and the U.S. Department of Justice had been put in place whereby the violation of "criminal statutes" by CIA personnel would not result in Department of Justice prosecutions, if "highly classified and complex covert operations" were threatened with exposure. The agreement had been struck between Houston and Deputy Attorney General William P. Rogers in February 1954, not long after Frank Olson's death, and still remained solidly in place.

Lastly, and worth noting here, was a brief adjunct discussion between Houston, Rumsfeld, and Cheney regarding related concerns about records on former Nazi scientists who had been secretly imported into the United States in the early Fifties by the State Department and Army, as part of Project Paperclip. These German scientists performed highly-classified research at the Army's Fort Detrick and Edgewood Arsenal, Maryland, some of which involved field operations in Europe.

Without doubt, as the extant record clearly reveals, the CIA's Dormouse Operation, as expressed by Houston, was remarkably effective. Information released on the Agency's MK/ULTRA program more than sated the media's curiosity for mind control details, and even a few random Artichoke Program citations in a couple released documents failed to draw any concerted examination by anyone in the press. For example: documents revealing that Dr. Frank Olson had been part of the CIA's ongoing "Artichoke Conference" were near completely overlooked. Within a few short months, Artichoke was widely believed by the media and public to be but a small, innocuous project that had been replaced by the MK/ULTRA behemoth. Still today, numerous publications state that Artichoke was absorbed and replaced by MK/ULTRA, when actually Artichoke operated independently for nearly 17 years beyond the dawn of MK/ULTRA.

What Was Project Artichoke?

The CIA initiated Project Artichoke in August 1951 at the direction of CIA director Walter Bedell Smith and the Agency's Scientific Intelligence Director, Dr. H. Marshall Chadwell. The code name "Artichoke" was selected with sardonic humor from the street appendage given to New York City gangster Ciro Terranova, who was referred to as "the Artichoke King."

Following a brief period of bureaucratic infighting over which CIA department would have jurisdiction over Artichoke, it was decided that the project would be overseen by the Agency's Security Research Staff, headed by Paul F. Gaynor, a former Army Brigadier General, who had extensive experience in wartime interrogations.

Gaynor was notorious among CIA officials for having his staff maintain a systematic file on every homosexual, and suspected homosexual, among the ranks of Federal employees, as well as those who worked and served on Washington's Capitol Hill. Gaynor's secret listing eventually grew to include the names of employees and elected officials at State government levels, and the siblings and relatives of those on Capitol Hill.

In early January 1953, State Department employee John C. Montgomery, who handled considerable classified material, hanged himself in his Georgetown townhouse after learning of his addition to Gaynor's list. In 1954, U.S. Senator Lester C. Hunt (D-WY) killed himself in his senate office after he was threatened by Republicans, using information provided by Gaynor's staff, to publicly expose his son's homosexuality. By the early 1960s, according to one former Agency employee, "It was pretty much routine to consult Gaynor's 'fag file' when conducting background or clearance checks on individuals."

Gaynor's veiled and more despicable activities also extended to racist matters, a fixation he seemed to share with many of the CIA's early leaders, as well as with some of the Pentagon's early ranking officials. According to one former CIA official, Gaynor was once informally cautioned by Allen Dulles concerning his overt support of former Congressman Hamilton Fish III, a strident Nazi sympathizer, and for associating, along with fellow CIA official Morse Allen, with John B. Trevor Jr., an ardent racist, anti-Semite, pro-Nazi, who called for amnesty for Nazi war criminals. Before the CIA was formed, Gaynor was also associated with Trevor's father, John B. Trevor Sr., a Harvard-educated attorney who worked with Army intelligence and who once strongly advocated arming a group of citizens with 6,000 rifles and machine guns to put down an anticipated Jewish uprising in Manhattan that only took shape in Trevor's twisted mind.

In 1997, former CIA Technical Services chief, Dr. Sidney Gottlieb, who had been born into a Jewish family, said, "Throughout the 1950s, and for some time beyond, the Agency was less than a welcoming place for Jews and racial minorities. Those who were actually ever hired or involved in operations learned rather quickly to keep their heads down when certain matters were discussed or rallied round."

Here it should be emphasized that inevitably lurking within, near, and around all of the CIA's early mind-control experiments was a strong element of racism that generally manifested itself through the Agency's principle objective of establishing control over the perceived "weaker" and "less intelligent" segments of society. That the CIA's initial mind control activities show a close kinship with many prominent characters within the racist and anti-immigration eugenics movement is no coincidence. Thus comprised was the central leadership of the CIA's Project Artichoke.

Here it is important to note that the Artichoke Project originated from the CIA's short-lived Project Bluebird, which operated for about two years, 1949 through summer 1951, and concentrated its efforts on former American POWs returned from the Korean War. These servicemen were placed in several Army hospitals, including Valley Forge Hospital, Pennsylvania and the Walter Reed facility in Washington, D.C. There the former POWs were subjected to various behavioral modification programs, including the use of experimental drugs, special interrogation methods, all for what the CIA deemed "offensive objectives." Joining the CIA in Project Bluebird was the Army, Navy, and Air Force (the FBI declined to participate in the project).

Reads one April 1951 Bluebird Project report: "The Navy's research efforts in regards to Bluebird objectives had actually begun in 1947 at Bethesda Naval Hospital. There, according to the Navy's Bluebird designees, J.H. Alberti and Lt. Cmdr. Hardenburg, extensive experiments had been conducted using both drugs and medical aids (polygraph machines, surgical means, hypnotism). Besides Bethesda hospital, the Office of Naval Research conducted a project in partnership with the University of Indiana which in essence [was] a search for valid indications of deception other than the mechanical indicators now being used."

CIA interest in exotic and abusive methods of detecting deception continues to the present day. In July 2003, the CIA, the Rand Corporation and the American Psychological Association conducted a series of workshops on detecting deception. One of these workshops considered the use of truth drugs ("pharmacological agents are known to affect apparent truth-telling behavior") and the use of sensory overloads. The workshop asked its classified participants, "How might we overload the system or overwhelm the senses and see how it affects deceptive behaviors?"


Perhaps one of the best examples of this was the treatment of "enemy combatant" Jose Padilla, who by the time he entered a U.S. courtroom had suffered tremendously, and irreversibly, from the abuses of deliberately induced sensory and systems overload.

In early summer of 1951, just weeks before Bluebird was renamed Artichoke, officials within the CIA's Security Office - working in tandem with cleared scientists from Camp Detrick's Special Operations Division, who in turn worked closely with a select group of scientists from a number of other Army installations, including Edgewood Arsenal - began a series of ultra-secret experiments with LSD, mescaline, peyote, and a synthesized substance, sometimes nicknamed "Smasher," which combined an "LSD-like drug with pharmaceutical amphetamines and other enhancers."

This substance was used in a number of highly classified field experiments, at least four of which were conducted outside the United States. While details of these experiments are sketchy, former Fort Detrick biochemists report, "None of the field experiments produced the type of results desired," and as a result, "ranking Army Chemical Corps officials elected to focus LSD and other drug experiments on more narrowly defined groups, as well as individuals." Chief among the field experiments that failed in the "desired results" category were the horrifying events that took place in Pont St. Esprit, France in 1951. There in a small, peaceful village one early summer morning nearly 700 people went stark raving mad with 4 people killing themselves. (This incident is detailed in my book, "A TERRIBLE MISTAKE: The Murder of Frank Olson and the CIA's Secret Cold War Experiments") This experimental focus remained in place when Project Artichoke was initiated.

At its inception, the Artichoke Project needed a steady supply of experimental subjects. Wrote CIA Security Research chief Paul Gaynor in a never before revealed February 1953 memo: "It is imperative that we move forward more aggressively on identifying and securing a reliable, ready group, or groups, of human research subjects for ongoing Artichoke experimentation. There can be no delays in this extremely important work."

Other CIA reports reveal that the CIA's Security Research Staff was not sitting idly by while awaiting the securing of ready groups of human subjects. Teams of Agency officials and contract physicians were traveling frequently to locations in Europe where, in the isolation of CIA safe houses, enhanced interrogations and behavior modification experiments were being conducted on various defectors, double-agents, and kidnapped foreign agents.

Reads a November 1956 Artichoke report that could have easily been written today at Guantanamo, Cuba: "The team physician administered a suppository containing a small amount of heroin to the subject so as to increase subject's pain threshold." The physician referred to in this report, a well-known Washington, D.C. psychologist, made over 90 Artichoke-related trips abroad.

In September 1953, Artichoke Project director Morse Allen, a former Naval intelligence officer and State Department employee, hand-carried a two-page memorandum to Paul Gaynor. The memo bears the subject: "Artichoke Research Program." It reads in part: "[T]here are some four thousand (4,000) American military men who are serving court martial sentences in the federal prisons at the present time. These men are scattered through the federal institutions according to their age - some being at reformatories, others at prisons. It is administratively possible that the sentences of these men can be reduced by direction of the Adjutant General's office. Therefore, if these men should be wanted for work on a dangerous research project, it might be possible to motivate their interest by promising that recommendations would be made to the Adjutant General's office to have their sentences appropriately reduced if they co-operated in the experimentation. Also many offenses of military men were committed in circumstances which might tend to lessen the feeling of guilt on the part of the individual and such cases might reveal interesting information."

Allen next suggested that federal prisons "that have hospital setups with doctors on the permanent staff" be used for experiments. Wrote Allen, "Such things as the size of the institution and current population would have to be considered but it is a fact that the federal prisons are not overcrowded as is the case with many state prisons, thus it would be much easier to obtain working space in a federal institution." Artichoke teams secretly working in the prisons could be passed off as "coming from nearby universities or research institutions," explained Allen. About a week later, Allen amended his September memo to include "federal hospitals and institutions under the control of the [U.S.] Public Health Service."

Wrote Allen, "There are a large number of USPHS-controlled facilities that can be used for experiments, these in addition to the facilities recommended in the earlier memorandum bearing the same subject."

Gaynor promptly approved Allen's recommendations, ordering their immediate implementation. Within a few weeks, progress reports concerning the conduct of experiments at three federal prisons, as well as a reformatory in Bordentown, New Jersey, were submitted to Gaynor. Experiments were also conducted at St. Elizabeth's Hospital in Washington, D.C., a Veterans Administration hospital in Detroit, Michigan, and at the Federal Narcotics Farm in Lexington, Kentucky. Experiments at the Narcotics Farm, somewhat romanticized in some current publications, were specifically targeted at African-American inmates, who were considered by the program's director to be inferior to white inmates at the facility.

When the newly created U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW) was created just weeks later with Nelson A. Rockefeller as Under-Secretary, the CIA found it remarkably easy to gain HEW's approval for use of Federal medical facilities as fronts for covert drug and interrogation experiments using unwitting human subjects. Inevitably, nearly all those unwitting experimental subjects chosen for HEW-sponsored projects were African-Americans and persons from immigrant groups and what one Agency document referred to as the "lower classes."

A central Artichoke objective, according to one CIA document, centered on: "The problem exists of ascertaining whether effective and practical techniques exist, or could be developed, which could be utilized to render an individual subservient to an imposed will or control, thereby posing a potential threat to National Security."

The same document explained that the Agency also wanted to put the same techniques to their own effective uses in the field offensively. Reads the document: "We need to also explore the 'subtle' means of making an individual say or do things he would normally not consider through the use of covertly administered drugs, 'Black Psychiatry'*, hypnosis, and brain damaging processes. Dr. Chadwell feels these processes may be tried but they are 'elaborate, impractical and unnecessary.'"[Italics added. Dr. Chadwell was H. Marshall Chadwell, the CIA's director of Scientific Intelligence.]

A subsequent April 1954 Artichoke Conference meeting, attended by Frank Olson's Fort Detrick superior, Col. Vincent Ruwet, explored the real nitty-gritty of Artichoke experimentation. Noted a CIA report on the meeting, "It was also recognized that if Morse Allen and his group could produce bodies and if certain very rough, primitive, and ultimate tests could be carried out then a more accurate prediction could be made in connection with the ultimate goal of the group which is the running of selected foreign nationals back into Europe for specific work for this Agency."

CIA Security Research chief Paul Gaynor, attending the same Artichoke Conference meeting, reminded the gathered Agency and Fort Detrick officials, "All individuals can be broken under mental and physical assaults and by such techniques as denying sleep, exhaustion, persuasion, starvation, pain, humiliation, and sickness."

Added Gaynor, "The capacity to endure assaults of all kinds varies in individuals. We need to teach the Artichoke techniques to medical officers in the field... we also need to combine these techniques with the work carried on at Edgewood Arsenal and at Camp Dietrich [sic] ...and the special use of ergots, as well as Lysergic Acid. Experiments with new ideas, for example the hypo-spray instrument (owned by the E.R. Squibb Company) using criminals and the criminally insane, have been very successful."

An italicized and revealing note at the end of the Artichoke meeting report reads: "Morse Allen and Paul Gaynor emphasized the fact that this type of work must not be overwhelmed and overburdened in a maze of statistics, technical reports and learned academic experimentation since previous experiences along these lines clearly indicate that when this appears the end results are almost always negative." Reportedly, much of these very same statements and thinking are contained in a number of the training manuals used today by CIA and Army interrogators.

[b]Project Artichoke Operational Overseas

Beginning in January 1954, following a series of experimental field assignments, the CIA began to systematically dispatch special assignment Artichoke Teams from the U.S. to locations throughout Europe, Japan, Southeast Asia, and the Philippines. Team assignments were given by special "EYES ONLY" cables with each assigned a tracking number. By 1961 the numbers had reached as high as 257 specific assignments. Nearly all of these assignments would fall under today's definition of "enhanced interrogations."

Through a number of Project Artichoke documents, obtained through the Freedom of Information Act, we are able to obtain glimpses into those activities and techniques employed by the dispatched teams, which appear to have been at least a dozen in number.

A February 6, 1954 team report, delivered to CIA headquarters by "Diplomatic Courier," provides partial insight into one seemingly unique Artichoke field assignment in Europe. The report states: "These two subjects [foreign agents] are disposal problems, one because of his lack of ability to carry out a mission and the other because he cannot get along with the chief agent of the project. Both have extensive information concerning (other) assets and thus are security risks wherever they are disposed of. Anything that can be done in the Artichoke field to lessen the security risk will be helpful since the men must be disposed of even at maximum security risk. The urgency of consideration of this case is due to the fact that one of the men is already somewhat stir crazy and has tried to escape twice."

Another field report reads: "Subject was given a sedative suppository to increase his resistance to pain, this in order to intensify his ordeal midway through the planned session." Another reads in part: "This A [Artichoke] session involved four subjects all of whom present serious disposal problems after results are produced."

Domestic Artichoke Operations

In February 1954, with over 65 Artichoke Team visits to sites in Europe and the Far East having already occurred, Paul Gaynor decided to open a new Artichoke Project front. This front would be located within America's borders despite the fact that many people in the nation's capital believed that the CIA's founding charter forbade the organization from conducting domestic operations. In numerous ways, this new front gave initial shape and direction for the CIA's still-to-come "rendition" activities that we witness today.

Gaynor outlined this in a memo sent to the Agency's Technical Services Division, explaining that Artichoke officials were about to embark on creating "a mechanism within the United States which will be a ways and means of contacting alien citizens in the United States" whereby they could be "branded as alien threats and removed from the United States as 'undesirable aliens.'" The objective of establishing this mechanism was to facilitate "legal entree" for the contacted aliens so that they might, following careful "screening and testing," conduct covert missions in targeted foreign countries.

Gaynor's memo continued, stating the best technique for "contacting these people" was through the use of "sympathetic fake left-wing organizations" secretly established by the CIA. Remarkably, the memo went on stating the best process established by Artichoke officials for identifying those aliens to use involved "selection, screening, indoctrination and ultimately hypnosis." However, states the memo, "the sixty-four dollar question is can individuals be commanded under hypnosis to do things they would not otherwise do because of morals, training, ethics, etc."

Earlier, in March 1952, Security Research officials along with CIA Scientific Intelligence Branch researchers had made a concerted decision to pursue hypnotism toward the principle objective that, "Two hundred trained [CIA] operators, trained in the United States, could develop [and command] a unique, dangerous army of hypnotically controlled agents" who would carry out any instructions they were given without reservations. Several years later, CIA officials would describe the abilities of this "unique, dangerous army" as "mildly hair-raising."

Artichoke Evolves into Assassination Project

Perhaps it was inevitable that Project Artichoke would eventually develop an "executive action" or assassination component. The CIA had been seriously contemplating such a capacity since its founding. In 1952, one Artichoke official wrote: "Let's get into the technology of assassination, figure most effective ways to kill - like Empress Agrippina - do you want your people to be able to get out of the room? Do you want it traced?"

Other hard evidence of the CIA's leanings toward assassination as a feature of policy and operations is yet another memorandum by the Agency's Security Office and Artichoke official Morse Allen. Wrote Allen about Martin Luther King in 1965: "It is [redacted]'s belief that somehow or other Martin Luther King must be removed from the leadership of the Negro movement, and his removal must come from within and not from without. [Redacted] feels that somehow in the Negro movement, at the top, there must be a Negro leader who is 'clean' who could step into the vacuum and chaos if Martin Luther King were exposed or assassinated."

Rewriting History and Creating Disinformation

In recent years there has been a concerted effort on the part of some groups and writers to deliberately disown and downplay the horrors of Project Artichoke. Perhaps the finest recent example of this is an article written by Charles S. Viar of the Washington, D.C.-based Center for Intelligence Studies, a private group. Viar's article entitled [i]PANDORA'S BOX: MKULTRA and the Weaponization of the Human Psyche is posted on the center's web site.

Viar, who claims to have been a student of James Jesus Angleton in 1986 and 1987, and an expert on intelligence affairs, erroneously claims in his article that the Artichoke Project and its techniques had been "developed and successfully refined by the Soviets, Nazi, and Western intelligence services between 1920 and 1973." This rewriting of history appears as nothing short of an amazing effort to distort the truth; as is well established by the CIA's own records, the term Artichoke was never applied to any program or techniques prior to 1952, when the Agency first employed the project codename.

Viar also appears to buy into and promote the cover story invented by Cheney and Rumsfeld in 1975 that Project Artichoke was, in 1953, replaced by MK/ULTRA. Additionally, he buys into the "unwitting" dosing of Frank Olson as "part of an MKULTRA experiment," this despite that Olson was a member of the CIA's Artichoke Conference and never worked with MK/ULTRA projects. Viar then remarkably writes, "There is no evidence that either the CIA or the US military operationalized Artichoke," a statement that is shattered to pieces by the numerous Artichoke operational reports and records filed by both the CIA and army from 1954 through to at least 1970. If this is not enough, Viar then states that it was "the Soviets" who "shared Artichoke with their Arab allies," and then equates Project Artichoke to "suicide bombers" and "Al Qaeda." Lastly, Viar also writes that the CIA's delving into parapsychology matters is near completely overlooked by historians, despite the ample writings and exposure of the Agency's MK/ULTRA subprojects, which extensively dealt with ESP and other parapsychology matters.

Project Artichoke Today

With today's media reports concerning the CIA and Department of Defense black sites cropping up all over the world map, and with horrifying reports concerning alleged "suicides" at US-operated compounds holding "enemy combatants" that make Frank Olson's suicide-turned-murder case look like a stroll through atrocity park, readers should be ever mindful that the roots of the CIA's secret mind control and enhanced interrogation programs are firmly planted in the soil of Project Artichoke.

Over the past months, new secret black sites prisons have been discovered at Guantanamo Naval Base and at Bagram Air Field in Afghanistan. The Guantanamo site has been linked to the deaths of three prisoners in 2006, while Bagram secret prison, said to be run by the Defense Intelligence Agency, has been the subject of investigations by the New York Times, Washington Post, and BBC, exposing widespread use of beatings, isolation, sleep deprivation, and other techniques derived from Appendix M of the 2006 Army Field Manual. This portion of the manual outlines abusive forms of interrogation reserved only for captives that supposedly don't warrant prisoner-of-war status.

Interest in the use of drugs and mind control techniques in military research and operations persists to the present day. A November 2006 instruction from the Secretary of the Navy (3900.39D) informs that the Undersecretary for the Navy would heretofore be the "Approval Authority for research involving: (a) Severe or unusual intrusions, either physical or psychological, on human subjects (such as consciousness-altering drugs or mind-control techniques)."**

A public presentation of the new policy at the Defense Department Training Day in Washington, D.C. on November 14, 2006, only 16 days after the new policy was released, deleted the parenthetical remarks on drugs and "mind control," but left intact the instruction two paragraphs later that the Undersecretary also be responsible for research of, "Potentially or inherently controversial topics (such as those likely to attract significant media coverage or that might invite challenge by interest groups.)"

Like a modern day Ministry of Truth, U.S. government agencies and their partners are busy trying to erase the evidence of their crimes, whether from sixty years ago, or six. Most recently, the American Psychological Association (APA) has changed the web pages that describe their 2003 workshop conducted with the CIA and the Rand Corporation on deception. One webpage has dropped the link to another page that described the workshops investigation of sensory overload and truth drugs. The descriptive page on workshops has been scrubbed entirely, and is only available through the use of web archives sites. Worth noting is that throughout the 1950s and 1960s the APA worked quite closely with both the CIA and Army on mind control projects, many of which completely crossed ethical lines, as well as the APA's Code of Ethics, into areas described by many observers as sheer madness.

Attempts to prevent judicial review of the rendition and torture programs are moreover an official position of President Obama's administration. On May 12, the administration filed a brief to the Supreme Court about whether to hear an appeal from Maher Arar in his lawsuit against former Attorney General Ashcroft and other Bush administration figures. Arar was kidnapped from New York's JFK Airport and rendered secretly to Syria, where he was tortured for almost a year. His suit was dismissed by a federal circuit appeals court. Now, President Obama's Acting Solicitor General, Neal Katyal, has pronounced the administration's position that further deliberations on Mr. Arar's suit are "unwarranted." The former Solicitor General, Elena Kagan, who was involved in U.S. decision-making on the case, is now a nominee for the Supreme Court.

Finally, the release last year of the CIA's 2004 Inspector General report on the "enhanced interrogation" program revealed an operation that with its use of doctors as control agents, its reliance on methods of psychological and physiological torture, and the experimental nature of the program, led Physicians for Human Rights to release a white paper that concluded that "possible human experimentation" was taking place, and emphasized the urgent need for a thorough investigation.
---

*According to one former CIA official: "'Black Psychiatry' refers to psychiatric methods used by trained and licensed physicians on subjects. These methods may not be in the best interest of the subject's mental well-being and health." The same official remarked, "There was no shortage of or problems recruiting psychologists in the 1950s and 1960s who would willfully, and sometimes enthusiastically, practice 'Black Psychiatry.'" The various methods of 'Black Psychiatry' were provided in a training setting in the 1950s through to at least the 1970s at the CIA's Butler Health Center facility in Rhode Island, where many physicians, including Dr. Robert Hyde, worked for the Agency. The Butler Center also served as the CIA's central site for exposing its own officials and agents to the effects of LSD and other drugs.

** Recent reports concerning the CIA and Army have both organizations experimenting on a selected basis with a new mind altering drug whose effects are described as "incredibly mind altering yet at the same time allowing subjects to adhere to a sufficient sense of sanity thus allowing better opportunity for truth inducing techniques..." The drug, described by one former intelligence official as "ETX," is said to last for "about 48-hours."

Ed Jewett
05-24-2010, 03:13 AM
Wow! Great thread, and I just scanned it. Can't keep up with y'all. Someone else had kudos for what a great site this is; I second that emotion. (and Grateful Dead, too...geeesh),

Jan Klimkowski
05-24-2010, 06:00 PM
http://www.truthout.org/cries-from-past-tortures-ugly-echoes59738

Cries From the Past: Torture's Ugly Echoes
Sunday 23 May 2010
by: H.P. Albarelli Jr. and Jeffrey Kaye, t r u t h o u t | Report

Houston explained that the Agency's MK/ULTRA program was far less problematic for the CIA because it had been a research-based program that initiated 153 contracts to colleges, universities and research institutions nationwide. These contractors, all stalwart and prestigious institutions like Harvard, Columbia, and Tulane Universities, could serve as viable buffers to any harsh outside attacks.

Houston stressed that deliberate exposure of the MK/ULTRA program by essentially offering it to the press would serve to placate the brewing feeding frenzy over so-called mind control projects, and would divert any investigative attempts into the multi-faceted Artichoke Project.

Houston additionally explained to Rumsfeld and Cheney that, along with the release of MK/ULTRA details to the media, the names of a few former CIA employees, such as Dr. Sidney Gottlieb, would also be released to the press. Incredibly, when the subject of possible federal prosecutions of CIA officials for capital crimes and felonies, such as murder and drug trafficking, came up in their discussion, Houston informed Rumsfeld and Cheney that there was little cause for concern.


This is one of the reasons that I have always explicitly used "MK-ULTRA" in an umbrella sense, as a shorthand for the myriad projects, funded by numerous agencies and cut-outs, working in the field of "research" best known in the popular mind as MK-ULTRA.

Eg see the thread "The MK-ULTRA iceberg" here:
http://www.deeppoliticsforum.com/forums/showthread.php?t=223

Analagously, even the limited hangout of the "psychic spying" programmes could not disguise the fact that CIA, NSA, DIA, US Army Military Intelligence and ONI had their own "psi spy" programmes. This is in medium part "competition", in small part inter-agency jealousy, and in large part ensuring the tracks get lost in the sweeping sand.

The Houston revelations above provide some corrobation to another of my core convictions, based in part on the experience of researchers who delved into the original sources. Namely that former US State Department employee John D Marks' book The Search for the Manchurian Candidate, still regarded by MSM as the "definitive" investigation of US mind control programmes, was itself a strictly limited and demarcated hangout.




Gaynor's veiled and more despicable activities also extended to racist matters, a fixation he seemed to share with many of the CIA's early leaders, as well as with some of the Pentagon's early ranking officials. According to one former CIA official, Gaynor was once informally cautioned by Allen Dulles concerning his overt support of former Congressman Hamilton Fish III, a strident Nazi sympathizer, and for associating, along with fellow CIA official Morse Allen, with John B. Trevor Jr., an ardent racist, anti-Semite, pro-Nazi, who called for amnesty for Nazi war criminals. Before the CIA was formed, Gaynor was also associated with Trevor's father, John B. Trevor Sr., a Harvard-educated attorney who worked with Army intelligence and who once strongly advocated arming a group of citizens with 6,000 rifles and machine guns to put down an anticipated Jewish uprising in Manhattan that only took shape in Trevor's twisted mind.

In 1997, former CIA Technical Services chief, Dr. Sidney Gottlieb, who had been born into a Jewish family, said, "Throughout the 1950s, and for some time beyond, the Agency was less than a welcoming place for Jews and racial minorities. Those who were actually ever hired or involved in operations learned rather quickly to keep their heads down when certain matters were discussed or rallied round."

Here it should be emphasized that inevitably lurking within, near, and around all of the CIA's early mind-control experiments was a strong element of racism that generally manifested itself through the Agency's principle objective of establishing control over the perceived "weaker" and "less intelligent" segments of society. That the CIA's initial mind control activities show a close kinship with many prominent characters within the racist and anti-immigration eugenics movement is no coincidence. Thus comprised was the central leadership of the CIA's Project Artichoke.

Here it is important to note that the Artichoke Project originated from the CIA's short-lived Project Bluebird, which operated for about two years, 1949 through summer 1951, and concentrated its efforts on former American POWs returned from the Korean War. These servicemen were placed in several Army hospitals, including Valley Forge Hospital, Pennsylvania and the Walter Reed facility in Washington, D.C. There the former POWs were subjected to various behavioral modification programs, including the use of experimental drugs, special interrogation methods, all for what the CIA deemed "offensive objectives." Joining the CIA in Project Bluebird was the Army, Navy, and Air Force (the FBI declined to participate in the project).

Reads one April 1951 Bluebird Project report: "The Navy's research efforts in regards to Bluebird objectives had actually begun in 1947 at Bethesda Naval Hospital. There, according to the Navy's Bluebird designees, J.H. Alberti and Lt. Cmdr. Hardenburg, extensive experiments had been conducted using both drugs and medical aids (polygraph machines, surgical means, hypnotism). Besides Bethesda hospital, the Office of Naval Research conducted a project in partnership with the University of Indiana which in essence [was] a search for valid indications of deception other than the mechanical indicators now being used."



The correct lens through which to investigate this persistent trend in behaviourist and "MK-ULTRA" (in the umbrella sense) research is not racism per se, but EUGENICS.




At its inception, the Artichoke Project needed a steady supply of experimental subjects. Wrote CIA Security Research chief Paul Gaynor in a never before revealed February 1953 memo: "It is imperative that we move forward more aggressively on identifying and securing a reliable, ready group, or groups, of human research subjects for ongoing Artichoke experimentation. There can be no delays in this extremely important work."

Other CIA reports reveal that the CIA's Security Research Staff was not sitting idly by while awaiting the securing of ready groups of human subjects. Teams of Agency officials and contract physicians were traveling frequently to locations in Europe where, in the isolation of CIA safe houses, enhanced interrogations and behavior modification experiments were being conducted on various defectors, double-agents, and kidnapped foreign agents.

Reads a November 1956 Artichoke report that could have easily been written today at Guantanamo, Cuba: "The team physician administered a suppository containing a small amount of heroin to the subject so as to increase subject's pain threshold." The physician referred to in this report, a well-known Washington, D.C. psychologist, made over 90 Artichoke-related trips abroad.

In September 1953, Artichoke Project director Morse Allen, a former Naval intelligence officer and State Department employee, hand-carried a two-page memorandum to Paul Gaynor. The memo bears the subject: "Artichoke Research Program." It reads in part: "[T]here are some four thousand (4,000) American military men who are serving court martial sentences in the federal prisons at the present time. These men are scattered through the federal institutions according to their age - some being at reformatories, others at prisons. It is administratively possible that the sentences of these men can be reduced by direction of the Adjutant General's office. Therefore, if these men should be wanted for work on a dangerous research project, it might be possible to motivate their interest by promising that recommendations would be made to the Adjutant General's office to have their sentences appropriately reduced if they co-operated in the experimentation. Also many offenses of military men were committed in circumstances which might tend to lessen the feeling of guilt on the part of the individual and such cases might reveal interesting information."

Allen next suggested that federal prisons "that have hospital setups with doctors on the permanent staff" be used for experiments. Wrote Allen, "Such things as the size of the institution and current population would have to be considered but it is a fact that the federal prisons are not overcrowded as is the case with many state prisons, thus it would be much easier to obtain working space in a federal institution." Artichoke teams secretly working in the prisons could be passed off as "coming from nearby universities or research institutions," explained Allen. About a week later, Allen amended his September memo to include "federal hospitals and institutions under the control of the [U.S.] Public Health Service."

Wrote Allen, "There are a large number of USPHS-controlled facilities that can be used for experiments, these in addition to the facilities recommended in the earlier memorandum bearing the same subject."




This smells of the 1970s claims of naval psychologist Lt Comdr Thomas Narut to have programmed military assassins, revealed and reported at a NATO conference in Oslo on "Dimensions of Stress and Anxiety." The loose-tongued Narut was then disappeared.

See eg here:
http://www.deeppoliticsforum.com/forums/showpost.php?p=9276&postcount=10

Ed Jewett
05-24-2010, 06:39 PM
Obama Interrogation Official Linked to U.S. Mind Control Research

Jeff Kaye



Firedoglake (http://seminal.firedoglake.com/diary/50281), May 23, 2010

A new article (http://www.truthout.org/cries-from-past-tortures-ugly-echoes59738) at Truthout, by H.P. Albarelli and Jeffrey Kaye, describes how the CIA’s Artichoke Project* was the contemporaneous and operational side of the MK-ULTRA mind control research program. It was not superceded by MK-ULTRA in the 1950s, as often supposed. Even more, Artichoke-derived methods of using drugs, hypnosis, sensory deprivation and overload, behavioral modification techniques and other methods of mind control have resurfaced as a primary component of U.S. interrogation practice.
The Truthout article includes some amazing revelations, including the largest description to date of the roles of then-Ford administration officials Dick Cheney and Donald Rumsfeld in working hand-in-glove with the CIA to suppress information on Artichoke from surfacing.
The article also references the November 2006 release of an "Instruction" from the Secretary of the Navy (3900.39D (http://www.scribd.com/doc/6415957/Navy-Regulation-for-Human-Testing)) regarding its "Human Research Protection Program." While this memo specifically prohibits the use of research upon prisoners, including so-called "unlawful enemy combatants," waivers of informed consent for research, or suspension of the protections enumerated in the memo can be made by the Secretary of the Navy under conditions of "operational contingency or during times of national emergency." It is likely the latter rests upon the legislative language within the September 18, 2001 Authorization to Use Military Force (http://news.findlaw.com/wp/docs/terrorism/sjres23.es.html), where terrorist acts are said to "continue to pose an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States."
The waivers allowed for normal human research testing gains further piquancy when one considers the kinds of research referenced in the Secretary of the Navy’s memo. Section 7(a)(2)(a) describes the Undersecretary of the Navy as the "approval authority" for research done upon prisoners, as well as "Severe or unusual intrusions, either physical or psychological, on human subjects (such as consciousness-altering drugs or mind-control techniques)" [emphasis added].
This referencing of "mind-control techniques" in a document specifically discussing human subjects protections by then Secretary of the Navy, Donald C. Winter, is not an anomaly, but a rare instance in which the actual activities of the government in this area are openly revealed. Some of these activities can be documented via publicly available materials. This article describes how some of the individuals involved in U.S. government mind control and torture activities can be tracked and identified.
APA, CIA: "How might we overload the system or overwhelm the senses…?"
Another instance in which the curtain was pulled back on mind control research by the U.S. government involved the online description by the American Psychological Association (APA) of a CIA and Rand Corporation workshop which it co-sponsored in July 2003 at Rand’s Arlington, Virginia headquarters. The event was attended by approximately 40 research psychologists, psychiatrists, neurologists, as well as "representatives from the CIA, FBI and Department of Defense with interests in intelligence operations."
One of these workshops, ostensibly on detection of deception, specifically described how participants should consider "sensory overloads on the maintenance of deceptive behaviors," including the use of "pharmacological agents. "How might we," the workshop asked, "overload the system or overwhelm the senses and see how it affects deceptive behaviors?"
The man in charge of "recruiting the operational expertise" for the workshop was Kirk Hubbard, Chief of the Research & Analysis Branch, Operational Assessment Division of the CIA. It appears likely that Hubbard was responsible for the presence at the workshop (http://www.vanityfair.com/politics/features/2007/07/torture200707) of SERE psychologists James Mitchell and Bruce Jessen, who were instrumental in the construction of the Bush administration’s "enhanced interrogation" torture program. Hubbard was also reported (http://www.nytimes.com/2009/08/12/us/12psychs.html?pagewanted=all) (by Scott Shane of the New York Times) to have brought James Mitchell to an informal meeting "of professors and law enforcement and intelligence officers… to brainstorm about Muslim extremism" at the home of former APA president Martin Seligman in November 2001.
Sometime in the past six months, the APA eliminated all references to the webpage described above, even going so far as to eliminate linked references to it on other webpages on its site. While the webpage that described the workshops has been scrubbed, mirrored images of the site remain available (http://web.archive.org/web/20030802090354/http://www.apa.org/ppo/issues/deceptscenarios.html) at well-known web archive sites, as I described in a recent article (http://seminal.firedoglake.com/diary/48108) on this attempt to rewrite or hide APA’s offensive history. In one sense, this attempt to hide its history is not surprising, because the kind of activities discussed in these workshops are exactly like those that involved CIA and military mind control torture programs going back fifty years or more, and evidently still operational today.
The Role of Government Psychologist Susan Brandon
In a recent article, Scott Horton (http://www.harpers.org/archive/2010/05/hbc-90007061) at Harper’s picked up on the unique link between the APA/CIA workshop and the recent revelations about torture at a hitherto unknown black site prison at Bagram Air Base in Afghanistan. That link was an individual, Susan Brandon.
Referenced by Horton as working for the Defense Intelligence Agency’s (DIA), Defense Counterintelligence and Human Intelligence Center (DCHC), a recent publication identified (http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=12854&page=R7) Brandon more fully as Chief for Research in the DCHC’s Behavioral Science Program. As Horton notes (http://harpers.org/archive/2010/05/hbc-90007044), a recent column by Marc Ambinder (http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2010/05/inside-the-secret-interrogation-facility-at-bagram/56678/) at The Atlantic described the DCHC as providing "intelligence operatives and interrogators….. [performing] interrogations for a sub-unit of Task Force 714, an elite counter-terrorism brigade." Interrogations at the Afghan black site reportedly have included use of sleep deprivation, sensory deprivation, brutality, isolation, relying on the guidelines of the Army Field Manual, including its Appendix M. Many human rights groups have criticized Appendix M (http://pubrecord.org/torture/6499/under-auspices-field-manual-ongoing/) as including techniques tantamount to torture and/or cruel, inhumane and degrading and illegal by domestic and international law.
Back in 2003, according to an APA news article (http://web.archive.org/web/20051127200936/http://www.apa.org/ppo/spin/703.html), Brandon "jointly conceived" the APA/CIA workshops with Rand Associate Policy Analyst, Scott Gerwehr. (Mr. Gerwehr reportedly died a few years ago.) At the time, psychologist Susan Brandon was the Program Officer for Affect and Biobehavioral Regulation at the National Institute of Mental Health, and worked on the APA/CIA program while also serving as "Senior Scientist" at the APA.
In the early 2000s, Dr. Brandon served as Behavioral and Social Science Principal at the Mitre Corporation, a company highly linked to U.S. Air Defense. Subsequent to her stint as APA’s Senior Scientist, she went on to work in for the Bush administration as Assistant Director of Social, Behavioral, and Educational Sciences for the White House Office of Science & Technology Policy. In addition, she became an instrumental member of the Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences (SBES) Subcommittee of the National Science and Technology Council’s (http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/ostp) Committees on Science and Homeland and National Security.
Subsequently, as described in an important article (http://www.counterpunch.org/soldz05212010.html) by Stephen Soldz that extends many of the points in this essay, Brandon joined the Defense Department’s Counterintelligence Field Activity group (CIFA), which was later disbanded and reformed as part of the DCHC. Soldz also reminds us that Brandon was "one of the silent observers at the [APA] PENS [Psychological Ethics and National Security] taskforce described (http://www.democracynow.org/article.pl?sid=07/08/20/1628234) by dissident taskforce member Jean Maria Arrigo as exerting pressure on members to adopt a likely pre-approved policy in favor of participation in Guantánamo, CIA, and other interrogations. According (http://www.apa.org/monitor/mar05/ppup.aspx) to a 2005 article by Geoff Mumford, APA’s Director of Science Policy, Dr. Branford "helped steer much of the association’s scientific outreach relevant to counter-terrorism after 9/11."
One example of such outreach would include the June 11, 2002 meeting (http://www.apa.org/about/gr/science/spin/2002/07/also-issue.aspx) between Branford, and other top APA officials with "two senior staff members in the National Security Council’s (NSC’s) Office of Combating Terrorism" (OCT). Since Vice Admiral William McRaven was head of OCT at that time, perhaps Brandon’s acquaintance with the world of Special Operations dates to that time, as McRaven was to become Commander of Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC).
JSOC is the other Defense Department component, besides DIA, that has been linked (http://seminal.firedoglake.com/diary/46757) currently with the management of the black site prisons run by the Obama administration, subsequent to President Obama’s apparent closure of the CIA black sites. One reputable source has informed me that there are eight such black site prisons in Afghanistan alone. A recent report by the BBC (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/8621973.stm) corroborated earlier reports by the New York Times and the Washington Post. The article by Ambinder further elaborated upon this story.
Why is the Obama Administration Still Involved in Torture?
It is not known if Dr. Brandon has been involved in any of the reported abuses of prisoners coming out of Bagram’s Tor prison, or elsewhere. Yet one would think the Obama administration and the Pentagon has a lot to explain in utilizing as their behavioral chief of research for an agency involved in intelligence operations, including interrogation. But then, why is the Obama administration involved in torture or operating secret prisons at all? President Obama has manifestly broken his promise to the American people to end torture and close all secret prisons. Nor has Congress done their due diligence in investigating these matters. Only when the American people fully understand the extent to which these activities have occupied the government and their various collaborators, like the APA, will society be able to take the necessary steps to end these abuses, and hold those accountable for what amount to crimes against humanity.
As for psychologists, Dr. Soldz rightly notes, "Psychology as a profession is at a crossroads." The same holds true for other professions involved with this abusive and criminal history, including the activities of anthropologists in the military’s Human Terrain System teams in Afghanistan, researchers in numerous academic departments across the country, and the many reports of doctors and other medical personnel involved in the monitoring of torture activities for the CIA and Defense Department. The use of torture has suborned U.S. civil society as a whole in activities that are dark and evil, and the society as a whole must make a tremendous effort if it is to extirpate such evil from its midst.
*For an early document referring to Artichoke’s history, see CIA, Memorandum for the Record, Subject: Project ARTICHOKE, January 31, 1975 (http://www.gwu.edu/%7Ensarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB54/st02.pdf). While this MOR downplays Artichoke’s history, it represents the degree to which the CIA was willing to reveal such operations. The Truthout article discusses Operation Dormouse, where then Ford administration officials Dick Cheney and Donald Rumsfeld worked with the CIA to limit revelations about Artichoke and other CIA torture and assassination operations.


:: Article nr. 66275 sent on 24-may-2010 02:47 ECT
www.uruknet.info?p=66275 (http://www.uruknet.info/?p=66275)

Jan Klimkowski
05-24-2010, 06:47 PM
Referenced by Horton as working for the Defense Intelligence Agency’s (DIA), Defense Counterintelligence and Human Intelligence Center (DCHC), a recent publication identified (http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=12854&page=R7) Brandon more fully as Chief for Research in the DCHC’s Behavioral Science Program. As Horton notes (http://harpers.org/archive/2010/05/hbc-90007044), a recent column by Marc Ambinder (http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2010/05/inside-the-secret-interrogation-facility-at-bagram/56678/) at The Atlantic described the DCHC as providing "intelligence operatives and interrogators….. [performing] interrogations for a sub-unit of Task Force 714, an elite counter-terrorism brigade." Interrogations at the Afghan black site reportedly have included use of sleep deprivation, sensory deprivation, brutality, isolation, relying on the guidelines of the Army Field Manual, including its Appendix M. Many human rights groups have criticized Appendix M (http://pubrecord.org/torture/6499/under-auspices-field-manual-ongoing/) as including techniques tantamount to torture and/or cruel, inhumane and degrading and illegal by domestic and international law.



The DCHC eh?

Ah yes, another covering of the tracks in the sweeping sands....


A Reorganization of Defense Intelligence

July 30th, 2008 by Steven Aftergood
The Department of Defense has embarked on a significant modification of its intelligence apparatus, creating a new human intelligence center within the DIA, abolishing a controversial counterintelligence agency, and reorganizing the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence.

A new Defense Counterintelligence and Human Intelligence Center (DCHC) is being established at the Defense Intelligence Agency to manage, develop and execute DoD counterintelligence and human intelligence activities worldwide.

It will take over many of the functions and authorities of the Counterintelligence Field Activity (CIFA), which drew criticism for its unauthorized domestic surveillance activities, including the collection of information on U.S. antiwar groups. CIFA will be terminated effective August 3.

Unlike CIFA, the new DCHC “shall NOT be designated as a law enforcement activity and shall not perform any law enforcement functions previously assigned to DoD CIFA,” according to a July 22 memorandum memorializing the new changes (pdf).

However, the DCHC will be responsible for developing an “offensive counterintelligence operations” (OFCO) capability for the Department of Defense, which may entail efforts to penetrate, deceive and disable foreign intelligence activities directed against U.S. forces.

The new organization was described in a July 22 memorandum from the Deputy Secretary of Defense on “Establishment of the Defense Counterintelligence and Human Intelligence Center (DCHC).”

Meanwhile, the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence, James R. Clapper, Jr., has moved to reorganize his office to strengthen HUMINT and CI “integration and synchronization” and to structure the office around four functional areas.

That move was first reported last week by Inside the Pentagon, which interviewed defense intelligence officials on the background and motivations for the changes, and obtained an internal memorandum outlining the changes. See “Pentagon Shakes Up Intelligence Directorate’s Organization” by Christopher J. Castelli, July 24.

See the June 18, 2008 memorandum from Under Secretary Clapper on “Reorganization of the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence” (pdf), obtained by Inside the Pentagon and marked “for official use only” (not yet “controlled unclassified information”).

http://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2008/07/defense_intel_reorg.html

Austin Kelley
06-07-2010, 10:21 AM
CYA for the CIA

The CIA’s Torture Research Program

June 07, 2010

By Stephen Soldz


Over the last year there have been an increasing number of accounts suggesting that, along with the CIA's "enhanced interrogation" torture program, there was a related program experimenting with and researching the application of the torture.

For example, in the seven paragraphs released by a British court summarizing observations by British counterintelligence agents of the treatment of Binyan Mohamed by the CIA, the first two of these paragraphs stated:

"It was reported that a new series of interviews was conducted by the United States authorities prior to 17 May 2002 as part of a new strategy designed by an expert interviewer….

"BM had been intentionally subjected to continuous sleep deprivation. The effects of the sleep deprivation were carefully observed." [emphasis added]

The suggestion was that a new strategy was being tested and the results carefully examined. Several detainees have provided similar accounts, expressing their belief that their interrogations were being carefully studied, apparently so that the techniques could be modified based on the results. Such research would violate established laws and ethical rules governing research.

Since Nazi doctors who experimented upon prisoners in the concentration camps were put on trial at Nuremberg, the U.S. and other countries have moved toward a high ethical standard for research on people. All but the most innocuous research requires the informed consent of those studied. Further, all research on people is subject to review by independent research ethics committees, known as Institutional Review Boards or IRBs.

In the US, there was a major push toward more stringent research ethics when the existence of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study was publicly revealed in the early 1970s. In that study nearly 400 poor rural African-American men were denied existing treatment for their syphilis, and indeed, were never told they had syphilis by participating doctors. The study by the US Public Health Service was intended to continue until the last of these men died of syphilis. When the study became public the resulting outcry helped cement evolving ethical standards mandating informed consent for any research with even a possibility of causing harm. These rules were codified in what has become known as the Common Rule, which applies to nearly all federally-funded research, including all research by the CIA.

Experiments in Torture

A new report of which I am a coauthor, Experiments in Torture: Evidence of Human Subject Research and Experimentation in the "Enhanced" Interrogation Program, just released by Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) confirms previous suspicions and provides the first strong evidence that the CIA was indeed engaged in illegal and unethical research on detainees in its custody. The report, the result of six months of detailed work, analyzes now-public documents, including the "torture memos" from the Justice Department's Office of Legal Counsel and the CIA's Inspector General Report and the accompanying CIA Office of Medical Services (OMS) guidelines for monitoring of detainees.

The report points to several instances where medical personnel -– physicians and psychologists –- monitored the detailed administration of torture techniques and the effects upon those being abused. The resultant knowledge was then used both as a legal rationale for the use of the techniques and to refine these abusive techniques, allegedly in order to make them safer.

For example, the OMS guidelines contain this note emphasizing how important it is "that every application of the waterboard be thoroughly documented" by medical personnel, and clarifying the nature of this documentation:

"how long each application (and the entire procedure) lasted, how much water was applied (realizing that much splashes off), how exactly the water was applied, if a seal was achieved, if the naso- or oropharynx was filled, what sort of volume was expelled, how long was the break between applications, and how the subject looked between each treatment."

This type of documentation was not part of routine medical care as it was not being done in the interests of the person being waterboarded. Rather, the OMS made clear that this was being done

"[i]n order to best inform future medical judgments and recommendations [regarding how to torture people.]"

The purpose of this systematic monitoring was to modify how these techniques were implemented, that is, to develop generalizable knowledge to be utilized in the future. As Renée Llanusa-Cestero demonstrated in a recent paper on CIA research in the peer-reviewed journal Accountability in Medicine, the medical personnel conducting these observations were primarily present as researchers to observe and monitor, not as treating doctors.

Other examples in the PHR report describe instances in which OMS staff investigated the degree to which severe pain that may meet the legal definition of torture arose from the applications of a specific technique (sleep deprivation) or from combinations of individual techniques. In the combined techniques example, they apparently experimented with different combinations of abusive techniques -– "for example, when an insult slap is simultaneously combined with water dousing or a kneeling stress position, or when wall standing is simultaneously combined with an abdominal slap and water dousing" -– and studied the suffering that each combination created. The Office of Legal Counsel drew upon this research in one of the torture memos to argue that, because they claimed the individual "enhanced techniques" were not harmful, combining these varied techniques also would not cause interrogators to slip over the line allegedly separating legal techniques from illegal "torture."

It is hard not to conclude that the CIA was conducting research upon detainees. These observations and experiments were not conducted for the benefit of the individuals being brutally interrogated but for the purpose of creating generalizable knowledge and thus constituted research subject to the laws and ethical rules regulating research, including the Common Rule.

Evidence Techniques Are Harmful

The PHR report also argues that literature existing in 2002 when the torture program began provides strong reason to believe that these "enhanced interrogation" torture techniques might well cause severe harm to those subjected to them. In an appendix, the report summarizes a set of studies on the military's Survival, Evasion, Resistance, and Escape (SERE) program that demonstrated a whole panoply of potentially serious effects that occurred when these techniques were administered to U.S. service members over a few days. The Resistance portion of the SERE program attempts to inoculate special forces and others at high risk of capture against breaking if subjected to techniques banned by the Geneva Conventions, that is, to torture. In SERE, soldiers are subjected to brief periods of "enhanced interrogations" in order to prepare them for the real thing if captured and tortured. It was to SERE that the CIA and Bush administration turned when they decided to adopt torture as official policy.

Despite the fact that those subjected to SERE were volunteers, had a 'safe word' to end their abuse, and knew that their torment would end in a few days, an extensive program of research demonstrates that those subjected to the techniques even to a very limited degree suffered a whole range of potentially serious physical and psychological effects, including severely increased stress hormone levels and high rates of psychological dissociation, which can lead to post-traumatic stress disorder. Despite this body of published research, when the Bush Justice Department worked on the torture memos, they argued -- ignoring this SERE research as well as many accounts from torture survivors -- that the SERE experience demonstrated that the techniques were not harmful. In later memos, however, Justice Department lawyers apparently tried to strengthen their case by citing the CIA research derived from its torture implementation as further evidence that the techniques did not cause serious harm. Thus, one of the main finding in the PHR report is that one set of potentially criminal acts, illegal and unethical research, was used, incorrectly, to justify another set of potentially criminal acts, torture of detainees.

Reason for CIA Torture Research

The language of the documents might be interpreted as suggesting that the CIA engaged in this research to avoid harming the detainees, to keep the interrogations "safe and ethical." This was far from the truth. Rather, the Justice Department torture memos argued that torturers could be protected from prosecution for their acts of torture if they demonstrated a "good faith" effort to avoid causing the "severe pain" involved in legal definitions of torture irrespective of how much suffering and harm the torturers actually caused.

One way they could demonstrate such a good faith effort was to consult with health professionals, the researchers, who could assure them that their actions would not cause harm. Another way to demonstrate good faith was to collect and analyze evidence of prior interrogations demonstrating, allegedly, that they did not cause severe harm. Thus, the quality of the research did not matter. Its very existence would provide the CIA torturers and responsible officials with a get-out-of-jail-free card.

The SERE studies described in the PHR report provided good reason to suspect that the CIA's torture would cause harm. That is likely why they were ignored by the CIA and the lawyers writing the torture memos.But the CIA's torture research claiming that the "enhanced interrogation" tactics were safe could be used as a legal defense for the torturers, possibly counteracting the body of legitimate research demonstrating the opposite. The CIA's research was junk science. But that was no problem because its purpose wasn't increasing understanding, but ass-covering, CYA, for the CIA.

Call for Investigation

This PHR report provides evidence that the CIA likely violated federal ethics rules as well as a prohibition in the War Crimes Act on biological experiments on prisoners "without a legitimate medical or dental purpose." Thus PHR calls for both a criminal investigation of this research and these experiments, which may well constitute a war crime, and an investigation by the Office of Human Research Protections of research ethics violations.

Regarding the call for a criminal investigation, it is important to realize that the logic used by the Obama administration to refuse an investigation of torture claims -– that the torture memos allowed the torturers to believe their actions were legally sanctioned -– does not apply to potential research on detainees. As far as is publicly known, there exist no "torture research" memos authorizing ignoring laws and regulations prohibiting research on torture techniques.

American Psychological Association

In addition to criminal and federal penalties, another necessary response to these reported torture experiments is professional sanctioning of any health professionals found to have participated in the research. Physician organizations such as the American Medical Association and the American Psychiatric Association have adopted clear ethical rules prohibiting their members' participation in either the "enhanced interrogation" program or in research such as that described here. The exception among major health professional organizations is the American Psychological Association (APA).

In 2002 the APA modified its ethics code to allow psychologists to dispense with informed consent

"where otherwise permitted by law or federal or institutional regulations." [ethics code standard 8.05.]

Whatever the reason for the APA making this modification, it could be interpreted as allowing psychologists to follow CIA (or military) directives authorizing exemption from the informed consent requirement. This lowered standard does not change psychologists' legal or ethical obligations in terms of causing harm, but it does unacceptably weaken research standards. This modification should be removed.

In February 2010, after eight years of stalling, the APA removed from its ethics code a related loophole, ethics code standard1.02, often described as the "Nuremberg Defense," that allowed dispensing with any section of the code when it was in conflict with "the requirements of the law, regulations, or other governing legal authority." But even with the long-delayed correction to 1.02, changes permitting psychologists to perform research on subjects without their consent remain in the ethics code. To date, there has been no explanation offered by the APA for reducing the standard on informed consent, nor has there been any response to longstanding calls from PHR, Psychologists for Social Responsibility, and numerous other psychological and human rights groups to restore psychologists' informed consent ethical obligations the standards that all other health professional associations have instituted since Tuskegee and Nuremberg. Psychologists and others should demand that the APA immediately remove this ethics code section.


Note: Work such as the production of this report takes extensive resources. It is only possible because of the generosity of those who contribute to PHR. Readers who value this information might consider going to PHR's web site for the report and making a contribution.


Stephen Soldz is a psychoanalyst, psychologist, public health researcher, and faculty member at the Boston Graduate School of Psychoanalysis. He edits the Psyche, Science, and Society blog. He is a founder of the Coalition for an Ethical Psychology, one of the organizations working to change American Psychological Association policy on participation in abusive interrogations. He is President-Elect of Psychologists for Social Responsibility [PsySR] and a Consultant to Physicians for Human Rights.


From: Z Net - The Spirit Of Resistance Lives
URL: http://www.zcommunications.org/cya-for-the-cia-by-stephen-soldz

Ed Jewett
06-08-2010, 03:18 AM
Echoes of Mengele: Medical Experiments, Torture and Continuity in the American Gulag (http://www.chris-floyd.com/articles/1-latest-news/1976-echoes-of-mengele-medical-experiments-torture-and-continuity-in-the-american-gulag.html) http://www.chris-floyd.com/templates/rt_terrantribune_j15/images/pdf_button.png (http://www.chris-floyd.com/articles/1-latest-news/1976-echoes-of-mengele-medical-experiments-torture-and-continuity-in-the-american-gulag.pdf) http://www.chris-floyd.com/templates/rt_terrantribune_j15/images/printButton.png (http://www.chris-floyd.com/articles/1-latest-news/1976-echoes-of-mengele-medical-experiments-torture-and-continuity-in-the-american-gulag.html?tmpl=component&print=1&page=) http://www.chris-floyd.com/templates/rt_terrantribune_j15/images/emailButton.png (http://www.chris-floyd.com/component/mailto/?tmpl=component&link=aHR0cDovL3d3dy5jaHJpcy1mbG95ZC5jb20vYXJ0aWNsZ XMvMS1sYXRlc3QtbmV3cy8xOTc2LWVjaG9lcy1vZi1tZW5nZWx lLW1lZGljYWwtZXhwZXJpbWVudHMtdG9ydHVyZS1hbmQtY29ud GludWl0eS1pbi10aGUtYW1lcmljYW4tZ3VsYWcuaHRtbA%3D%3 D) Written by Chris Floyd Monday, 07 June 2010 14:51 0diggsdigg



3Share (http://www.facebook.com/sharer.php?u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.chris-floyd.com%2Farticles%2F1-latest-news%2F1976-echoes-of-mengele-medical-experiments-torture-and-continuity-in-the-american-gulag.html&t=Echoes%20of%20Mengele%3A%20Medical%20Experiments %2C%20Torture%20and%20Continuity%20in%20the%20Amer ican%20Gulag&src=sp)

http://www.chris-floyd.com/images/stories/dog%203.jpg
This is the language of power – unfiltered, unadorned, dispassionate, professional – discussing how best to inflict tortures on helpless captives without causing "long-term" damage that might be visible later:



But as we understand the experience involving the combination of various techniques, the OMS medical and psychological personnel have not observed any such increase in susceptibility. Other than the waterboard, the specific techniques under consideration in this memorandum— including sleep deprivation—have been applied to more than 25 detainees.… No apparent increase in susceptibility to severe pain has been observed either when techniques are used sequentially or when they are used simultaneously—for example, when an insult slap is simultaneously combined with water dousing or a kneeling stress position, or when wall standing is simultaneously combined with an abdominal slap and water dousing. Nor does experience show that, even apart from changes in susceptibility to pain, combinations of these techniques cause the techniques to operate differently so as to cause severe pain. OMS doctors and psychologists, moreover, confirm that they expect that the techniques, when combined… would not operate in a different manner from the way they do individually, so as to cause severe pain.

This is taken from a memo written in 2005 by Justice Department lawyer Steven Bradbury to a legal officer at the CIA. It comes from a new report from Physicians for Human Rights, outlining the mass of evidence that the Bush Administration used its Terror War captives for medical experiments. Mother Jones has the story (http://motherjones.com/politics/2010/06/bush-administration-experimented-detainees-phr-report):



The watchdog group claims that in an attempt to establish that brutal interrogation tactics did not constitute torture, the administration ended up effectively experimenting on terrorism detainees. This research, PHR alleges, violated an array of regulations and treaties, including international guidelines on human testing put in place after the Holocaust.

According to the report, which draws on numerous declassified government documents, "medical professionals working for and on behalf of the CIA" frequently monitored detainee interrogations, gathering data on the effectiveness of various interrogation techniques and the pain threshholds of detainees. This information was then used to "enhance" future interrogations, PHR contends.

...Physicians for Human Rights makes the case that since human subject research is defined as the "systematic collection of data and/or identifiable personal information for the purpose of drawing generalizable inferences," what the Bush administration was doing amounted to human experimentation:

...Ironically, one goal of the "experimentation" seems to have been to immunize Bush administration officials and CIA interrogators from potential prosecution for torture. ... In a memo drafted on March 14, 2003, John Yoo, a primary author of the torture memos, defined that boundary [that could trigger prosecution] as treatment leading to "long-term" mental harm or pain and suffering equal to or greater than that caused by organ failure or death. So one purpose of the medical monitoring project was to insure that the techniques interrogators were using did not breach that bright line.

One document cited in the PHR report highlights this practice especially well. On May 10, 2005, then-OLC head Steven Bradbury wrote to then-CIA acting general counsel John Rizzo about the legality of using multiple interrogation techniques simultaneously, as opposed to one by one. Referring directly to data gathered by the CIA's Office of Medical Services, Bradbury decided that both methods were okay.
Sure, why not? So if you tie someone up in a "stress position," force them to their knees and slap them around while dousing them with cold water, it's not torture. Especially if you have some modern Mengeles there with you, monitoring and measuring the degree of despair so they can use the data to "enhance" future interrogations.

And as always, the perpetrators of this system were well aware they were breaking the United States' clear and ironclad laws prohibiting torture. That's why they went to Congress to get some additional cover – with an extraordinary legal provision that essentially authorizes medical experiments on captives:



There is some evidence to suggest that someone in the Bush administration may have realized they could be vulnerable to charges of illegal experimentation. The Military Commissions Act, passed by Congress in 2006, amended the 1996 War Crimes Act, a law that imposes criminal penalties for "grave breaches" of the Geneva Conventions. Specifically, the language on illegal "biological experiments" was weakened. The new law no longer requires that an experiment be carried out in the interest of the subject in order to be legal. (Research on how to make torture more effective is clearly not in the interest of the person who is going to be tortured.) In addition, it allows experiments that do not "endanger" the subject—rather than simply prohibiting all experiments that "are not justified by the medical, dental, or hospital treatment of the prisoner concerned and carried out in his interest," as the previous version did.

The infamous Military Commissions Act was one of the more heinous legislative actions in last 25 years or more. When it passed, with the help of a dozen Democrats, one senator rose to make an impassioned protest against the measure. He railed against the draconian nature of the bill, which he said eliminated the ancient right of habeas corpus. He denounced the bill for "allowing this President - or any President - to decide what does and does not constitute torture." He lamented "the innocent people we may have accidentally rounded up and mistaken for terrorists - people who may stay in prison for the rest of their lives." He pointed to "a report authored by sixteen of our own government's intelligence agencies, a previous draft of which described, and I quote, "...actions by the United States government that were determined to have stoked the jihad movement, like the indefinite detention of prisoners at Guantanamo Bay..." He summed up with a damning appraisal: "This is NOT how a serious Administration would approach the problem of terrorism."

Yes, as you've already guessed, that passionate dissenter was Senator Barack Obama (http://usliberals.about.com/od/extraordinaryspeeches/a/ObamaTorture.htm). Yet you will notice that the Military Commissions Act is still in force; it received a few cosmetic changes in 2009, but it remains essentially intact, including the authoritarian powers of the president decried by the senator. Multitudes of captives remain locked up in the ever-swelling American gulag, which, although it has shifted its focus to Afghanistan, continues to include the still-unclosed, jihadi-stoking prison at Guantanamo Bay. The indefinite detention of prisoners has been eagerly championed by the senator turned president, who is seeking to entrench the practice deeply into American law. And once the young denouncer of the Bush approach to terrorism took power for himself, he quickly embraced that same approach almost in its entirety, defending its most egregious depredations – indefinite detention, illegal wiretapping, etc. – against all legal challenges, and even making personal assurances that no one from the previous administration would ever be prosecuted for instituting a vast apparatus of torture.

Indeed, aside from waterboarding – which had already been abandoned by the Bush Administration – it is unclear if any of the Bush torture techniques have been discontinued. As Andy Worthington notes, (http://www.andyworthington.co.uk/2010/06/03/what-is-obama-doing-at-bagram-part-one-torture-and-the-black-prison/) for example:



For eight and a half years, the US prison at Bagram airbase has been the site of a disturbing number of experiments in detention and interrogation, where murders have taken place, the Geneva Conventions have been shredded and the encroachment of the US courts — unlike at Guantánamo — has been thoroughly resisted.

In the last few months, there have been a few improvements — hearings, releases, even the promise of imminent trials — but behind this veneer of respectability, the US government’s unilateral reworking of the Geneva Conventions continues unabated, and evidence has recently surfaced of a secret prison within Bagram, where a torture program that could have been lifted straight from the Bush administration’s rule book is still underway.

And as Jason Leopold notes – in an excellent story (http://www.truthout.org/human-experimentation-heart-bush-administrations-torture-program60199) which gives extensive background and context for the PHR report – the use of captives as guinea pigs for "enhancing interrogation techniques" is still going on under Obama:



Meanwhile, Obama's presence in the White House has not resulted in an abandonment of the research side of the interrogation program. Last March, Director of National Intelligence Dennis Blair, who recently resigned, disclosed that the Obama administration's High-Value Detainee Interrogation Group (HIG), planned on conducting "scientific research" to determine "if there are better way to get information from people that are consistent with our values."

"It is going to do scientific research on that long-neglected area," Blair said during testimony before the House Intelligence Committee. He did not provide additional details as to what the "scientific research" entailed.

This would be the same Dennis Blair who also announced Obama's embrace – and entrenchment – of the universal murder principle (http://www.chris-floyd.com/articles/1-latest-news/1953-the-accomodationists-memo-to-liberals-on-the-white-house-death-warrants.html) claimed by Bush, whereby the American president can kill any person on earth by the simple expedient of dubbing his victim a "terrorist" or even a "suspected terrorist." As Leopold notes, Blair has now been ash-canned – apparently for insufficient sycophancy, or perhaps he was simply ousted in one of the grim power struggles that forever rage among the factions at the imperial court.

His replacement is yet another dim apparatchik from the bowels of the military-security complex, ex-general, ex-spy-eye-in-the-sky guy James Clapper. This "intelligence expert's" chief claim to fame is his earnest insistence that Saddam Hussein had transferred his bristling arsenal of non-existent weapons of mass destruction to Syria right before the American war of aggression in 2003 – a fairy story long touted by the defenders of that mass slaughter, even after Bush's own investigators confirmed the truth of what the Anglo-American intelligence agencies had known for many years (because Saddam's own son-in-law, Hussein Kamel, head of the WMD programs, had told them back in 1995 (http://www.chris-floyd.com/articles/3-articles/1059-a-tale-of-two-houses-how-the-clintons-and-bushes-took-us-to-hell.html)): that Iraq's WMD programs had been dismantled just after the Gulf War – 12 years before the 2003 attack. Still, Clapper persisted in his propagation of this myth, as the Washington Times reports (http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2010/jun/4/likely-intel-chief-clapper-held-disputed-wmd-view/).

Of course, the Times, being the Times – the creation of a maniacal Korean arms peddler who pretends to be divine -- also says that the Syria-WMD story still "remains a matter of dispute." Well, yes it does – to the same degree that the spheroidicity of the earth remains "a matter of dispute" for handful of cranks. In any case, a crank of this order will shortly be guiding the nation's intelligence apparatus, thanks to the abiding progressive wisdom of the president.

And so on and on it goes. The horrors of the past keep belching up from the sulfurous deeps, only to be subsumed in the noxious "continuity" that engulfs the present.

Ed Jewett
06-08-2010, 03:41 AM
Doctors group says Bush Administration conducted medical experiments on detainees


By John Byrne (http://rawstory.com/rs/author/johnb/)
Monday, June 7th, 2010 -- 8:47 am


http://www.rawstory.com/images/new/gitmo.jpg

A new report by the watchdog group Physicians for Human Rights (http://physiciansforhumanrights.org/) alleges Monday that the Bush Administration experimented on terrorism suspects during their enhanced interrogation program put in force starting in 2002.
The group's review, which examined Bush-era documentation, asserts that the administration violated laws set up in the wake of the Holocaust to prevent medical testing on prisoners of war. (Nazi doctors sometimes experimented on their prisoners.)
The report states that, "Medical personnel were required to monitor all waterboarding practices and collect detailed medical information that was used to design, develop and deploy subsequent waterboarding procedures." Notes the Associated Press (http://rawstory.com/rs/2010/0607/report-doctors-helped-refine-harsh-methods/):
For example, the report said, doctors recommended adding salt to the water used for waterboarding, so the patient wouldn't experience hyponatremia, "a condition of low sodium levels in the blood caused by free water intoxication."
The report interpreted that doctor-recommended practice of using saline solution as "Waterboarding 2.0."
It also said information was gathered on the pain inflicted when various techniques were used in combination. Raymond said the purpose was to see if the pain caused violated Bush administration definitions of torture, rather than as a safeguard of the detainees' health.Medical personnel, the report said, also monitored sleep deprivation, with sleepless stints from 48 hours to 180 hours — again to make sure it did not cause prolonged physical and mental suffering, as per those Bush administration definitions, rather than to watch out for harm to the detainee.
"We're not writing the indictment here," author Nathaniel Raymond told the Associated Pres. "We're seeing there needs to be a search warrant. If the White House does not act on this, it's turning its back on something that could be perceived as a war crime."
The CIA vehemently denied the allegations in the report.
"The CIA did not, as part of its past detention program, conduct human subject research on any detainee or group of detainees," CIA spokesman Paul Gimigliano told a reporter.
Mother Jones, the investigative liberal magazine, says that the Bush Administration may have -- ironically -- engaged in "experimentation" in an effort to shield it from accusations of torture.
In the documents review by the watchdog group, a Bush Administration lawyer wrote, "Human experimentation without the consent of the subject is a violation of international human rights law to which the United States is subject; federal statutes; the Common Rule, which comprises the federal regulations for research on human subjects and applies to 17 federal agencies, including the Central Intelligence Agency and the Department of Defense; and universally accepted health professional ethics, including the Nuremberg Code... Human experimentation on detainees also can constitute a war crime and a crime against humanity in certain circumstances."
"Ironically, one goal of the 'experimentation' seems to have been to immunize Bush administration officials and CIA interrogators from potential prosecution for torture," writes Mother Jones' Nick Baumann. "In the series of legal papers that are now popularly known as the 'torture memos,' Justice Department lawyers argued that medical monitoring would demonstrate that interrogators didn't intend to harm detainees; that 'lack of intent to cause harm' could then serve as the cornerstone of a legal defense should an interrogator be targeted for prosecution. In 2003, in an internal CIA memo cited in the PHR report, the CIA's general counsel, Scott Muller, argued that medical monitoring of interrogations and 'reviewing evidence gained from past experience where available (including experience gained in the course of U.S. interrogations of detainees)' would allow interrogators to inoculate themselves against claims of torture because it 'established' they didn't intend to cause harm to the detainees."

Ed Jewett
07-11-2010, 04:44 AM
Psychology group backs CIA detainee torture claim

July 10, 2010 by legitgov

Psychology group backs CIA detainee torture claim (http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/ap/nation/7102655.html) --Mitchell is retired Air Force psychologist who participated in the 2002 CIA interrogation of detainee Abu Zubaydah 10 Jul 2010 Psychologists in the United States have been warned by their professional group not to take part in torturing detainees prisoners in U.S. custody. Now the American Psychological Association has taken the unprecedented step of supporting an attempt to strip the license of a psychologist accused of overseeing the torture of a CIA prisoner. The APA has told a Texas licensing board in a letter mailed July 1 that the allegations against Dr. James Mitchell represent "patently unethical" actions inconsistent with the organization's ethics guidelines.
Permalink (http://www.legitgov.org/Psychology-group-backs-CIA-detainee-torture-claim)

Ed Jewett
07-11-2010, 05:06 AM
http://www.afterdowningstreet.org/node has this:

http://www.afterdowningstreet.org/node/53896 (http://www.afterdowningstreet.org/node/53896)which leads to these:

Torture Complicity Under the Spotlight in Europe (Part One): The UK

By Andy Worthington (http://pubrecord.org/author/andyworthington/)
The Public Record
Jul 6th, 2010



Part #1: http://pubrecord.org/torture/7959/torture-complicity-under-spotlight/
(http://pubrecord.org/torture/7959/torture-complicity-under-spotlight/)
Part #2: http://pubrecord.org/torture/7988/torture-complicity-under-spotlight-2/

which features this:
http://pubrecord.org/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/renditionmap.jpg

Magda Hassan
07-11-2010, 06:05 AM
Psychology group backs CIA detainee torture claim

July 10, 2010 by legitgov

Psychology group backs CIA detainee torture claim (http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/ap/nation/7102655.html) --Mitchell is retired Air Force psychologist who participated in the 2002 CIA interrogation of detainee Abu Zubaydah 10 Jul 2010 Psychologists in the United States have been warned by their professional group not to take part in torturing detainees prisoners in U.S. custody. Now the American Psychological Association has taken the unprecedented step of supporting an attempt to strip the license of a psychologist accused of overseeing the torture of a CIA prisoner. The APA has told a Texas licensing board in a letter mailed July 1 that the allegations against Dr. James Mitchell represent "patently unethical" actions inconsistent with the organization's ethics guidelines.
Permalink (http://www.legitgov.org/Psychology-group-backs-CIA-detainee-torture-claim)
About bloody time the 'professional' associations did something about their psychopathic members. It would be good if they all quit or were hounded out and set up their own 'Psychopathic Psychologists Association' so we can know who they are instead of hiding behind legitimate psychologists who actually care about humans.