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Magda Hassan
09-22-2010, 02:06 AM
The Fatherland and Liberty Nationalist Front (Spanish: (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish_language) Frente Nacionalista Patria y Libertad or simply Patria y Libertad, PyL) was a nationalist (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nationalism) and authoritarian (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Authoritarianism) political (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Political_party) and paramilitary (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paramilitary) group [1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatherland_and_Liberty#cite_note-BLUM1-0) grouping, denounced by their opponents as being fascist (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fascist) and a front for Central Intelligence Agency (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Intelligence_Agency) activities in Chile (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chile) [1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatherland_and_Liberty#cite_note-BLUM1-0).
The group was formed by Pablo Rodríguez Grez (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pablo_Rodr%C3%ADguez_Grez&action=edit&redlink=1) in 1970, and turned more and more clandestine through the presidency (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chile_under_Allende) of Salvador Allende (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salvador_Allende), It was officially dissolved on 12 September 1973, following Pinochet's coup (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1973_Chilean_coup).
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/29/Cadeneta_FNPL.jpg/220px-Cadeneta_FNPL.jpg (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cadeneta_FNPL.jpg) http://bits.wikimedia.org/skins-1.5/common/images/magnify-clip.png (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cadeneta_FNPL.jpg)
Logo of the group. The center represents the nationalist (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nationalist) ideology of the group, supposed to prevent social divisions allegedly provoked by two materialistic ideologies: Marxism (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marxism) and liberalism (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liberalism).



In June 1973, the group launched an abortive coup against Allende known as the Tanquetazo (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tanquetazo). In July 1973, the group received a plan from the Marines (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chilean_Navy), who opposed the legalist Schneider Doctrine (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schneider_Doctrine), to sabotage (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sabotage) the country's infrastructures. The collaboration between Fatherland and Liberty with the Chilean Armed Forces (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chilean_Armed_Forces) increased after the failed October 1972 strike which had aimed at overthrowing the Allende administration. In agreement with the sectors opposing Allende in the military, the group assassinated on 26 July 1973 Allende's naval aide, Arturo Araya (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Arturo_Araya&action=edit&redlink=1) [2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatherland_and_Liberty#cite_note-Araya-1). The first sabotage was committed this same day. Others include creating a power outage (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power_outage) while Allende was being broadcast [3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatherland_and_Liberty#cite_note-Sabotage-2).
Members of PyL were then recruited by Chilean security services and participated in the repression against political opposition enacted by Pinochet's junta. Since the transition to democracy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chilean_transition_to_democracy), some small groups have since claimed its inheritance, but are not officially linked to the original PyL.

Creation of the group

Headed by Pablo Rodríguez Grez (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pablo_Rodr%C3%ADguez_Grez&action=edit&redlink=1), the group was spawned in the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pontifical_Catholic_University_of_Chile). It formally organized itself in 1970, a short time after the election of Salvador Allende (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salvador_Allende). Patria y Libertad gathered mainly upper and middle-class students who, united by common anti-Communist (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anti-Communist) beliefs and anti-parliamentarism (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anti-parliamentarism), engaged in street brawls (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Street_brawls&action=edit&redlink=1) against leftist opponents, armed with nunchakus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nunchakus) and molotov cocktails (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molotov_cocktail) [4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatherland_and_Liberty#cite_note-3). Patria y Libertad criticized the division of Chile among various political parties (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Political_parties), and hoped for the appearance of a "caudillo (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caudillo)" which would transcend political divisions and become the "incarnation of the national sentiment" [5] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatherland_and_Liberty#cite_note-4). Along with the youth movement of the Christian Democracy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christian_Democracy_%28Chile%29) and of the National Party (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Party_%28Chile%29_%281966-1973%29), they participated in demonstrations against the Allende administration [6] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatherland_and_Liberty#cite_note-5).
Financial support

The group was funded by the CIA (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_intervention_in_Chile) during the first year of Allende's presidency, including via the Agency's Track II (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Track_II) program.[7] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatherland_and_Liberty#cite_note-6). According to Prof. Michael Stohl, and Prof. George A. Lopez, "After the failure to prevent Allende from taking office, efforts shifted to obtaining his removal. At least $7 million was authorized by the United States for CIA use in the destabilizing of Chilean society. This included financing and assisting opposition groups and right-wing paramilitary groups such as Patria y Libertad ("Fatherland and Liberty")."[8] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatherland_and_Liberty#cite_note-7). Although PyL was already dissolved, some of their former integrants coninued collaborating with Pinochet's regime. Former head of DINA (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DINA) Manuel Contreras (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manuel_Contreras) declared to Chilean justice in 2005 that the CNI, successor of DINA, handed out monthly payments between 1978 and 1990 to the persons who had worked with DINA agent Michael Townley (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Townley) in Chile, fomer members of PyL: Mariana Callejas (Townley's wife), Francisco Oyarzún, Gustavo Etchepare and Eugenio Berríos (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eugenio_Berr%C3%ADos) [9] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatherland_and_Liberty#cite_note-Tercera-8). Assassinated in 1995, Berrios, who worked as a chemist for the DINA in Colonia Dignidad (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colonia_Dignidad), also worked with drug traffickers and DEA (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drug_Enforcement_Administration) agents [10] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatherland_and_Liberty#cite_note-9). Michael Townley has been convicted for the 1976 assassination of former Chilean minister Orlando Letelier (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orlando_Letelier), and was involved in the 1974 assassination of General Carlos Prats (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carlos_Prats) in Buenos Aires.
Clandestine activities

June 1973 sabotage plan

The June 1973 plan by the Marines included sabotage of bridges, oil (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oil) pipelines (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pipeline_transport), energy towers and sources of combustibles. The plan was revealed after the transition to democracy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chilean_transition_to_democracy) by Roberto Theime, the leader of the military operations of Fatherland and Liberty. Thieme had exiled himself to Argentina (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Argentina) after the failed Tanquetazo (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tanquetazo), before returning to Chile in mid-July 1973, two months before the military coup (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chilean_1973_coup) [3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatherland_and_Liberty#cite_note-Sabotage-2). Roberto Thieme also revealed that he had received pressions from the military, in 1973, to assassinate the Senator Carlos Altamirano (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carlos_Altamirano), who had been the general secretary of the Chilean Socialist Party (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chilean_Socialist_Party) since 1971 [3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatherland_and_Liberty#cite_note-Sabotage-2).
Olaf Palme assassination

The Swedish journalist Anders Leopold, in his 2008 book Det svenska trädet skall fällas, makes the case that PyL leader Roberto Thieme was the assassin in the still-unsolved 1986 murder of Swedish prime minister Olof Palme (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olof_Palme). According to Leopold, the Swedish prime minister was killed because he had freely given asylum to so many leftist Chileans following the 1973 coup against Salvador Allende.[11] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatherland_and_Liberty#cite_note-10)
2004 declarations

Roberto Thieme, leader of the military operations of PyL, signed on 2 December 2004, along with other leaders José Agustín Vásquez and Arturo Hoffmann, a declaration which referred to the Valech Report (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valech_Report) and begged pardon for their responsibilities in the repression against civilians operated by Pinochet's junta. They indicated that many members of the group had been recruited by the Chilean security services and had thus collaborated to the repression, including acts of torture (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torture) and of forced disappearances (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forced_disappearance). Thieme also opposed the neoliberal (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neoliberalism) economic policies of Pinochet's regime, and criticized Pinochet's lack of repentance following his 1998 arrest in London (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augusto_Pinochet%27s_arrest_and_trial) and subsequent judicial procedures in Chile. [12] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatherland_and_Liberty#cite_note-11)
Judicial procedures

Juan Patricio Abarzúa Cáceres, a former member of PyL, was arrested in 2005, charged of the "disappearance (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forced_disappearance)" of Juan Heredia, a Popular Unity (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Popular_Unity) government sympathiser "disappeared" on September 16th 1973 [13] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatherland_and_Liberty#cite_note-12)
References



^ a (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatherland_and_Liberty#cite_ref-BLUM1_0-0) b (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatherland_and_Liberty#cite_ref-BLUM1_0-1) BLUM, Williams. Killing Hope: U. S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II - Part I, Londres: Zed Books, 2003, p. 213. ISBN 1842773690 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/1842773690)
^ (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatherland_and_Liberty#cite_ref-Araya_1-0) ¿Quién mató al comandante Araya? (http://www.lanacion.cl/prontus_noticias/site/artic/20050319/pags/20050319214337.html), La Nación (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/La_Naci%C3%B3n_%28Chile%29), 20 March 2005 (Spanish)
^ a (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatherland_and_Liberty#cite_ref-Sabotage_2-0) b (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatherland_and_Liberty#cite_ref-Sabotage_2-1) c (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatherland_and_Liberty#cite_ref-Sabotage_2-2) Confesiones de un ex Patria y Libertad (http://noticias.tvn.cl/detalle.aspx?IdC=195247&IdS=1), TVN (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Televisi%C3%B3n_Nacional_de_Chile), 12 February 2006 (Spanish)
^ (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatherland_and_Liberty#cite_ref-3) USA en Chile: La CIA y La ONI, financista del grupo terrorista Patria y Libertad. - 2/07/03 (Chile) (http://www.paginadigital.com.ar/articulos/2003/2003quint/noticias10/111142-7-6.asp), Pagina Digital (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pagina_Digital&action=edit&redlink=1), 2 July 2003 (Spanish)
^ (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatherland_and_Liberty#cite_ref-4) Kramer, Andrés M., Chile. Historia de una experiencia socialista. Península. Barcelona, 1974. pp. 177-184
^ (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatherland_and_Liberty#cite_ref-5) Les manifestations de rue à Santiago du Chili (1970-1973) (http://ipr.univ-paris1.fr/spip.php?article83) (Street demonstrations in Santiago de Chile, 1970-73), University of Paris I: Panthéon-Sorbonne (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Paris_I:_Panth%C3%A9on-Sorbonne), 7 April 2002 (French)
^ (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatherland_and_Liberty#cite_ref-6) "Covert Action in Chile 1963-1973" Staff Report of the Select Committee To Study Governmental Operations With Respect to Intelligence Activities, United States Senate, 18 de diciembre de 1975. U.S. Government Printing Office publ. 63-372
^ (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatherland_and_Liberty#cite_ref-7) "The State as Terrorist: The Dynamics of Governmental Violence and Repression" by Prof. Michael Stohl, and Prof. George A. Lopez; Greenwood Press, 1984. Page 51
^ (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatherland_and_Liberty#cite_ref-Tercera_8-0) Contreras dice que Pinochet dio orden "personal, exclusiva y directa" de asesinar a Prats y Letelier (http://www.cctt.cl/din/?q=node/view/784), La Tercera (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/La_Tercera), May 13, 2005, mirrored on CC.TT. website (Spanish)
^ (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatherland_and_Liberty#cite_ref-9) El coronel que le pena al ejército (http://www.lanacion.cl/prontus_noticias/site/artic/20050924/pags/20050924223646.html), La Nación (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/La_Naci%C3%B3n_%28Chile%29), September 24, 2005 (Spanish)
^ (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatherland_and_Liberty#cite_ref-10) New book: Chilean fascist leader killed Olaf Palme (http://politiken.dk/udland/article477209.ece) Politiken February 29, 2008 (in Danish)
^ (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatherland_and_Liberty#cite_ref-11) Ex Patria y Libertad llamó a pedir perdón por horrores de la dictadura (http://www.cooperativa.cl/p4_noticias/site/artic/20041203/pags/20041203193517.html), Radio Cooperativa (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio_Cooperativa), December 3, 2004 (Spanish)
^ (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatherland_and_Liberty#cite_ref-12) Policía detuvo a ex Patria y Libertad por caso de detenido desaparecido (http://www.cooperativa.cl/p4_noticias/site/artic/20051008/pags/20051008153555.html), Radio Cooperativa (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio_Cooperativa), 8 October 2005 (Spanish)


Bibliography



BLUM, Williams. Killing Hope: U. S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II - Part I, Londres: Zed Books, 2003, ISBN 1842773690 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/1842773690)



PAREDES, Alejandro. La Operación Cóndor y la guerra fría. Universum. [online]. 2004, vol.19, no.1 [citado 12 Octubre 2008], p.122-137. Disponible en la World Wide Web: <http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-23762004000100007&lng=es&nrm=iso>. ISSN 0718-2376.



SENATE REPORT: Covert Action in Chile, 1963-1973, a Staff Report of the Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, (US Senate), 18 December 1975, hereafter referred to as SENATE REPORT.



ASSASSINATION REPORT: Interim Report: Alleged Assassination Plots Involving Foreign Leaders, the Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, (US Senate), 20 November 1975, hereafter referred to as ASSASSINATION REPORT.

See also



Chile under Allende (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chile_under_Allende)
United States intervention in Chile (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_intervention_in_Chile)
Pablo Rodríguez Grez (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pablo_Rodr%C3%ADguez_Grez&action=edit&redlink=1), who later headed the legal team defending Pinochet (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augusto_Pinochet%27s_arrest_and_trial)
Tacuara Nationalist Movement (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tacuara_Nationalist_Movement), a similar Argentine group

Magda Hassan
09-22-2010, 02:16 AM
USA in Chile: The CIA and ONI, financier of the terrorist group Patria y Libertad.

Una araña suele despertar reacciones extremas, ya sea de temor o fascinación. A spider usually arouses extreme reactions, either from fear or fascination.
De la misma forma, resulta difícil encontrar en Chile a una persona mayor de 30 años que observe con absoluta indiferencia el símbolo de Patria y Libertad. Likewise, it is difficult to find in Chile to a person over 30 who watch with indifference the absolute symbol of Patria y Libertad.
Con un innegable parecido a un estilizado arácnido oa la swástica del nazismo, el ícono utilizado por el movimiento más beligerante que enfrentó al gobierno de la Unidad Popular sigue despertando opiniones y sentimientos contrapuestos. With an uncanny resemblance to a stylized spider or Nazi swastika, the icon used by the more belligerent movement that fought the government of Popular Unity continues to arouse conflicting opinions and feelings.

Consciente de la carga que tiene para el país el movimiento creado en 1970 por el abogado Pablo Rodríguez Grez, el periodista Manuel Fuentes Wendling acaba de publicar sus Memorias secretas de Patria y Libertad (Grijalbo, 1999), con abundante información sobre el grupo de extrema derecha, que él integró en calidad de secretario general de Propaganda. Aware of the burden for the country the movement created in 1970 by lawyer Pablo Rodriguez Grez, Manuel Fuentes Wendling journalist has just published his memoirs secret Fatherland and Liberty (Grijalbo, 1999), with abundant information about the extreme group right, which he joined in the capacity of general secretary of Propaganda.


Se trata de un libro escrito desde la óptica de un ex militante que no se declara desilusionado ni arrepentido de haber pasado por las filas de la facción, reorganizada en 1971 como Frente Nacionalista Patria y Libertad (FNPL)-. This is a book written from the perspective of a former militant who is not declared disappointed or regretted having gone through the ranks of the faction, reorganized in 1971 as Frente Nacionalista Patria y Libertad (NPFL) -.
Sus juicios acerca de la mayoría de los actores de la época son crudos. Their judgments about most of the time players are raw.
Y aunque muchas de esas opiniones están suavizadas por el tono coloquial y el humor simple que se advierte en sus páginas, probablemente su estilo no agrade a variados sectores del país, desde los seguidores del régimen militar hasta la Democracia Cristiana. And although many of these views are softened by the tone conversational and simple humor that is evident in its pages, you probably dislike his style to various sectors of the country from the supporters of the military regime to the Christian Democrats.


De este último partido, se menciona una anécdota que involucra a Enrique Krauss, quien habría pedido ayuda a los dirigentes del FNPL para protegerse de un plan subversivo del MIR que nunca existió. In this last game, mentioned an anecdote involving Enrique Krauss, who had sought assistance from the leaders of the NPFL to protect a subversive plan of MIR that never existed.
"Sólo busco ser un aporte para los historiadores, entregando antecedentes sobre el justo papel que le correspondió asumir al movimiento en este conflictivo período", aclara el autor. "Just looking to be a contribution for historians, providing background on the proper role than it should to move in this unsettled period," says the author.


Una tarea difícil. A difficult task.
Mientras para algunos Patria y Libertad era un grupo de jóvenes -mayoritariamente del barrio alto- que en jeans, camisa blanca y zapatillas salió a las calles a combatir el marxismo, premunidos con nunchacos y bombas molotov; para otros se trató simplemente de una asociación sediciosa y terrorista. While some Fatherland and Freedom was a group of young, mostly high-neighborhood in jeans, white shirt and shoes took to the streets to combat Marxism, armed with Molotov cocktails nunchuks and for others it was simply a seditious association and terrorist.


Entre los personajes que aparecen mencionados en el libro como cercanos al movimiento están Enrique Campos Menéndez, Jaime Guzmán -quien se hizo cargo del frente juvenil en sus inicios, pero se alejó cuando el grupo adoptó políticas paramilitares-, María Olivia Gazmuri y el empresario Roberto Thieme. Among the characters are mentioned in the book as close to the movement are Enrique Campos Menéndez, Jaime Guzman, who took over the youth front in its infancy, but walked away when the group adopted policies paramilitaries, Maria Olivia and entrepreneur Roberto Gazmuri Thieme.


Fuentes Wendling, actual director del semanario Tiempos del Mundo, paradojalmente se convirtió en uno de los primeros censurados del régimen militar. Fuentes Wendling, current editor of the weekly Tiempos del Mundo, paradoxically became one of the first censored by the military regime.
Una versión de sus Memorias secretas de Patria y Libertad, escrita semanas después del 11 de septiembre de 1973, no fue autorizada por la oficina de censura que funcionaba en el edificio Diego Portales. A version of his memoirs secret Homeland and Freedom, written weeks after the September 11, 1973, was not authorized by the censorship bureau operating in the Diego Portales building.
A pesar de que el texto debió circular clandestinamente, su autor no responsabiliza de ello al gobierno de Pinochet. Although the text had circulated clandestinely, the author not liable for that Pinochet's government.
"Creo que quienes censuraron el libro fueron los primeros financistas de Patria y Libertad, es decir, la CIA, a través de sus colaboradores que hacían nata en el Diego Portales", aclara. "I think that those who decried the book were the first funders of Patria y Libertad, namely the CIA, through its partners that made the Diego Portales cream," he explains.


El autor de Memorias es de aquellos personajes difíciles de encasillar. The author of Memoirs of those characters is difficult to pigeonhole.
Ex militante del Partido Radical, combatió a Allende aún antes de que éste asumiera como Presidente de la República. Former member of the Radical Party, Allende fought even before he took over as President of the Republic.
Celebró la llegada de los militares y participó del régimen, a pesar de que quedó claro que las nuevas autoridades no harían suyo el programa nacionalista. He welcomed the arrival of the military and participated in the scheme, although it was clear that the new authorities would not endorse the nationalist program.
"Las vanguardias, y Patria y Libertad lo fue, siempre se queman porque están en la primera línea de fuego. Los ganadores son aquellos que actuan oblicuamente", afirma. "Avant-garde, and Fatherland and Freedom was, always burn because they are in the frontline. Winners are those who act obliquely," he says.


Critico de la actuación de los organismos de inteligencia del régimen ("al señor Manuel Contreras lo conocí tiempo después y me pareció un tipo mala clase", dijo a Qué Pasa) en la actualidad está convencido de que Ricardo Lagos puede hacer un buen gobierno: "Tiene la oportunidad de transformarse en un nuevo Pedro Aguirre Cerda, siempre y cuando neutralice a los sectores más extremos que lo apoyan". Critical to the performance of intelligence agencies of the scheme ("Mr. Manuel Contreras met him afterwards and he seemed a bad type class," said Que Pasa) now believes that Ricardo Lagos can make a good government: "You have the opportunity to become a New Pedro Aguirre Cerda, provided that neutralize most extreme sectors supporting it."


De figura menuda y temperamento nervioso, Fuentes Wendling continuamente interrumpe la entrevista con el propósito de subrayar que Patria y Libertad nunca fue un movimiento terrorista. Petite figure and temperament, Fuentes Wendling continually interrupts the interview in order to emphasize that Fatherland and Freedom has never been a terrorist movement.
Sus Memorias están salpicadas de reflexiones o anécdotas destinadas a desvincular al movimiento de hechos en los que tuvo algún tipo de participación, como el caso del robo de un equipo destinado a interferir la señal 5 de UC-TV en Concepción o los atentados contra oleoductos, en 1973. His memoirs are peppered with reflections or anecdotes designed to decouple the motion of facts that had some kind of participation, as the case of theft of equipment designed to interfere with signal 5 UC-TV in Concepcion or attacks against pipelines, in 1973.
"¿Dónde están las pruebas?", responde al ser consultado por la responsabilidad del FNPL en las referidas acciones. "Where is the evidence?" He replies when asked about the responsibility of the NPFL in the above actions.


Un lugar destacado en el libro lo ocupa precisamente el asalto perpetrado en Concepción, en marzo de 1973, donde resultó muerto un obrero de apellido Henríquez. Prominently in the book is concerned with precisely the assault at Concepción in March 1973, which killed a worker surnamed Henríquez.
El periodista revela sabrosos entretelones, por ejemplo, su asombro cuando ve salir a Michael Townley http://www.tni.org/letelier/pubs/rowrev3.htm (http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&ie=UTF-8&sl=es&tl=en&u=http://www.tni.org/letelier/pubs/rowrev3.htm&prev=_t&rurl=translate.google.com&usg=ALkJrhgkoV33cKCQ3gxBoislHElTcWAnIQ) de las oficinas del entonces director de Canal 13, el sacerdote Raúl Hasbún http://www.remember-chile.org.uk/ (http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&ie=UTF-8&sl=es&tl=en&u=http://www.remember-chile.org.uk/espanol/comentarios/hasbun.htm&prev=_t&rurl=translate.google.com&usg=ALkJrhi1rvJoJBUxxrSMnnG09TOrEuEQ8w) The journalist reveals tasty backstage, for instance, his astonishment when you go out to Michael Townley http://www.tni.org/letelier/pubs/rowrev3.htm (http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&ie=UTF-8&sl=es&tl=en&u=http://www.tni.org/letelier/pubs/rowrev3.htm&prev=_t&rurl=translate.google.com&usg=ALkJrhgkoV33cKCQ3gxBoislHElTcWAnIQ) the offices of the then director of Channel 13, the priest Raul Hasbun http: / / www.remember-chile.org.uk/ (http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&ie=UTF-8&sl=es&tl=en&u=http://www.remember-chile.org.uk/espanol/comentarios/hasbun.htm&prev=_t&rurl=translate.google.com&usg=ALkJrhi1rvJoJBUxxrSMnnG09TOrEuEQ8w)
(http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&ie=UTF-8&sl=es&tl=en&u=http://www.remember-chile.org.uk/espanol/comentarios/hasbun.htm&prev=_t&rurl=translate.google.com&usg=ALkJrhi1rvJoJBUxxrSMnnG09TOrEuEQ8w)
espanol/comentarios/hasbun.htm (http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&ie=UTF-8&sl=es&tl=en&u=http://www.remember-chile.org.uk/espanol/comentarios/hasbun.htm&prev=_t&rurl=translate.google.com&usg=ALkJrhi1rvJoJBUxxrSMnnG09TOrEuEQ8w) . Spanish / comments / hasbun.htm (http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&ie=UTF-8&sl=es&tl=en&u=http://www.remember-chile.org.uk/espanol/comentarios/hasbun.htm&prev=_t&rurl=translate.google.com&usg=ALkJrhi1rvJoJBUxxrSMnnG09TOrEuEQ8w) .
Según su versión, ambos se habían reunido con el fin de planificar la sustracción de unos equipos electrónicos que dañaban la señal de televisión, opositora a Allende. According to his version, the two had met to plan the removal of some electronic equipment that damaged the television signal opposition to Allende.


Fuentes Wendling relata cómo tras la muerte del obrero Henríquez -quien fue inyectado con pentotal por una brigada de Patria y Libertad-, Jaime Guzmán no entregó un mensaje de los abogados de Hasbún para advertir a miembros del movimiento que Investigaciones planeaba detenerlos. Fuentes Wendling relates how after the death of the worker Henriquez, who was injected with pentothal for a brigade of Fatherland and Freedom ", Jaime Guzman did not give a message Hasbún lawyers to warn members of the movement to stop planned research.
"A Guzmán le importaba sólo no involucrarse. Salvar su propio pellejo", anota. "A Guzman cared not only involved. Save your own skin," he notes.


En el capítulo en que describe "El tanquetazo" -como se conoció a la sublevación del regimiento Blindados Nº 2, en junio de 1973-, su autor intenta aclarar cuál fue la real participación del FNPL. In the chapter describing "The Tanquetazo" as they met the uprising Armored Regiment No. 2, June 1973 - the author attempts to clarify what was the real participation of FNPL.
Según su versión, los líderes del grupo nacionalista intentaron poner atajo al levantamiento, al que sólo apoyaron cuando los hechos ya estaban consumados. According to its release, the group's leaders sought to put shortcut to nationalist uprising, which only supported when the facts were already accomplished.
Cierto o no, el "tanquetazo" les costó a los dirigentes de Patria y Libertad el exilio y la clandestinidad. True or not, the "Tanquetazo" took them to the leaders of Patria y Libertad exile and underground.


Fuentes Wendling trata de dar a los acontecimientos una apariencia jocosa, a pesar de su objetiva gravedad. Fuentes Wendling is to give the events a humorous look, despite its objective seriousness.
Por ejemplo, en el capítulo en que narra los "chascarros" protagonizados por Mariana Callejas, Townley y un militante de Patria y Libertad en los hechos de Concepción, se refiere al grupo como a "los tres chiflados". For example, in the chapter that tells the "bloopers" featuring Mariana Callejas, Townley and a militant of Fatherland and Freedom on the facts of conception, refers to the group as "the Three Stooges."
A dos oficiales del Blindados Nº 2 que golpearon las puertas del FNPL para sumarlos al alzamiento de junio, en tanto, los bautiza como "el gordo y el flaco". Two Armored officers who beat No. 2 FNPL doors to add them to the June uprising, meanwhile, dubbed them "the Laurel and Hardy."


El mismo autor reconoce que, afortunadamente, el destino del país no estaba en manos de Patria y Libertad. The same author acknowledges that, fortunately, the country's destiny was not in the hands of Patria y Libertad.



El plan para matar a Allende The Allende plot to kill



"La (Mariana) Callejas, cuando visité su casa cumpliendo la misión acordada con Pablo (Rodríguez) http://www.quepasa.cl/sitios/especiales/ (http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&ie=UTF-8&sl=es&tl=en&u=http://www.quepasa.cl/sitios/especiales/personajes/los50/49_rodriguez.htm&prev=_t&rurl=translate.google.com&usg=ALkJrhimLMkwGzRbIC8r9SFCm5xON8t6zA) "The (Mariana) Callejas, when I visited his house to fulfill the mission agreed with Paul (Rodriguez) http://www.quepasa.cl/sitios/especiales/ (http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&ie=UTF-8&sl=es&tl=en&u=http://www.quepasa.cl/sitios/especiales/personajes/los50/49_rodriguez.htm&prev=_t&rurl=translate.google.com&usg=ALkJrhimLMkwGzRbIC8r9SFCm5xON8t6zA)
(http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&ie=UTF-8&sl=es&tl=en&u=http://www.quepasa.cl/sitios/especiales/personajes/los50/49_rodriguez.htm&prev=_t&rurl=translate.google.com&usg=ALkJrhimLMkwGzRbIC8r9SFCm5xON8t6zA)
personajes/los50/49_rodriguez.htm (http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&ie=UTF-8&sl=es&tl=en&u=http://www.quepasa.cl/sitios/especiales/personajes/los50/49_rodriguez.htm&prev=_t&rurl=translate.google.com&usg=ALkJrhimLMkwGzRbIC8r9SFCm5xON8t6zA) -que me recomendó escuchar primero, para saber de qué se trataba, y hablar después-, se limitó a exponer que la muerte de Allende provocaría tal conmoción en el país que la izquierda reaccionaría violentamente obligando a actuar a las Fuerzas Armadas. personajes/los50/49_rodriguez.htm (http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&ie=UTF-8&sl=es&tl=en&u=http://www.quepasa.cl/sitios/especiales/personajes/los50/49_rodriguez.htm&prev=_t&rurl=translate.google.com&usg=ALkJrhimLMkwGzRbIC8r9SFCm5xON8t6zA) -recommended I listen first, to know what it was, and talk afterwards, "she merely stated that the death of Allende would cause such a commotion in the country that the left would react violently forced to act Armed Forces.





Pablo Rodriguez Grez Pablo Rodriguez Grez


-Descabezado el gobierno y la Unidad Popular, nadie podrá reemplazar a Allende, y el que lo haga nos llevará a una situación insostenible que hará que los militares den un golpe de Estado -dijo Mariana con una maternal tranquilidad. -Headed the government and the Unidad Popular, no one can replace Allende, and to do so will lead to an unsustainable situation that will give a military coup, "said Mariana with a maternal tranquility.


El gringo (Townley), con ayuda no autorizada de jóvenes de Patria y Libertad, había hecho la inteligencia de terreno casi perfecta. El Gringo (Townley), with the help of young unauthorized Fatherland and Liberty, had the intelligence of land near perfect.
Un mapa confeccionado a mano alzada mostraba los recorridos, el número de autos, la posición del vehículo presidencial y la escolta, los semáforos y puntos y horas de mayor congestión. A map prepared by show of hands showed the routes, the number of cars, the position of president and the escort vehicle, traffic signals and points and rush hours.


El gringo siguió exponiendo con creciente entusiasmo su proyecto. The gringo continued with growing enthusiasm exposing your project.


-Según vimos y según estadística, los martes cada tres semanas Allende baja por Colón. "As we have seen and according to statistics, every three weeks on Tuesdays down Allende Columbus.
En la esquina de Colón con Magallanes, justo al centro hay una tapa de alcantarillado. At the corner of Columbus and Magellan, right in the middle is a sewer lid.
Ahí ponemos una carga de 50 ó 60 kilos de dinamita y ¡bumm! That put a load of 50 or 60 kilos of dynamite and bumm!
-expresó el norteamericano mientras alzaba los brazos y los iba separando y con las manos ahuecadas simulaba la onda expansiva de la explosión. "Said the American as he lifted his arms and was separating and with cupped hands simulating the shock wave from the explosion.


Mantuve la calma y el silencio. I kept calm and quiet.
Con la vista miraba al gringo, a su mujer y el mapa. With eyes looking at the gringo, his wife and map.


-Una cuadra más arriba -prosiguió- un puesto de observación avisa que viene el grupo de autos. "One more block," he went up an observation post is advised that the group of cars.
Como hemos calculado la velocidad crucero, sabemos en cuántos minutos llegan a Magallanes. As we have calculated the cruise, we know many minutes arrive at Magallanes.
Yo estaría instalado en casa de esquina suroriente, que pertenece a un militante de Patria y Libertad. I would be installed in southeast corner house that belongs to a militant Patria y Libertad.
Desde la muralla se ve todo bien. Since the wall is so good.
Cuando el auto de Allende disminuye velocidad en Magallanes yo activo dinamita. When the car speed decreases Magallanes Allende active self dynamite.
La cámara de alcantarillado hace que onda salga hacia arriba, expandiéndose diagonalmente. The sewer camera makes wave comes up, stretching diagonally.
Eso permite que Allende y varios autos terminen totalmente destruidos, sin afectar casas ni otros vehículos. This allows end Allende and several cars completely destroyed, without affecting homes or other vehicles.


Este último, al parecer, era el detalle "humanitario" del plan. The latter, apparently, was the detail "humanitarian" the plan.


Sólo por curiosidad pregunté de dónde obtendrían tanta dinamita. Just curious where you would get asked so much dynamite.


-Estás sentado en ella -dijo riéndose Michael. "You're sitting there laughing," said Michael.
" (Extracto del libro Memorias secretas. . . ) "(Excerpt from the Secret Memoirs...)


La venia de Hasbún "Cuando el viernes llegué a la antigua casa de Canal 13 en la calle Lira y entré por su estrecha puerta, que conservaba una hermosa mampara, alguien que ofició ocasionalmente de portero me indicó dónde estaba el despacho del sacerdote Raúl Hasbún. Esperaba encontrar a mi ingreso al gringo, pero no estaba. Si no viene -pensé- le explico a Hasbún el objetivo de la reunión y me largo. Hasbun's leave "When I arrived on Friday the former home of Channel 13 on the street Lira and went through close door, which kept a beautiful screen, someone who occasionally officiated doorman told me where was the office of priest Raul Hasbun. He hoped to find my entry into the gringo, but he was not. If there is, I thought I explain to Hasbún the purpose of the meeting and I'm off.

Pero mi asombro fue mayúsculo cuando al llegar a la antesala, donde ya no había nadie, y advertirse mi presencia por el sonido de mis pasos en el piso de madera, apareció desde el interior de una de las dependencias el propio Hasbún. But my amazement was tremendous when arriving at the anteroom, where no one was there, and noted my presence by the sound my footsteps in the wood floor, came from inside of the agencies Hasbún himself.


-Ya habíamos comenzado a hablar -dijo el sacerdote invitándome a integrarme al encuentro en una sencilla pieza que con modestia ironizó como su cuartel general. "We had started talking," said the priest invited to join the meeting in a simple piece modestly joked as his headquarters.
El gringo ya estaba instalado muy pierna arriba. The gringo was installed well leg up.
Había llegado antes. He had arrived earlier.


-Me explicaba Michael (Townley) -continuó diciendo el sacerdote- que él puede ubicar dónde está la señal. "I explained Michael (Townley)," continued the priest that he can locate where is the signal.
La verdad es que nosotros creemos que se emite desde el edificio de Servicios Eléctricos y Gas de Concepción y lo vamos a denunciar. The truth is, we believe that is emitted from the building of Electric and Gas Services Design and we are going to complain.


Yo simplemente me limité a escuchar. "I limited myself to just listen.
Townley tomó la palabra y explicó que sería bueno tener la certeza de que efectivamente la interferencia salía de una entidad gubernamental. Townley took the floor and said it would be nice to have the certainty that interference actually came from a government entity.
Así podría avalarse mejor la denuncia. This could better support the complaint.
Pero, además, tener la ubicación del interceptor permitía también, en el caso de que el gobierno no quisiese reconocerlo, interferir por medios electrónicos la señal que emitía. But also the location of the interceptor have also allowed, if the government did not want to admit it, interact electronically emitting the signal.
O sea, neutralizar la interferencia. In other words, to neutralize the interference.
Hasbún escuchó con atención. Hasbún listened intently.


-Y en qué puedo ayudar yo -dijo el sacerdote. And how I can help, "said Priest.


-Lo único que necesitamos, padre -señaló Townley-, es que cuando estemos en Concepción, a una señal nuestra alguien corte las transmisiones del canal por 30 segundos cada 10 minutos durante una hora. "All we need," said Townley father, is that when we are in Concepción, a sign someone cut our channel transmissions for 30 seconds every 10 minutes during an hour.
De esa manera, en esos 30 segundos la interferencia del gobierno quedará sola en el aire y así podremos localizar su origen por medio de una triangulación electrónica. Thus, in those 30 seconds government interference in the air will be left alone so we can locate the source by means of electronic triangulation.


A Hasbún no solamente le quedó clara la propuesta sino que también sus propósitos que, tal como fueron presentados por Townley, en caso alguno implicaban un acto fuera de la ley, y por el contrario, constituía un esfuerzo técnico destinado a obtener pruebas de una acción ilegal del gobierno. A Hasbún will not only became clear the proposal but also its purposes, as reported by Townley, in no case involving an act outside the law, and instead, was a technical effort to obtain evidence for action illegal government.


El sacerdote no solamente dio su venia al plan sino que se comprometió a hablar al día siguiente con Carlos de la Sotta, un conocido locutor que por años había sido la voz institucional de la Radio Universidad Técnica del Estado, más tarde Universidad de Santiago de Chile. The priest gave his blessing not only to plan but agreed to talk the next day with Carlos de la Sotta, a renowned speaker who for years had been the voice Institutional Radio State Technical University, later University of Santiago de Chile .
Era el director de Canal 5. He was the director of Channel 5.
" (Extracto del libro Memorias secretas. . . ) "(Excerpt from the Secret Memoirs...)