View Full Version : Brain Implants

Ed Jewett
11-26-2010, 04:53 AM
Brain Implants (http://therearenosunglasses.wordpress.com/2010/11/25/brain-implants/)

25 11 2010 Welcome University of California, Berkeley, Neuroelectric Research Group,
University of California, Berkeley, Introduction to Cyberpunk students (http://www.berkeley.edu/),
University of Maine Homeland Security Lab (http://homeland.maine.edu/) and Electrictal & Computer Engineering (http://www.eece.maine.edu/research/gk12/ethicalissuesinneurotecnology.htm) students,
The Neuroscience Think-Tank at the University of Sussex (http://www.ussu.net/ntt/information.html),
New York University, Tisch School of the Arts, Interactive Telecommunications Program (http://stage.itp.tsoa.nyu.edu/%7Efyc204/),
National University of Singapore Integrated Virtual Learning Environment (https://ivle.nus.edu.sg/account/login_req.asp?url=%2Fdiscussion%2Fread%2Easp%3F),
Kansas’s Fort Hays State University students (http://www.fhsu.edu/),
Michigan’s Wayne State University ISM 7500 (http://www.busadm.wayne.edu/academic_programs/academic_departments/information_systems_manufacturing/graduate/graduate_courses.htm#7500),
University of Massachusetts psychology students (http://euryale.sbs.umass.edu/psych/modeling_course/Rafeal_Santana_presentation.pdf),
Pennsylvania’s Muhlenberg College students (http://www.muhlenberg.edu/),
Tasmania’s ICT Mindtools Robotics students (http://www.mindtools.tased.edu.au/robotics/activities/ratbots.htm)!
Brain Implants (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html)

Direct neural control of complex machines is a long-term U.S. military goal. DARPA has a brain-machine interface program aimed at creating next-generation wireless interfaces between neural systems and, initially, prosthetics and other biomedical devices.
— Rodney Brooks, “Toward a Brain-Internet Link (http://wirelessnewsfactor.com/perl/story/22841.html),” WirelessNewsFactor (http://wirelessnewsfactor.com/), 10 Dec 2003.

http://www.skewsme.com/implants/committed.jpg (http://www.comics.com/comics/committed/index.html)In a Kurzweillian (http://www.kurzweiltech.com/aboutray.html) future, the world would become a very strange place, where converging advances in nanotechnology, biotechnology and computer science combine to propel humanity to its next stage of evolution. “By the end of this century, I don’t think there will be a clear distinction between human and machine,” Kurzweil told the Foresight Institute’s (http://www.foresight.org/)Eighth Conference on Molecular Nanotechnology.1 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren1)
the miracle of giving light to the blind (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=ocular+OR+eye+OR+eyes+implant+OR+implants) i (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#rfn1), ii (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#rfn2), iii (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#rfn3), iv (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#rfn4) or sound to the deaf ha[d] been made possible by implantation of electrodes, demonstrating the technical possibility of circumventing damaged sensory receptors by direct electrical stimulation of the nervous system.2 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren2) Computers that become part of our bodies are not so far-fetched.… Surgeons have performed [more than 50,000 3 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren3)] cochlear implants (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=cochlear+OR+%22bionic+ear%22+implant+OR+implants +OR+implanted) on patients with hearing loss.v (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#rfn5) “These people are already walking around with chips in their heads,” [Peter Cochrane, head of research at British Telecommunications PLC,] says.4 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren4)
Giving completely paralyzed patients full mental control of robotic limbs or communication devices has long been a dream of those working to free such individuals from their locked-in state.5 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren5) There is little doubt that direct brain-machine interfaces will be available in the very near future.6 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren6)
http://www.freedomtofascism.com/images/banners/banner_chipbaby_468x60.gif (http://www.freedomtofascism.com/)
http://www.skewsme.com/implants/brain.jpg (http://www.rybak-et-al.net/chapin.html)
http://www.skewsme.com/implants/robot_b.gif (http://www.rybak-et-al.net/chapin.html)
Researchers at the University School of Medicine in Philadelphia demonstrated that signals from neuron groupings in rats brains can be used to control a physical device (http://www.rybak-et-al.net/chapin.html) without the rats carrying out a physical action themselves.7 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren7) “This study breaks new ground in several areas,” said Dr. Eberhard Fetz, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Washington School of Medicine, who authored a commentary on the research in the “News and Views” section of Nature Neuroscience (http://www.nature.com/neurosci/). “Unlike comparable studies, this is the first demonstration to prove that simultaneous recordings from large ensembles of neurons can be converted in real time and online to control an external device. Extracting signals directly from the brain to control robotic devices has been a science fiction theme that seems destined to become fact.” 8 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren8)
[Miguel Nicolelis (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Miguel+Nicolelis) and colleagues] at Duke University in North Carolina wired monkey brains to control robotic arms (http://www.google.com/search?&hl=en&q=monkey+brain+OR+brains+robotic+arm+OR+arms)that mimicked the motions of their real arms (another search (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=brain+implants+monkey+OR+monkeys+robotic+OR+robo t+arm+OR+arms); see also another similar study (http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/04301/402431.stm)).9 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren9) “It was an amazing sight to see the robot in my lab move, knowing that it was being driven by signals from a monkey brain at Duke (http://www.dukenews.duke.edu/research/NICONAT.HTM),” said [Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s] Touch Lab (http://touchlab.mit.edu/) director and co-researcher Mandayam Srinivasan (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Mandayam+Srinivasan). “It was as if the monkey had a 600-mile- (950-km-) long virtual arm.”10 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren10)
John P. Donoghue (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=John+Donoghue+Brown), a neuroscientist at Brown University developing a similar system, said paralyzed patients would be the first to benefit by gaining an ability to type and communicate on the Web, but the list of potential applications is endless, he said. The devices may even allow quadriplegics to move their own limbs again by sending signals from the brain to various muscles, leaping over the severed nerves that caused their paralysis.…
Both he and Nicolelis hope to get permission from the Food and Drug Administration (http://www.fda.gov/) to begin experiments in people [in 2004]. Nicolelis also is developing a system that would transmit signals from each of the hundreds of brain electrodes to a portable receiver, so his monkeys — or human subjects — could be free of external wires and move around while they turn their thoughts into mechanical actions.11 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren11)
Scientists say they have developed a technology that enables a monkey to move a cursor on a computer screen (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=monkey+OR+monkeys+%22video+game%22+implant+OR+im plants)simply by thinking about it.… Using high-tech brain scans, the researchers determined that [a] small clump[] of cells…were active in the formation of the desire to carry out specific body movements. Armed with this knowledge, [researchers at the California Institute of Technology (http://www.caltech.edu/) in Pasadena] implanted sensitive electrodes in the posterior parietal cortex of a rhesus monkey trained to play a simple video game.… A computer program, hooked up to the implanted electrodes,…then moved a cursor on the computer screen in accordance with the monkey’s desires — left or right, up or down, wherever “the electrical (brain) patterns tells us the monkey is planning to reach,” according to [researcher Daniella (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Daniella+Meeker)] Meeker (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Daniella+Meeker).12 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren12) [Dr. William Heetderks (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=William+Heetderks), director of the neural prosthesis program at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (http://www.ninds.nih.gov/),] believes that the path to long-lasting implants in people would involve the recording of data from many electrodes. “To get a rich signal that allows you to move a limb in three-dimensional space or move a cursor around on a screen will require the ability to record from at least 30 neurons,” he said.13 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren13)
http://www.skewsme.com/implants/glasscone.jpg (http://members.tripod.com/%7Emdars/meth/meth.htm)Dr. Philip R. Kennedy (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Philip+Kennedy+implant+OR+implants), an [sic] clinical assistant professor of neurology at Emory University (http://www.emory.edu/) in Georgia, reported that a paralyzed man was able to control a cursor with a cone-shaped, glass implant (http://www.google.com/search?&hl=en&q=glass+cone+OR+cones+implant+OR+implants) (See also another similar study (http://www.knoxstudio.com/shns/story.cfm?pk=BRAINIMPLANT-10-24-04&cat=AN)).14 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren14) Each [neurotrophic electrode (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=neurotrophic+electrode+OR+electrodes)] consists of a hollow glass cone about the size of a ball-point pen tip.15 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren15) The implants…contain an electrode that picks up impulses from the nerve endings. Before they are implanted, the cones are coated with chemicals — taken from tissue inside the patients’ own knees — to encourage nerve growth. The implants are then placed in the brain’s motor cortex — which controls body movement — and over the course of the next few months the chemicals encourage nerve cells to grow and attach to the electrodes. A transmitter just inside the skull picks up signals from the cones and translates these into cursor commands on the computer.16 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren16)
Scientists at Northwestern University (http://www.northwestern.edu/) crafted a two-wheeled robot that operated partly on the electrical signals of adisplaced lamprey’s brain (http://www.google.com/search?q=lamprey+robot+OR+cyborg+-undulatory) (pic (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#lamprey), video (http://www.techtv.com/news/computing/story/0,24195,3332505,00.html)).17 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren17) The part of the brain used in the experiment normally keeps the lamprey upright in the water. When connected up correctly, the organ can guide the robot towards a light source.18 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren18)
http://www.skewsme.com/implants/cockroach_b.jpg (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#cockroach)Scientists at the University of Tokyo are exploring ways that la cucaracha can become more socially redeeming. Using hardy American roaches, scientists remove their wings, insert electrodes in their antennae (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=remote+control+OR+controlled+cockroach+OR+cockro aches+OR+robo-roach+OR+%22robo+cockroach%22+OR+roboroach) (more pics (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#cockroach), schematics (http://dmtwww.epfl.ch/%7Erholzer/papers/cbs.ohp.pdf)) and affix a tiny backpack of electric circuits and batteries to their carapace. The electrodes prod them to turn left and right, go backward and forward. The plan is to equip them with minicameras or other sensory devices.19 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren19), vi (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#rfn6) [Later that same year, the motion pictureThe Fifth Element (1997) featured a remote-controlled cockroach equipped with a camera.]
Scientists at the Max Planck Institute have…demonstrated electronic-based neuron transistors that can control the movement of a live leech (http://www.google.com/search?q=%22live+leech%22+Max+Planck+Institute+rem ote&hl=en&filter=0) from a computer. They can detect the firing of a nearby neuron, cause it to fire, or suppress a neuron from firing — all of which amounts to two-way communication between neurons and neuron transistors.20 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren20)
http://www.skewsme.com/implants/rcrat2.jpg (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#rat)Rats steered by a computer…could soon help find buried earthquake victims or dispose of bombs, scientists said [1 May 2002]. The remote-controlled “roborats” (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&lr=&q=remote+control+OR+controlled+rat+OR+rats+OR+robo rat+OR+roborats+OR+%22robo+rat%22+OR+%22robo+rats% 22) (more pics (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#rat), audio (http://www.rybak-et-al.net/chapin.ram), video (http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/sci/tech/newsid_1961000/1961798.stm)) can be made to run, climb, jump or turn left and right through electrical probes, the width of a hair, implanted in their brains. Movement signals are transmitted from a computer to the rat’s brain via a radio receiver strapped to its back. One electrode stimulates the “feelgood” center of the rat’s brain, while two other electrodes activate the cerebral regions which process signals from its left and right whiskers.21 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren21)
“They work for pleasure,” says Sanjiv Talwar (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Sanjiv+Talwar), the bioengineer at the State University of New York who led the research team.… “The rat feels nirvana.” 22 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren22) Asked to speculate on potential military uses for robotic animals, Dr Talwar agreed they could, in theory, be put to some unpleasant uses, such as assassination (http://www.skewsme.com/assassin.html).23 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren23)
[In February 2007, scientists at the Robot Engineering Technology Research Centre at Shandong University of Science and Technology in China announced they had created remote-controlled pigeons (pic (http://www.skewsme.com/implants/rcpigeon.jpg)) after having had similar success implanting mice in 2005. Their next step is to improve the technology for practical use.]
http://www.skewsme.com/implants/cat_eyes1.jpg http://www.skewsme.com/implants/cat_eyes2.jpg (http://www.berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/99legacy/10-15-1999.html)
A team of US scientists have wired a computer to a cat’s brain and created videos of what the animal was seeing (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=cat+brain+thalamus+177). By recording the electrical activity of nerve cells in the thalamus, a region of the brain that receives signals from the eyes, researchers from the University of California at Berkeley were able to view these shapes.… They recorded the output from 177 brain cells that responded to light and dark in the cat’s field of view. In total, the 177 cells were sensitive to a field of view of 6.4 by 6.4 degrees.… In the cat’s brain, as in ours, the signals from the thalamus cells undergo considerable signal processing in the higher regions of the brain that improve the quality of the image that is perceived. Taking an image from a region of the brain before this image enhancement has taken place will result in a poorer image than the cat is able to see.… Given time, it will be possible to record what one person sees and “play it back” to someone else either as it is happening or at a later date.24 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren24), vii (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#rfn7)

In 1870, two German researchers named [Eduard (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&lr=lang_en&as_qdr=all&q=Fritsch+Hitzig)] Hitzig (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&lr=lang_en&as_qdr=all&q=%22Gustav+Fritsch%22+Hitzig) and [Gustav (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&lr=lang_en&as_qdr=all&q=%22Gustav+Fritsch%22+Hitzig)] Fritsch (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&lr=lang_en&as_qdr=all&q=%22Gustav+Fritsch%22+Hitzig) electrically stimulated the brains of dogs, demonstrating that certain portions of the brain were the centers of motor function. The American Dr. Robert Bartholow (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Robert+OR+Roberts+Bartholow+human+brain), within four years, demonstrated that the same was true of human beings. By the turn of the [twentieth] century in Germany Fedor Krause (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&as_qdr=all&q=Fedor+Krause) was able to do a systematic electrical mapping of the human brain, using conscious patients undergoing brain surgery [Morgan, James P., “The First Reported Case of Electrical Stimulation of the Human Brain,” Journal of History of Medicine at http://www3.oup.co.uk/jalsci/scope/; Zimmerman, M., “Electrical Stimulation of the Human Brain,” Human Neurobiology, 1982].
Another early researcher into electrical stimulation of the brain (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=%22electrical+stimulation+of+the+brain%22) was Walter Rudolf Hess (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Walter+Rudolf+Hess), who began research intoESB (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=%22electrical+stimulation+of+the+brain%22) in the 1930s, jolting patients’ brains with shocks administered through tiny needles that pierced the skull.25 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren25) His experiments [also] included the insertion of fine electrically conductive wires into the brains of anaesthetized cats. To noone’s great surprise, given mild electrical stimulation the cats went beserk [Vance Packard, The People Shapers (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Packard+%22People+Shapers%22) (New York: Bantam Books, 1977); “Hess, Walter Rudolf,” Encyclopedia Americana (New York: Harper & Row, 1969); “Hess, Walter Rudolph,” Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia (New York: Funk & Wagnalls Inc., 1973)].26 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren26)
http://www.skewsme.com/implants/penfield_small.jpg (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#penfield)During the decades of the 1940s and 1950s, [Canadian pioneer] Wilder Penfield (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Wilder+Penfield)…experimented with electrical brain stimulation on patients undergoing surgery. One of Penfield’s discoveries was that the application of electricity on alert patients could stimulate the memory of past events [Project Open Mind] (full pic (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#penfield), "I smell burnt toast" reenactment surgery video (http://www.histori.ca/minutes/minute.do?id=10211)).
Since 1949, the Tulane University Department of Psychiatry and Neurology has done experimentation in the implantation of electrodes into patients’ brains. According to one of their staff-generated reports, “By implantation of electrodes into various predetermined specific brain sites of patients capable of reporting thoughts and feelings, we have been able to make invaluable long-term observations…” [“Stereotaxic Implantation of Electrodes in the Human Brain: A Method for Long-Term Study and Treatment,” Heath, John, Fontana, Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, Tulane University School of Medicine].

Other early researchers into direct brain stimulation were Robert G. Heath (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Robert+Heath+implant+OR+implants)…and his associate, Dr. Russell Monroe. Beginning in 1950, with funding from the CIA and the military, among other sources, they implanted as many as 125 electrodes into subjects’ brains, and also experimented by injecting a wide variety of drugs directly into the brain tissue through small tubes; these drugs included LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline. One of Heath’s memorable suggestions was that lobotomy should be used on subjects, not as a therapeutic measure, but for the convenience of the staff [Heath, Robert G. Undated interview in Omni (http://www.omnimag.com/); Cannon, Martin, “Mind Control and the American Government,” Prevailing Winds, 1994; Human Rights Law Journal, “Freedom of the Mind as an International Human Rights Issue,” Vol. 3, No. 1-4; Ross, M.D., Dr. Colin, “The CIA and Military Mind Control Research: Building the Manchurian Candidate,” lecture given at Ninth Annual Western Clinical Conference on Trauma and Dissociation, April 18, 1996].27 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren27) Heath of Tulane University, who pioneered the electrical stimulation of human brains, has equipped dangerously aggressive mental patients with self-stimulators. A film shows a patient working himself out of a violent mood by pushing his stimulator button.28 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren28)
In 1956, James Olds (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=James+Olds) (pic (http://www.skewsme.com/implants/james-olds.jpg)) reported on research in which he had electrically stimulated the brains of rats. Implanting electrodes in rats’ pleasure center of the brain, he attached a device that allowed the rats to activate the electrical impulse. He found that the rats would become so obsessed with self-stimulation that they would literally starve themselves to death.29 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren29) Very similar results have since been achieved replacing rats with monkeys [and humans as well].30 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren30)

http://www.skewsme.com/implants/stimoceiver.jpg (http://www.disinformazione.it/impianti2.htm)Jose Delgado (http://www.google.com/search?q=Jose+OR+Jos%E9+Delgado), funded by Yale University, the Office of Naval Intelligence, the U.S. Air Force 6571st Aeromedical Research Laboratory, and other institutions, and linked to Spanish fascist groups by researcher John Judge,31 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren31)…is the man who perfected the stimoceiver (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=stimoceiver+Delgado) [or ‘transdermal stimulator (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=%22transdermal+stimulator%22)’], a tiny electronic device that is implanted into the brains of humans and animals, and is used to transmit electrical impulses directly to the brain [Delgado, Jose, Physical Control of the Mind (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Delgado+%22Physical+Control+of+the+Mind%22) (New York: Harper & Row, 1969); and Judge, John, “The Secret Government,” Dharma Combat number 10].32 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren32)
http://www.skewsme.com/implants/delgado_b.jpg (http://www.angelfire.com/or/mctrl/chap16.htm)Delgado, in a series of experiments terrifying in their human potential, implanted electrodes in the skull of a bull. Waving a red cape, Delgado provoked the animal to charge. Then, with a signal emitted from a tiny hand-held radio transmitter, he made the beast turn aside in mid-lunge and trot docilely away.33 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren33) He has [also] been able to “play” monkeys and cats like “little electronic toys” that yawn, hide, fight, play, mate and go to sleepviii (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#rfn8) on command.34 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren34) The individual is defenseless against direct manipulation of the brain [Delgado, Physical Control].35 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren35)
The open publication of Delgado’s bookPhysical Control of the Mind (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Delgado+%22Physical+Control+of+the+Mind%22) met with a decidedly cool reaction from the public, and this may have warned other researchers in the field to keep quiet about the subject. To this day, Delgado’s is the only popular book on the subject of implants and electrical stimulation of the brain.36 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren36)
During the latter days of MKULTRA (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=MKULTRA) research, a CIA memorandum, dated 22 November, 1961, announced, “Initial biological work on techniques and brain locations essential to providing conditioning and control of animals has been completed. The feasibility of remote control of activities in several species of animals has been demonstrated.… The ultimate objective of this research is to provide an understanding of the mechanisms involved in the directional control of animals and to provide practical systems suitable for human application.” 37 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren37)
Later breakthroughs in technology were documented in “Two-Way Transdermal Communication with the Brain (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Delgado+%22Two+Way+Transdermal+Communication+wit h+the+Brain%22),” published in 1975. By this time Delgado had linked his brain implants with computers. The monograph records,
“The most interesting aspect of the transdermal stimoceivers is the ability to perform simultaneous recording and stimulation of brain functions, thereby permitting the establishment of feedbacks and ‘on-demand’ programs of excitation with the aid of the computer. With the increasing sophistication and miniaturization of electronics, it may be possible to compress the necessary circuitry for a small computer into a chip that is implantable subcutaneously. In this way, a new self-contained instrument could be devised, capable of receiving, analyzing, and sending back information to the brain, establishing artificial links between unrelated cerebral areas, functional feedbacks, and programs of stimulation contingent on the appearance of pre-determined patterns” [Delgado, Lipponen, Weiss, del Pozo, Monteagudo, and McMahon, “Two-Way Transdermal Communication with the Brain,” a co-operative publication of the Medical University of Madrid, Spain, and Yale University Medical School, 1975].38 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren38)
http://www.skewsme.com/implants/monkey_b.jpg ( popular articles on Delgado intend us to think that his primary purpose was the rehabilitation of the mentally and physically sick. This does not happen to be the case. Delgado was a blatant control freak. An example is Delgado’s experimentation on changing the social orientation of animals. One staging area for this experimentation was an island in the Bermudas, where Delgado maintained a free-roving population of gibbons with electronic implants, using electrical brain boosts to build and destroy social orders among those primates as if he was knocking down a row of dominoes [Packard, People Shapers].39 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren39)
Although well cited, Delgado’s practical results on humans were extremely limited,ix (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#rfn9) as most of his research was either merely stated without a results base, or has been reported on second hand.… Reports have been made on his work on the ‘Pandora Project (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=%22Pandora+Project%22+OR+%22Project+Pandora%22+D elgado)’, which involved modulating electromagnetic fields to a soldier’s head so that the soldier would lose self-control on the battle field. Reports also include how work was carried out to induce schizophrenia artificially through electrical stimulation of the septal zone in the human brain.40 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren40)
Always a visionary in the Orwellian mold, Delgado said, “Looking into the future, it may be predicted that telerecording and telestimulation of the brain will be widely used” [Delgado, Jose, “Radio Stimulation of the Brain in Primates and Man,” New Haven, Connecticut: Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, 1969].41 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren41) He has urged the U.S. government to make “control of the mind” a national goal.42 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren42)
http://www.skewsme.com/img/noverichip.gif (http://www.wethepeoplewillnotbechipped.com/phpfusion/news.php)
Another researcher who specialized in brain implants is Dr. Stuart Mackay (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Stuart+Mackay+implant+OR+implants), who in 1968 penned a textbook titledBio-Medical Telemetry (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Mackay+%22Bio+Medical+Telemetry%22). Mackay reported, “Among the many telemetry instruments being used today are miniature radio transmitters that can be swallowed, carried externally, or surgically implanted in man or animal. They permit the simultaneous study of behaviour and physiological functioning. The scope of observations is too broad to more than hint at a few examples. The possibilities are limited only by the imagination of the investigator” [Dr. Stuart Mackay, cited in Glenn Krawcyzyk, “Mind Control Techniques and Tactics of the New World Order,” Nexus (http://www.nexusmagazine.com/), Dec-Jan 1993].43 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren43)
By 1994, the London Times (http://www.sunday-times.co.uk/) estimated that in the previous decade there had been 15,000 cases of persons being implanted with electronic brain devices. It is impossible to know if the Times estimate is at all accurate, since it is unlikely that they would be privy to statistics of secret testing. Certainly, most anti-mind control activists would say that the figure was a gross underestimate.44 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren44)
In July 1996, information was released on research currently taking place into creation of a computer chip called the “Soul Catcher 2025 (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=%22Soul+Catcher+2025%22).” Dr. Chris Winter and a team of scientists at British Telecom’s Martlesham Heath Laboratories, near Ipswich, are developing a chip that, when placed into the skull behind the eye, will record all visual and physical sensations, as well as thoughts. According to Winter, “This is the end of death… By combining this information with a record of the person’s genes, we could recreate a person physically, emotionally, and spiritually.” 45 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren45)
“The brain is so complex that one wouldn’t at the outset think that replacing any of its parts is doable,” said Dr. Howard Eichenbaum, a professor of psychology at Boston University and director of the Laboratory of Cognitive Neurobiology (http://www-cogneuro.bu.edu/) there. But advances in neuroscience and computer engineering have made it possible to develop implanted circuits that mimic neural activities, he said. “At least in principle, it looks as though a chip imitating some functions of the hippocampus could be implanted in the future,” he said (pic (http://www.newscientist.com/misc/popup_ns.jsp?id=ns99993488F1)). “It’s a huge, huge advance in simply duplicating the functions of the hippocampus, which in many ways Dr. [Theodore W. (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Theodore+OR+Ted+Berger+hippocampus)] Berger (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Theodore+OR+Ted+Berger+hippocampus), [a professor of biomedical engineering at the University of Southern California and the director of the Center for Neural Engineering (http://www.usc.edu/dept/engineering/CNE/)there,] has done.” 46 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren46)
http://www.skewsme.com/implants/brain_pacemaker.jpg (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/latest_news/97057.stm)Electrical devices called deep brain stimulators (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=%22deep+brain%22+stimulation+OR+stimulators+OR+s timulator), essentially a pacemaker for the brain, have been used for some years to ease the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Now, they’ve just been approved for another degenerative brain disease called dystonia.… The brain stimulators don’t cure dystonia but…they can give patients a better quality of life. The beneficial effect has lasted for almost a decade so far in Parkinson’s patients, and it’s expected the dystonia effect will also be long lasting.47 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren47)
Cyberkinetics Inc. (http://www.cyberkineticsinc.com/) of Foxboro, Mass., has received Food and Drug Administration approval [in 2004] to begin a clinical trial in which four-square-millimeter chips will be placed beneath the skulls of paralyzed patients48 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren48) that would enable [them] to control computers directly with their brains or possibly help them move their limbs.… “Testing these implants in humans is the next step,” said Eberhard E. Fetz, professor at the Department of Physiology and Biophysics at the University of Washington, who has been experimenting with brain-signal devices since the late 1960s. “Within a decade, we’ll see these being used regularly to control prosthetic devices or activate a patient’s own muscles.” 49 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren49) At least two other research teams are planning similar brain-machine experiments in people.50 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren50)
For the first time in humans [2004], a team headed by University researchers has placed an electronic grid atop patients’ brains to gather motor signals that enable the patients to play a computer game (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=ecog+game) using only the signals from their brains. The use of a grid atop the brain to record the organ’s surface signals is a brain-machine interface technique that uses electrocorticographic (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=electrocorticography+ecog) (ECoG) activity — data taken invasively directly from the brain surface.… Eric C. Leuthardt, M.D., a WUSTL neurosurgeon at Barnes-Jewish Hospital, and Daniel Moran, Ph.D., assistant professor of biomedical engineering in the School of Engineering & Applied Science, performed their research on four adult epilepsy patients who had the grids implanted so that neurologists could find the area in the brain serving as the focus for an epileptic seizure, with hopes of removing it to avoid future seizures.… “To put this in perspective,” Leuthardt said, “the previous EEG-based x (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#rfn10) systems are equivalent to a 1908 Wright brothers airplane in regards to speed of learning to achieve control. Right now, with our results, we’re flying around in an F-16 jet.” 51 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren51)
Probes implanted in the brain for diagnosis and treatment could be improved with nanoscale carbon fibers. Biomedical engineer Thomas Webster (https://engineering.purdue.edu/BME/People/Biography/Webster) from Purdue University (http://www.purdue.edu/) in West Lafayette, Indiana and colleagues developed a carbon nanofiber-reinforced plastic composite to determine whether it could improve neural and orthopedic prosthetics.
Neural prosthetics, usually made of silicon, can become covered in scar tissue. Orthopedic implants, usually made of titanium or titanium alloys, often become covered in soft tissue.
Knowing that carbon nanofibers and nanotubes (http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_nanotube) have electrical and mechanical properties that might make them suitable for prosthesis, the researchers tested composites of 60-odd nanometer carbon nanofibers in polycarbonate urethane. Polycarbonate urethane is already approved for human use.
They found that neurons cultured on the nanofiber composite developed neurite extensions, which are the first step towards axons and a sign that the materials could encourage interactions essential to neural probes. Additionally, the material had less adhesion to astrocytes, which can impede neural function by producing scar tissue.
For orthopedic applications, the researchers found that bone-forming cells adhered better to composites with a high volume of nanofibers but cells that produce soft fibrous tissue stuck less readily.
The research is reported in the journal Nanotechnology (http://www.iop.org/EJ/journal/0957-4484) (read abstract (http://www.iop.org/EJ/abstract/-search=4937017.1/0957-4484/15/1/009)).52 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren52)
http://www.skewsme.com/implants/implants_b.jpg (http://www.kevinwarwick.org/)[Related to brain implants are implants that are connected to nerves from different parts of the body. Professor Kevin Warwick (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Kevin+Warwick), for example, had implants inserted into his and his wife’s arms allowing two-way communication. The results were published in his book, I, Cyborg (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=%22I+Cyborg%22).]
[Another man, whose arms needed to be amputated,] underwent surgery to graft existing nerve endings from his shoulder onto the pectoral muscle on his chest. Those nerves grew into the muscle after about six months. Electrodes on the graft can now pick up any thought-generated nerve impulses to the now-absent limb and transmit those to [a] mechanical prosthesis, controlling the movements of the [“bionic”] arm.53 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren53)
[The television series Ripley’s Believe it or Not (http://www.sonypictures.com/tv/shows/ripleysbelieveitornot%21/tvindex.html) that aired on 5 June 2004 included a segment about French doctors who implanted a computer chip in a paralyzed man’s abdomin connected to implants in his legs that allowed him to stand and walk with a walker by means of computer control.]
[B]We are Borg.
You will be assimilated.
Resistance is futile.54 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren54)
http://www.skewsme.com/implants/homer_borg_c.jpg (http://www.thesimpsons.com/)
Not everyone is thrilled at the prospect of a post-human future populated by cyborgs, designer children (http://www.skewsme.com/cloning.html), conscious computers,xi (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#rfn11) immortals and disembodied minds roaming the Internet.… [Critics] think this could be the worst calamity to befall us, both as individuals and as a species.xii (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#rfn12) And they argue we should be taking steps to prevent it.55 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren55)
If cyborgs are created with superhuman capabilities from a normal human start point, then it certainly brings about a threat to humanity itself. Perhaps the development of direct, military-style cyborgs might be possible to avoid. After all, when cyborgs exhibiting an intelligence that far surpasses that of humans are brought about, it will surely be the cyborgs themselves that make any decisions about how they treat humans.56 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren56)
[Marvin Minsky, a Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor and pioneer in the field of artificial intelligence,] celebrates a future when humans will be able to “upload” the contents of their brains into computers or robotbrains.… [Ray Kurzweil] recently called for replacing the body’s often imperfect molecular blueprint, DNA, withsoftware.… “Transhumanists want to use technology to enhance and fulfill human potential,” [James Hughes, executive director of the World Transhumanist Association (http://www.transhumanism.org/index.php/WTA/index/) based in Willington, Conn.,] said. “That’s very hard to do if you die after only 70 years.” 57 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren57)
“Humanity’s ability to alter its own brain function might well shape history as powerfully as the development of metallurgy in the Iron Age,” cognitive neuroscientist Martha Farah and eight co-authors write in a[n]…issue (http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/nrn/journal/v5/n5/index.html) ofNature Reviews Neuroscience (http://www.nature.com/nrn/).58 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#ren58)
i (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#fn1) A handful of researchers are plumbing the potential of the bionic eye, including Wheaton, Ill.-based Optobionics Corp. (http://www.optobionics.com/), led by Dr. Alan Chow, a pediatric ophthalmologist whose artificial silicon retinas have slight [sic] improved the vision of the six patients who’ve received them.
— Jim Krane (The Associated Press (http://wire.ap.org/APnews/)) “Bionic Eye Follows Bionic Ear,” Yahoo! News (http://news.yahoo.com/), 27 May 2002.
ii (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#fn2) A small, precise dose of electricity can restore sight to some of the million or so Americans considered legally blind. For the past few months, two patients have made out doctors in white lab coats, among other things, thanks to a complex apparatus…made by Second Sight (http://www.2-sight.com/), a privately held firm in Santa Clarita, Calif. The device includes a tiny antenna inside the eye and a retinal implant with pencil-tip-size electrodes that fire electrical signals directly onto the optic nerves and brain. The resolution is extremely crude because there are only 16 electrodes, not enough to recognize faces. Second Sight and a consortium of research laboratories recently received a $9 million federal grant to find a way to squeeze 1,000 electrodes onto the array to make the picture sharper. Powered by an external battery, a mini video camera screwed into a pair of eyeglasses will wirelessly beam images to the array (pic (http://www.skewsme.com/implants/retinal.jpg)) — all for an estimated cost, including surgery, of $25,000. Scientists concede facial recognition may be five to ten years away. So far, Second Sight has reported no negative side effects in the two patients undergoing clinical trials.
— Aliya Sternstein, “Seeing-Eye Chip (http://forbes.com/forbes/2002/1014/160.html),” Forbes (http://www.forbes.com/), 14 Oct 2002.
iii (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#fn3) A pea-sized miniature telescope inserted into the eye is showing promise in improving vision for people with macular degeneration.… Once the telescope is implanted, the eyes no longer work together because the brain cannot merge the magnified image in one eye with the normal image in the other eye. The one-hour surgery involves removing the eye lens and placing the telescope into the patient’s eye with the poorest vision. The eye telescope is one of the newest developments in a bionic revolution, in which plastic, metal and polymers are used to create artificial muscles, ears and other organs that researchers hope will improve the quality of life. “There’s no question there will be a tremendous number of advances in the future that will include devices, whether electrical or mechanical, which will enhance the function of our organs,” said Steve Goldstein, a University of Michigan Henry Ruppenthal family professor of orthopedic surgery and bioengineering.
— The Associated Press (http://wire.ap.org/APnews/), “Miniature ‘bionic’ eye implant rescues vision (http://www.usatoday.com/tech/news/techinnovations/2003-12-08-bionic-eye_x.htm),” USA Today (http://www.usatoday.com/), 8 Dec 2003.
iv (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#fn4) An implantable chip that can serve as both a prosthetic retina and a drug delivery system has been developed to treat age-related blindness and conditions such as Parkinson’s disease. Created by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine (http://med.stanford.edu/) in California, the chip communicates chemically rather than electrically, using neurotransmitters to stimulate cells.… Because the chip can draw droplets of fluid in as well as out, it could also enable researchers to take samples in real time, giving them a chemical picture of what goes on in living tissues during certain processes.
— Gabe Romain, “‘Wet’ Eye Chip Becomes Reality; Uses chemicals to work as artificial retina and drug delivery system (http://www.betterhumans.com/News/news.aspx?articleID=2004-06-23-1),” BetterHumans (http://www.betterhumans.com/), 23 June 2004.
v (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#fn5) Physicians of the House Ear Clinic (http://www.houseearclinic.com/) have successfully implanted the first two patients with a Penetrating Electrode Auditory Brainstem Implant (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Penetrating+Electrode+Auditory+Brainstem+Implant ) (PABI), a revolutionary prosthetic device that is currently in clinical trials. The PABI is based on cochlear implant technology, but extends the utility to stimulating the hearing portions of the brain to restore some degree of hearing function to people deafened by bilateral tumors on their hearing and balance nerves (vestibular schwannomas). The PABI is a modified version of the existing Auditory Brainstem Implant (ABI) with the addition of an assembly of microelectrodes, designed to penetrate into the auditory portion of the brainstem (cochlear nucleus) and send sound signals to the brain.
— “First Successful Use of Penetrating Microelectrodes in Human Brainstem Restores Some Hearing to Deaf Patient (http://home.businesswire.com/portal/site/google/index.jsp?ndmViewId=news_view&newsId=20040116005065&newsLang=en),” Business Wire (http://www.businesswire.com/), 16 Jan 2004.
vi (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#fn6) Be on guard next time you step into the shower. It might not be a regular cockroach watching you on the ceiling. It could be a well-heeled voyeur’s spy filming you!
— Ron Henderson, trans., “Cockroaches on a secret mission,” Sydsvenska Dagbladet, 18 Jan 1997, athttp://magazine.magnus.se/artikele.asp?artikel=kackerla.
vii (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#fn7) The idea that advance in neurotechnology will one day allow us to video our whole lives from somewhere inside our brains throws up all kinds of issues about privacy, about the world being a stage, about how we edit and censor our own memories and about how one day someone else may do this job for us.
— Lee Marshall, Screen review “The Final Cut,” at http://www.screendaily.com/story.asp?storyid=16330&r=true.
viii (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#fn8) Sleep induced by electrical stimulation of the brain is similar to spontaneous sleep.
— José M. R. Delgado, M.D., Physical Control of the Mind: Toward a Psychocivilized Society (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Delgado+Physical+Control+of+the+Mind) (New York: Harper & Row, 1969), p. 158.
ix (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#fn9) In 1950 the Agency [CIA] tooled up for a battery of mind control experiments on human guinea pigs, underwritten by a network of scientific foundations and academic fronts. Neuropsychiatrists at Tulane, McGill, Yale, UCLA and Harvard, some of them laboring beside Nazi imports, researched the use of brain implants to control behavior.… A monograph written in the 1960s by Dr. Jose Delgado, a Yale psychiatrist hailing from Franco’s Spain, detailed his experiments on an 11-year-old boy with electrodes implanted in his brain. Dr. Delgado stimulated his young subject’s synapses with a radio transmitter at a range of 100 feet. The boy was immediately stripped of his sexual identity, reporting that he wasn’t sure if he was a boy or a girl.
— Alex Constantine, “Journal Preview; 12/95: The Constantine Report,” athttp://www.mindcontrolforums.com/cnst-nws.htm.
x (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#fn10) [Operant conditioning (http://www.skewsme.com/behavior.html) is used in the science of electroencephalograph (EEG)-based cursor control brain-computer interface (BCI (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=%22brain+computer%22+interface+OR+interfaces)) technologies. By successive training of mu (and beta) brainwaves, a cursor can be moved on a computer screen just by thinking about it (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?CMD=search&term=eeg,cursor&db=PubMed&tool=MedlinePlu).]
xi (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#fn11) According to Moore’s Law, computer power doubles every 18 months, meaning that computers will be a million times more powerful by 2034. According to Nielsen’s Law of Internet bandwidth, connectivity to the home grows by 50 percent per year; by 2034, we’ll have 200,000 times more bandwidth. That same year, I’ll own a computer that runs at 3PHz CPU speed, has a petabyte (a thousand terabytes) of memory, half an exabyte (a billion gigabytes) of hard disk-equivalent storage and connects to the Internet with a bandwidth of a quarter terabit (a trillion binary digits) per second. The specifics may vary: Instead of following current Moore’s Law trajectories to speed up a single CPU, it’s likely that we’ll see multiprocessors, smart dust and other ways of getting the equivalent power through a more advanced computer architecture.… By 2034, we’ll finally get decent computer displays, with a resolution of about 20,000 pixels by 10,000 pixels (as opposed to the miserly 2048 pixels by 1536 pixels on my current monitor). Although welcomed, my predicted improvement factor of 200 here is relatively small; history shows that display technology has the most dismal improvement curve of any computer technology, except possibly batteries.
— Jakob Nielsen, “Thirty years with computers (http://news.com.com/2010-1001_3-5221124.html?tag=prntfr),” News.com (http://news.com.com/), 27 May 2004.
xii (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#fn12) [Ethicist Joel Anderson at Washington University in St Louis, Missouri,] points out that it will take time for people to accept the technology. “Initially people thought heart transplants were an abomination because they assumed that having the heart you were born with was an important part of who you are.”
— “World’s first brain prosthesis revealed (http://www.newscientist.com/news/news.jsp?id=ns99993488),” NewScientist.com (http://www.newscientist.com/), 12 March 2003.

1 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en1) Declan McCullagh, “Kurzweil: Rooting for the Machine (http://www.wired.com/news/technology/0,1282,39967,00.html),” Wired News (http://www.wired.com/news/), 3 Nov 2000.
2 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en2) José M. R. Delgado, M.D., Physical Control of the Mind: Toward a Psychocivilized Society (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Delgado+Physical+Control+of+the+Mind) (New York: Harper & Row, 1969), p. 201.
3 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en3) Cochlear Hearing Implants, “New to Cochlear? Start Here,” athttp://www.cochlearamericas.com/NewToCochlear/new_to_cochlear_index.asp.
4 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en4) Neil Gross, “Into the wild frontier,” Business Week (http://www.businessweek.com/), 23 June 1997, p. 74.
5 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en5) E. J. Mundell (Reuters Health (http://www.reuters.com/news.jhtml?type=health)), “Monkey Moves Computer Cursor by Thoughts Alone,” Yahoo! News (http://news.yahoo.com/), 30 Jan 2002.
6 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en6) Peter Passaro, “Is it Possible to Download Knowledge into the Brain? Mind-machine interfaces will be available in the near future, and several methods hold promise for implanting information (http://www.betterhumans.com/Features/Ask_an_Expert/answer.aspx?articleID=2004-01-16-2),” Better Humans (http://www.betterhumans.com/), 16 Jan 2004.
7 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en7) Amanda Onion, “Rat Robots: Scientists Develop Remote-Controlled Rats (http://abcnews.go.com/sections/scitech/DailyNews/rats020501.html),” ABCNEWS.com (http://www.abcnews.go.com/), 2 May 2002.
8 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en8) “Rats Operate Robotic Arm Via Brain Activity (http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1999/06/990623063013.htm),” Science Daily (http://www.sciencedaily.com/), 23 June 1999.
9 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en9) “Monkey brain operates machine (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/sci/tech/1025471.stm),” BBC (http://news.bbc.co.uk/), 15 Nov 2000.
10 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en10) Rick Weiss, “Monkeys Control Robotic Arm With Brain Implants (http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn?pagename=article&node=&contentId=A17434-2003Oct12),” washingtonpost.com (http://www.washingtonpost.com/), 13 Oct 2003.
11 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en11) Mundell, “Monkey Moves Computer Cursor.”
12 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en12) Anne Eisenberg, “Don’t Point, Just Think: The Brain Wave as Joystick (http://query.nytimes.com/search/abstract?res=F30B16F93B5F0C7B8EDDAA0894DA404482),” The New York Times (http://www.nytimes.com/), 28 March 2002.
13 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en13) Paul Eng, “Moving Thoughts: Scientists Study Brain Implants to Control PCs, Artificial Limbs (http://more.abcnews.go.com/sections/scitech/DailyNews/mindcontrol020313.html),” ABCNEWS.com (http://www.abcnews.go.com/), 13 March 2002.
14 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en14) “Communicating with ‘thought power’ (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/sci/tech/193946.stm),” BBC (http://news.bbc.co.uk/), 15 Oct 1998.
15 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en15) Jane Wakefield, “BodyTechnic: New funding for brain implants (http://news.zdnet.co.uk/story/0,,s2070115,00.html),” ZDNet UK News (http://news.zdnet.co.uk/), 3 Dec 1998.
16 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en16) Eng, “Moving Thoughts.”
17 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en17) Onion, “Rat Robots.”
18 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en18) “Fish-brained robot at Science Museum (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/sci/tech/1043001.stm),” BBC (http://news.bbc.co.uk/), 27 Nov 2000.
19 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en19) “Peepers creepers; Research at the University of Tokyo is investigating ways in which cockroaches with the mini-cameras can be used to locate vermin or perhaps even survivors of earthquakes,” Time (http://www.time.com/time/), 27 Jan 1997, 149(4), p. 17.
20 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en20) Raymond Kurzweil, “Accelerated Living (http://www.kurzweilai.net/articles/art0294.html?printable=1),” KurzweilAI.net (http://www.kurzweilai.net/), 24 Sep 2001; See also Ray Kurzweil, “Accelerated Living (http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,4149,32901,00.asp),” PC Magazine (http://www.pcmag.com/), 4 Sep 2001.
21 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en21) Reuters (http://www.reuters.com/), “Remote-Controlled Rats May Hunt Bombs and Bodies,” Yahoo! News (http://news.yahoo.com/), 2 May 2002.
22 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en22) Tom Clarke, “Here come the Ratbots; Desire drives remote-controlled rodents,” Nature (http://www.nature.com/), 2 May 2002.
23 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en23) James Meek, “Live rats driven by remote control (http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,3604,708454,00.html),” The Guardian (http://www.guardian.co.uk/), 2 May 2002.
24 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en24) Dr David Whitehouse, “Looking through cats’ eyes (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/471786.stm),” BBC News (http://news.bbc.co.uk/), 11 Oct 1999; See also Garrett B. Stanley, Fei F. Li, and Yang Dan, “Reconstruction of Natural Scenes from Ensemble Responses in the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (http://www.jneurosci.org/cgi/content/full/19/18/8036),” The Journal of Neuroscience (http://www.jneurosci.org/), 15 Sep 1999, 19(18):8036-8042.
25 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en25) Jim Keith, Mass Control: Engineering Human Consciousness (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=%22Jim+Keith%22+%22Mass+Control%22) (Lilburn, GA: IllumiNet Press, 1999), p. 94.
26 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en26) Jim Keith, Mind Control, World Control (http://www.amazon.com/gp/redirect.html?ie=UTF8&location=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.amazon.com%2FMind-Control-World-Jim-Keith%2Fdp%2F0932813453%3Fie%3DUTF8%26s%3Dbooks%26 qid%3D1210982634%26sr%3D8-1&tag=skewsmecollec-20&linkCode=ur2&camp=1789&creative=9325)http://www.assoc-amazon.com/e/ir?t=skewsmecollec-20&l=ur2&o=1 (Kempton, IL: Adventures Unlimited Press, 1998), p. 127.
27 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en27) Keith, Mass Control, pp. 94-95.
28 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en28) Vance Packard, The People Shapers (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Packard+%22People+Shapers%22) (Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1977), p. 45.
29 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en29) “Brain, Mind, and Altered States of Consciousness (http://www.hermes-press.com/altstates.htm),” New Enlightenment (http://www.hermes-press.com/).
30 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en30) Professor Kevin Warwick, I, Cyborg (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Warwick+%22I%2C+Cyborg%22) (London: Century, 2002), p. 110.
31 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en31) Keith, Mind Control, p. 127.
32 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en32) Keith, Mass Control, p. 97.
33 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en33) Alvin Toffler, Future Shock (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Toffler+%22Future+Shock%22) (Toronto: Bantam Books, 1988, 1970), p. 194.
34 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en34) John A. Osmundsen, “‘Matador’ With a Radio Stops Wired Bull,” The New York Times (http://www.nytimes.com/), 17 May 1965, CXIV(39,195), p. 20.
35 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en35) Jose Delgado, cited in Keith, Mind Control, p. 128.
36 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en36) Ibidem, pp. 129-130.
37 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en37) Ibidem, p. 130.
38 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en38) Keith, Mass Control, p. 99.
39 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en39) Ibidem, p. 100.
40 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en40) Ibidem, p. 101.
41 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en41) Warwick, I, Cyborg, p. 112.
42 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en42) Packard, People Shapers, p. 4.
43 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en43) Keith, Mass Control, p. 101.
44 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en44) Keith, Mind Control, p. 138.
45 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en45) Ibidem, p. 302.
46 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en46) Anne Eisenberg, “What’s Next; A Chip That Mimics Neurons, Firing Up the Memory (http://query.nytimes.com/search/abstract?res=F60C12F83C5B0C738EDDAF0894DA404482),” The New York Times (http://www.nytimes.com/), 20 June 2002; See also USC Engineering News at http://www.usc.edu/dept/engineering/bergerNYT.
47 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en47) “Brain ‘Pacemaker’ Helps Alleviate Symptoms Of Dystonia; Disease Makes Patients Stiffen Up So Much They Lose Mobility (http://www.wnbc.com/drmaxgomez/2347998/detail.html),” wnbc.com (http://www.wnbc.com/), 21 July 2003.
48 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en48) Justin Pope (The Associated Press (http://wire.ap.org/APnews/)), “FDA Approves Human Brain Implant Devices,” Yahoo! News (http://news.yahoo.com/), 14 April 2004.
49 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en49) Jeffrey Krasner, “Approval sought to test brain implant; Neuron-fired device would aid paralyzed people, state firm says (http://www.boston.com/business/technology/biotechnology/articles/2003/11/06/approval_sought_to_test_brain_implant/),” boston.com (http://www.boston.com/), 6 Nov 2003.
50 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en50) Ronald Kotulak, “I, CYBORG (http://www.chicagotribune.com/technology/chi-0408010477aug01,1,4220509.story?coll=chi-technology-hed),” Chicago Tribune (http://www.chicagotribune.com/), 1 Aug 2004.
51 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en51) Tony Fitzpatrick, “Thought control: Human subjects play real mind games (http://record.wustl.edu/news/page/normal/2280.html),” Record (http://record.wustl.edu/), 25 June 2004.
52 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en52) “Nanoscale Fibers Could Improve Neural Implants (http://www.betterhumans.com/News/news.aspx?articleID=2003-12-11-1),” BetterHumans (http://www.betterhumans.com/), 11 Dec 2003.
53 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en53) “Brain waves drive man’s bionic arm (http://edition.cnn.com/2003/HEALTH/09/25/bionic.arm/),” CNN.com (http://www.cnn.com/), 25 Sep 2003.
54 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en54) Star Trek (http://www.startrek.com/), television series.
55 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en55) Margie Wylie (Religion News Service (http://www.religionnews.com/)), “Transhumanists put their faith in technology (http://www.chicagotribune.com/technology/chi-0405280142may28,1,5924459.story?coll=chi-technology-hed),” Chicago Tribune (http://www.chicagotribune.com/), 28 May 2004.
56 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en56) Warwick, I, Cyborg, p. 239.
57 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en57) Wylie, “Transhumanists.”
58 (http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html#en58) Tom Siegfried, “Creating brain boosters demands smart approach (http://www.dallasnews.com/sharedcontent/dws/news/healthscience/columnists/tsiegfried/stories/060704dnlivsiegfried.13d92.html),” DallasNews.com (http://www.dallasnews.com/), 6 June 2004.

Peter Lemkin
11-26-2010, 08:47 AM
Its a Brave New World and technology and science, while they have brought and can bring great progress, have and can bring horrors beyond all imagining....... I guess they'll soon have brain-wired computer-controlled cyber-robo-borg-soldiers and police. :nurse: :shot:

I think the politicians long have been so wired up....at least they act that way....no free will and under external control.

David Guyatt
11-26-2010, 09:20 AM
It's all a Dr. Strangelove wet dream - complete control over the human population.

In July 1996, information was released on research currently taking place into creation of a computer chip called the “Soul Catcher 2025.” Dr. Chris Winter and a team of scientists at British Telecom’s Martlesham Heath Laboratories, near Ipswich, are developing a chip that, when placed into the skull behind the eye, will record all visual and physical sensations, as well as thoughts. According to Winter, “This is the end of death… By combining this information with a record of the person’s genes, we could recreate a person physically, emotionally, and spiritually.”

The end of death.


I seriously doubt it, but it could be the beginning of living hell.

Jan Klimkowski
11-26-2010, 07:22 PM
Other early researchers into direct brain stimulation were Robert G. Heath…and his associate, Dr. Russell Monroe. Beginning in 1950, with funding from the CIA and the military, among other sources, they implanted as many as 125 electrodes into subjects’ brains, and also experimented by injecting a wide variety of drugs directly into the brain tissue through small tubes; these drugs included LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline. One of Heath’s memorable suggestions was that lobotomy should be used on subjects, not as a therapeutic measure, but for the convenience of the staff

Robert G Heath is one of the least known of the "MK-ULTRA" maniacs. However, he was arguably guilty of worse crimes that the better known Ewen Cameron.

There are (very typical) allegations about Heath here:

Heath's successors included "Drs" Ervin and Marks who, together with Jolly West, attempted to convert a disused missile base into a location for eradicating "violent tendencies" in primarily black prisoners using methods which can perhaps be best described as lobotomization of the limbic system.

I'm reminded of the lobotomy scenes in the original 1968 Planet of the Apes movie (although allegorical interpretations of the entire movie are highly problematic).

The covert and disreputable origins of much brain implant are of considerable concern. What we are seeing in the OP is probably the visible tip of a mass of deep classified science.

Ed Jewett
11-27-2010, 12:14 AM
"attempted to convert a disused missile base" ...

Where, pray tell? The answer may confirm another long-standing local conundrum.

Austin Kelley
11-27-2010, 01:37 AM
The missile base in which Jolly West hoped to house his violence center was north of Los Angeles, in Southern California.

There was another empty missile base in Kansas which was used to house the operations of perhaps the worlds biggest LSD lab, a lab which enjoyed connections to the JFK School of Government at Harvard, an assistant Secretary of State with strong ties to regions of intense conflict, Afghan "warlords" and the San Francisco District Attorney, amongst others.

The story of the chemist Pickard and his amazing acid labs is however what we might call "another story"...

Ed Jewett
11-27-2010, 02:23 AM
The missile base in which Jolly West hoped to house his violence center was north of Los Angeles, in Southern California.

There was another empty missile base in Kansas which was used to house the operations of perhaps the worlds biggest LSD lab, a lab which enjoyed connections to the JFK School of Government at Harvard, an assistant Secretary of State with strong ties to regions of intense conflict, Afghan "warlords" and the San Francisco District Attorney, amongst others.

The story of the chemist Pickard and his amazing acid labs is however what we might call "another story"...

Thanks, Austin. Not the one I was thinking of.

Years ago, I followed an odd little blog that popped up about "The Indian Lake Project" [see http://indianlakeproject.blogspot.com/ and go back chronologically into the archives to start at the beginning], which had been a topic for discussion at several sites. It was thought by some to be a hoax or part of a viral marketing game. See, for example, http://www.davidicke.com/forum/showthread.php?p=634983 , one of many such discussion boards. It might well be; if so, it's well done. I'd guess only the really deep students of this topic would or could determine ....

Austin Kelley
11-27-2010, 02:28 AM
I'm not sure that I'm a really deep student of the topic or not, but I always saw the Indian Lake story as unsubstantiated, and even though it dangled intriguing leads, most likely to be an elaborate hoax...

Jan Klimkowski
11-27-2010, 10:06 AM
PSYCHOSURGERY is an apt and resonant phrase.

Here's the text of the SDS flyer protesting Dr West and Governor Reagan's lobotomization base:

Flyer from Bruin Walk dated July 17, 1973

Stop Psychosurgery and the UCLA Violence Center
Demonstrate Thurs., July 19th , Noon, Murphy Hall

Despite protest across the state, the Center for the Study and Reduction of Violence officially became part of the UC System on July 1st. The Center is now functioning at the UCLA Neuropsychiatric Institute (NPI).

The Violence Center has been established to develop ways of suppressing violent behavior, including ghetto rebellions and “hyperactivity” in children. Chemical and physical methods of control will be tested on prisoners in penal facilities throughout the State, including Vacaville and Camarille. The basic assumptions of the research are racist. They include considering fighting back against rotten conditions a disease, and naming the correlates of violent behavior as being, "young, male, urbanized, and BLACK."

One of the projects for Center research is called "Violence Prediction and Brain Waves." The description of this project states that the SURGICAL REMOVAL OF PARTS OF THE BRAIN has been somewhat successful in controlling violent behavior in epileptics. (The violence and the epilepsy are not necessarily related.) It can hardly be a coincidence that the NPI has recently hired Dr. Frank Ervin, co-author of Violence and the Brain which deals with exactly the same topic as this project. Dr. Erwin is the foremost psychiatric advocate of "psychosurgery," or surgery on the brain to modify behavior.

Another project will involve applying behavior modifying techniques used on "marginally retarded and emotionally disturbed children" at the UCLA NPI to "violent young offenders" at Camp Kilpatrick. Experiments on these children can be done without parental consent, because all of them are made wards of the Court before they are put in the camp.

The campaign against the Violence Center is accelerating. It has already resulted in the California Commission on Criminal Justice (CCCJ) and the State Senate Committee on Health and Welfare refusing to fund the Center due to its controversial nature.

Join the campaign and help us shut this racist Center down!
For more information call Kathy, ***-3246 or Leene, ***-7571.
Coalition Against Psychosurgery and Human Experimentation

Here's some context and background.

The Facilitators and Mechanics are a noteworthy bunch.

The Sponsors can be guessed.

One of the fascinating aspects of the scandals that plague the U.S. Government is the fact that so often the same names appear from scandal to scandal. From the origins of Ronald Reagan's political career, as Governor of California, Dr. Earl Brian and Edward Meese played key advisory roles.

Dr. Brian's name has been linked to the October Surprise and is a central figure in the government's theft of PROMIS soft ware from INSLAW. Brian's role touches from the Cabazon Indian scandals to United Press International. He is one of those low-profile key figures.

And, alas, his name appears again in the nation's behavior modification and mind control experiments. Dr. Brian was Reagan's Secretary of Health when Reagan was Governor. Dr. Brian was an advocate of state subsidies for a research center for the study of violent behavior. The center was to begin operations by mid-1975, and its research was intended to shed light on why people murder or rape, or hijack aircraft. The center was to be operated by the University of California at Los Angeles, and its primary purpose, ac cording to Dr. Brian, was to unify scattered studies on anti-social violence and possibly even touch on socially tolerated violence, such as football or war. Dr. Brian sought $1.3 million for the center.

It certainly was possible that prison inmates might be used as volunteer subjects at the center to discover the unknowns which triggered their violent behavior. Dr. Brian's quest for the center came at the same time Governor Reagan concluded his plans to phase the state of California out of the mental hospital business by 1982. Reagan's plan is echoed by Governor Pete Wilson today, to place the responsibility of rehabilitating young offenders squarely on the shoulders of local communities.

But as the proposal became known more publicly, a swell of controversy surrounded it. It ended in a fiasco. The inspiration for the violence center came from three doctors in 1967, five years before Dr. Brian and Governor Reagan unveiled their plans. Amidst urban rioting and civil protest, Doctors Sweet, Mark and Erin of Harvard put forward the thesis that individuals who engage in civil disobedience possess defective or damaged brain cells. If this conclusion were applied to the American Revolution or the Women's Rights Movement, a good portion of American society would be labeled as having brain damage.

In a letter to the Journal of the American Medical Association, they stated: "That poverty, unemployment, slum housing, and inadequate education underlie the nation's urban riots is well known, but the obviousness of these causes may have blinded us to the more subtle role of other possible factors, including brain dysfunction in the rioters who engaged in arson, sniping and physical assault.

"There is evidence from several sources that brain dysfunction related to a focal lesion plays a significant role in the violent and assaultive behavior of thoroughly studied patients. Individuals with electroencephalographic abnormalities in the temporal region have been found to have a much greater frequency of behavioral abnormalities (such as poor impulse control, assaultiveness, and psychosis) than is present in people with a normal brain wave pattern."

Soon after the publication in the Journal, Dr. Ervin and Dr. Mark published their book Violence and the Brain, which included the claim that there were as many as 10 million individuals in the United States "who suffer from obvious brain disease". They argued that the data of their book provided a strong reason for starting a program of mass screening of Americans.

"Our greatest danger no longer comes from famine or communicable disease. Our greatest danger lies in ourselves and in our fellow humans...we need to develop an 'early warning test' of limbic brain function to detect those humans who have a low threshold for impulsive violence...Violence is a public health problem, and the major thrust of any program dealing with violence must be toward its prevention," they wrote.

The Law Enforcement Assistance Administration funded the doctors $108,000 and the National Institute of Mental Health kicked in another $500,000, under pressure from Congress. They believed that psychosurgery would inevitably be performed in connection with the program, and that, since it irreversibly impaired people's emotional and intellectual capacities, it could be used as an instrument of repression and social control.

The doctors wanted screening centers established throughout the nation. In California, the publicity associated with the doctors' report, aided in the development of The Center for the study and Reduction of Violence. Both the state and LEAA provided the funding. The center was to serve as a model for future facilities to be set up throughout the United States.

The Director of the Neuropsychiatric Institute and chairman of the Department of Psychiatry at UCLA, Dr. Louis Jolyon West was selected to run the center. Dr. West is alleged to have been a contract agent for the CIA, who, as part of a network of doctors and scientists, gathered intelligence on hallucinogenic drugs, including LSD, for the super-secret MK-ULTRA program. Like Captain White (see part three of the series), West conducted LSD experiments for the CIA on unwitting citizens in the safehouses of San Francisco. He achieved notoriety for his injection of a massive dose of LSD into an elephant at the Oklahoma Zoo, the elephant died when West tried to revive it by administering a combination of drugs.

Dr. West was further known as the psychiatrist who was called upon to examine Jack Ruby, Lee Harvey Oswald's assassin. It was on the basis of West's diagnosis that Ruby was compelled to be treated for mental disorders and put on happy pills. The West examination was ordered after Ruby began to say that he was part of a right-wing conspiracy to kill President John Kennedy. Two years after the commencement of treatment for mental disorder, Ruby died of cancer in prison.

After January 11, 1973, when Governor Reagan announced plans for the Violence Center, West wrote a letter to the then Director of Health for California, J. M. Stubblebine.

"Dear Stub:

"I am in possession of confidential information that the Army is prepared to turn over Nike missile bases to state and local agencies for non-military purposes. They may look with special favor on health-related applications.

"Such a Nike missile base is located in the Santa Monica Mountains, within a half-hour's drive of the Neuropsychiatric Institute. It is accessible, but relatively remote. The site is securely fenced, and includes various buildings and improvements, making it suitable for prompt occupancy.

"If this site were made available to the Neuropsychiatric Institute as a research facility, perhaps initially as an adjunct to the new Center for the Prevention of Violence, we could put it to very good use. Comparative studies could be carried out there, in an isolated but convenient location, of experimental or model programs for the alteration of undesirable behavior.

"Such programs might include control of drug or alcohol abuse, modification of chronic anti-social or impulsive aggressiveness, etc. The site could also accommodate conferences or retreats for instruction of selected groups of mental-health related professionals and of others (e.g., law enforcement personnel, parole officers, special educators) for whom both demonstration and participation would be effective modes of instruction.

"My understanding is that a direct request by the Governor, or other appropriate officers of the State, to the Secretary of Defense (or, of course, the President), could be most likely to produce prompt results."

Some of the planned areas of study for the Center included:
Studies of violent individuals.
Experiments on prisoners from Vacaville and Atascadero, and hyperkinetic children.
Experiments with violence-producing and violent inhibiting drugs.
Hormonal aspects of passivity and aggressiveness in boys.
Studies to discover and compare norms of violence among various ethnic groups.
Studies of pre-delinquent children.

It would also encourage law enforcement to keep computer files on pre-delinquent children, which would make possible the treatment of children before they became delinquents.

The purpose of the Violence Center was not just research. The staff was to include sociologists, lawyers, police officers, clergymen and probation officers. With the backing of Governor Reagan and Dr. Brian, West had secured guarantees of prisoner volunteers from several California correctional institutions, including Vacaville.

Vacaville and Atascadero were chosen as the primary sources for the human guinea pigs. These institutions had established a reputation, by that time, of committing some of the worst atrocities in West Coast history. Some of the experimentations differed little from what the Nazis did in the death camps.


Ed Jewett
11-28-2010, 02:28 AM
Thank you, all. :adore:

The links back to Brian, and Reagan, will also be of interest to Ed Encho and others following up on "The Last Circle".

Peter Lemkin
11-30-2010, 12:38 PM
CIA Implanted Electrodes in Brains of Unsuspecting Soldiers, Suit Alleges
29th November 2010

” … Papers filed in the case describe ‘electrical devices implanted in brain tissue with electrodes in various regions, including the hippocampus, the hypothalamus, the frontal lobe (via the septum), the cortex and various other places. A lot of this work was done out of Tulane University using a local state hospital and funding from a cut-out (front) organization called the Commonwealth Fund.’ …”

By David Edwards
The Raw Story | November 29, 2010

A group of military veterans are suing to get the CIA to come clean about allegedly implanting remote control devices in their brains.

It’s well known that the CIA began testing substances like LSD on soldiers beginning in the 1950s but less is known about allegations that the agency implanted electrodes in subjects.

A 2009 lawsuit (.pdf) claimed that the CIA intended to design and test septal electrodes that would enable them to control human behavior. The lawsuit said that because the government never disclosed the risks, the subjects were not able to give informed consent.

Bruce Price, one plaintiff in the lawsuit, believes that MRI scans confirm that the CIA placed a device in his brain in 1966.

At one point, Bruce was ordered to visit a building with a chain link fence that housed test animals, including dogs, cats, guinea pigs and monkeys. After reporting, Bruce was strapped across his chest, his wrists, and his ankles to a gurney. Bruce occasionally would regain consciousness for brief moments. On one such instance, he remembers being covered with a great deal of blood, and assumed it was his own, but did not really know the source. Also portions of his arms and the backs of his hand were blue. His wrist and ankles were bruised and sore at the points where he had been strapped to the gurney. Bruce believes that this is the time period during which a septal implant was placed in his brain.

DEFENDANTS placed some sort of an implant in Bruce’s right ethmoid sinus near the frontal lobe of his brain. The implant appears on CT scans as a “foreign body” of undetermined composition (perhaps plastic or some composite material) in Bruce’s right ethmoid, as confirmed in a radiology report dated June 30, 2004.

According to a 1979 book by former State Department intelligence officer John Marks, The CIA and the Search for the Manchurian Candidate, an internal 1961 memo by a top agency scientist reported that “the feasibility of remote control of activities in several species of animals has been demonstrated… Special investigations and evaluations will be conducted toward the application of selected elements of these techniques to man.” …

In mid-November, U.S. Magistrate Judge James Larson ruled that the CIA must produce records and testimony regarding the experiments conducted on thousands of soldiers from 1950 through 1975.

“The CIA has already claimed that some documents are protected under the state-secrets privilege, but Larson said the agency needs to be more specific,” Courthouse News Service reported.

The CIA insisted discovery was unwarranted in its case, because it never funded or conducted drug research on military personnel.

Larson wasn’t convinced.

“[T]his court rejects the conclusion that the CIA necessarily lacks a nexus to Plaintiffs’ claims, and orders the CIA to respond in earnest” to the veterans’ requests, “particularly because defendants have presented evidence that would appear to cast doubt on that conclusion,” he wrote.

But Larson ruled that the CIA did not have to produce records about devices implanted in some of the subjects.

Gordon P. Erspamer, lead attorney for the veterans, told The Washington Post that he is still pursuing the CIA for implanting devices in his clients’ brains.

“There is no question that these experiments were done but defendants say that they used private researchers and test subjects drawn from prisons, hospitals and nursing homes as subjects, not active duty military [personnel],” Erspamer said. “CIA said it had no one knowledgeable on this topic.”

Erspamer noted that papers filed in the case describe “electrical devices implanted in brain tissue with electrodes in various regions, including the hippocampus, the hypothalamus, the frontal lobe (via the septum), the cortex and various other places.”

“A lot of this work was done out of Tulane University using a local state hospital and funding from a cut-out (front) organization called the Commonwealth Fund,” he said.

“We tried to get docs from Tulane, but they told us that they were destroyed in the hurricane flooding.”


Jan Klimkowski
11-30-2010, 05:16 PM
Time to join the dots....

From the article posted by Peter Lemkin:

Gordon P. Erspamer, lead attorney for the veterans, told The Washington Post that he is still pursuing the CIA for implanting devices in his clients’ brains.

“There is no question that these experiments were done but defendants say that they used private researchers and test subjects drawn from prisons, hospitals and nursing homes as subjects, not active duty military [personnel],” Erspamer said. “CIA said it had no one knowledgeable on this topic.”

Erspamer noted that papers filed in the case describe “electrical devices implanted in brain tissue with electrodes in various regions, including the hippocampus, the hypothalamus, the frontal lobe (via the septum), the cortex and various other places.”

“A lot of this work was done out of Tulane University using a local state hospital and funding from a cut-out (front) organization called the Commonwealth Fund,” he said.

“We tried to get docs from Tulane, but they told us that they were destroyed in the hurricane flooding.”

From my post in the Jonestown thread here:

It is also my considered judgement that this increased oversight led to the deliberate use, by intelligence agencies in particular, of three population groups in covert human experimentation: prisoners, orphans and cult members.

NB Soldiers have always been used as human guinea pigs.

i) Prisoners have always been considered expendable, with little access to "respectable news outlets" and unlikely to be believed anyway.

ii) Orphans have noone in loco parentis to protect them. Or rather they are unfortunate enough to have The Man in loco parentis.

iii) Ultimately though, cults were the perfect plausibly deniable solution for major covert human experimentation. The Symbionese Liberation Army were led by convict Donald DeFreeze, who received his Phoenix Program treatment at Vacaville. The People's Temple were given custody of orphans, and recruited ex-prisoners and poor blacks.

The piece posted by Peter states that Tulane was crucial. Brain implant and MK-ULTRA doctor Robert G Heath was Head of Neuropsychiatry at Tulane University.

Other early researchers into direct brain stimulation were Robert G. Heath…and his associate, Dr. Russell Monroe. Beginning in 1950, with funding from the CIA and the military, among other sources, they implanted as many as 125 electrodes into subjects’ brains, and also experimented by injecting a wide variety of drugs directly into the brain tissue through small tubes; these drugs included LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline. One of Heath’s memorable suggestions was that lobotomy should be used on subjects, not as a therapeutic measure, but for the convenience of the staff

Robert G Heath is one of the least known of the "MK-ULTRA" maniacs. However, he was arguably guilty of worse crimes that the better known Ewen Cameron.

There are (very typical) allegations about Heath here:

I spoke on several occasions with Claudia Mullen. Her interview with Wayne Morris below is consistent with what she told me.

Wayne Morris:

You mentioned Dr. Ewen Cameron was specifically involved in the electroshock. You do have a sense of how long of a period he was involved with your experimentation?

Claudia Mullen:

They called a lot of them in as "consultants". Dr. Heath or Dr. Green would say, "let's call Cameron in ... to test her." Next thing I knew, I would be called back to Tulane and here was the "Camera Man", Cameron. He came in around 1960 when I was about 9 or 10. He was there a lot at first, testing how much electricity was too much, they didn't want to fry my brain or anything because they needed me to seem fairly intelligent because I had to associate with people. I had to go back to school, so they had to be very careful when they used stuff on me, they couldn't disfigure me. I guess I was lucky in that sense, that I was in a private girls' school, I was from a wealthy family and they had to send me back home. My family wasn't involved in this per se. My mom knew they were using me, but she didn't know what exactly - so they had to send me back in fairly good condition. So that made me one of the lucky ones. For the ones from homeless families, or poor families - they didn't care what condition they sent them back in, or even if they sent the child back at all. They would use things on them that would disfigure them, but it didn't matter. In my case, I was fortunate.

Another thing was that Dr. Heath wanted to implant something in my brain and Mr. Fenner wouldn't let him. He said how am I going to explain this to her mother? We can't send her home with her head shaved, so I got out of having implants in my brain because of that.

But you asked me about Cameron. I knew him from about 1959 or 1960 and then when I was in high school one day, just out of the blue, someone said, "he fell off a mountain" - somebody named "Cleghorn" was coming to get me to do the electric shock. I was told years later, that yeah, he was mountain-climbing or skiing and fell off a mountain and died, so that was true.

Wayne Morris:

Did you have a sense of who this Cleghorn person was?

Claudia Mullen:

He worked with Cameron very closely. I guess he was from the same place. He liked to use electricity, only he thought Cameron didn't use enough. He believed in using a lot more. He didn't try to get along with you, or act friendly in any way. He was very cold. Whereas Cameron could talk to you or attempt to be friendly. Some of them were like that. They would introduce themselves, ask questions. Others just did what they had to do and got out of there and never said a word.

Wayne Morris:

So how many years did you come in contact with Dr. Cameron, from 1959-60 until when ...

Claudia Mullen:

I think until I was about 16 or 16 1/2, so that would be 1966 or 1967 and I was told he had fallen off a mountain. I know I was in high school, the latter part of high school. Around 1966 or 1967. The thing I was telling you about - the messages he would give me - he would tape record and then they would play at night? They called it something called "psychic driving". That's what the messages were called.

Wayne Morris:

And Martin Orne? What was his involvement?

Claudia Mullen:

Oh boy. He was one of the scariest people. He was with Dr. Brown, my monitor, at the NIH in the 1950's and they were good friends. He said he was an expert in lie detection and that he could always tell when someone was lying, that he had invented the lie detector or something ... He is a very arrogant person and thinks a lot of himself so he could have told me a lot of lies about what he could do and what he couldn't do. There wasn't anything he couldn't do ... supposedly. He could tell whenever you were lying. He hated everyone. He didn't get along with anyone. He called me "the little bitch" - that was his nickname for me. He wouldn't even call me by name. He mainly did hypnosis type stuff, he was always there for the shock treatments, if nothing else, just to watch ... When they asked me questions, he would be the one to tell them whether I was lying or not. He would have me hooked up to a couple of machines, he would have electrodes on my head and he said he could read the machines and tell whether I was lying or not. I guess it was like a lie detector, I don't know. He's still alive.

Claudia Mullen:

He's still alive in Philadelphia. I called him, he was one of the people i called, cause I remembered him, before i started getting all these memories back. I remembered Robert Heath, of course Dr. Brown, and i remembered this Martin Orne.

Wayne Morris:

So, at what point did you phone him back?

Claudia Mullen:

I phoned him ... after ... the rape happened in October of 1992. That next spring. I started getting weird nightmares and flashbacks. I remembered Martin Orne.

Wayne Morris:

You remembered him as one of your so-called "good" doctors.

Claudia Mullen:

Right. I had his home number. So I called him and he said had I called Dr. Heath. I said "yeah, but he wants me to come back for more electric shock treatments." So Orne said, "that's what you need to do then." I said, why did you do these things to me? I remember you. You were so mean." He said he never did anything to hurt me, that he was just there as a consultant. He swore up and down he never did anything to hurt me. Then I heard ... after we got back from Washington testifying ... I heard that he had a stroke. He is still paralyzed from the stroke I think.

Wayne Morris:

And what about Dr. Robert Heath? What aspects was he specifically involved with?

Claudia Mullen:

He is a neuropsychiatrist and he is the head of the department at Tulane University. It was his department that was given the money, the grant money. He was also given a whole wing of the medical school (just to use for experiments) by Mr. Fenner who was the Chairman of the Board of Tulane Medical School. There were just a lot of children, I remember. We weren't allowed to talk to each other. We weren't even supposed to see each other, but you could hear them sometimes. We would stay on this wing where there weren't any nurses, right? It was just like orderlies and the doctors, but it wasn't a regular hospital like with nurses who came into see you. You had monitors in your room and they watched you. I am pretty sure they had a camera in your room. And Dr. Heath was the head of the department there, and he also was known for doing a lot of work on brains ... experimenting on people's brains and he was the one who wanted to put an implant in my brain so that he could "telegraph", he said, "messages to me" when I was doing the entrapment thing with men that he could stimulate different parts of your brain or something ... he could do it by you know ... remote ... he didn't call it remote control ... he said he could access my brain from a distance, but he had to implant a box in your head.

Claudia Mullen's testimony before the US Advisory Committee on Human Radiation experimentation can be seen at the YouTube link below and in related links on YouTube:


Peter Lemkin
11-30-2010, 05:37 PM
Good 'dot' connection! :marchmellow: Ochsner et al. were from Tulane.....where they also used a local State Hospital....:joyman:

Peter Lemkin
12-02-2010, 05:04 PM
I just posted another thread that has a one hour lecture, basicly stating that almost all the same horrors can be visited upon a person without implanting anything, only using electromagnetic frequencies here. (http://www.deeppoliticsforum.com/forums/showthread.php?t=5153)

Ed Jewett
12-13-2010, 04:14 AM
Bob Boyce's un-requested VeriChip and associated tumor removed

Boyce finally had the second VeriChip implant removed yesterday along with the associated tumor. This time the surgical staff documented the implant with photos, and the surgeon placed the "foreign body" in a specimen container and sealed it to establish chain of custody evidence.
http://pesn.com/2010/12/07/9501740_Bob_Boyce_verichip_removed/Verichip_removed_from_Boyce_tumor_300.jpg (http://www.bobboyce.org/photos/IM001969.jpg)
A second VeriChip (http://www.verichipcorp.com/) microchip implant was removed yesterday from Bob Boyce (http://peswiki.com/index.php/OS:Bob_Boyce_Electrolyzer_Plans)'s shoulder, which was placed there without his knowledge or consent. The blue color is from a dye that pinpoints cancerous cells, which are not uncommon to form along with VeriChip implants (ref (http://www.antichips.com/cancer/index.html)).
http://pesn.com/2010/12/07/9501740_Bob_Boyce_verichip_removed/Verichip_speciment_removed_from_Boyce_300.jpg (http://www.bobboyce.org/photos/IM001971.jpg)
The VeriChip "foreign body" was placed in a specimen container and sealed by the surgeon. http://pesn.com/images/navigation/blank.gif
by Sterling D. Allan (http://pureenergysystems.com/about/personnel/SterlingDAllan/index.html)
Pure Energy Systems News
Copyright © 2010
Last year we reported that Bob Boyce, the highly-revered inventor of ultra-efficient electrolysis (http://peswiki.com/index.php/OS:Bob_Boyce_Electrolyzer_Plans) systems and of a self-charging battery circuit (http://pesn.com/2009/11/12/Child_rides_on_free_energy_Boyce_watkykjy1/) (harnessing energy from the environment, possibly from zero point energy), had contracted terminal cancer and that the originating point was a VeriChip microchip that someone implanted in his right shoulder without his knowledge or permission.

He had a chip removed, but it turned out that another chip was still in there, implanted deeper, as confirmed by an X-ray (http://pesn.com/2009/12/16/9501595_another_chip_in_Boyce_shoulder/).

He's lived with that one for a year, but finally had it removed yesterday at the Fannin Regional Hospital (http://www.fanninregionalhospital.com/) in Blue Ridge, Georgia.

The Fannin surgical staff took photos as the chip was removed from the tissue and placed in a specimen container, labeled "foreign body", and sealed by the surgeon. The blue color of the tissue is from a dye that was injected to mark cancerous cells.

Such chips have been documented to sometimes instigate tumors where they are implanted (ref (http://www.antichips.com/cancer/index.html)), as was the case with Boyce (ref (http://pesn.com/2009/11/28/9501591_Bob_Boyce_cancer_by_Verichip/)).

Boyce posted photos (http://www.bobboyce.org/cancer.htm) of the process on his website (http://www.bobboyce.org/), along with the comment:

Some have said that this VeriChip was a figment of my imagination. Well, this "imaginary" VeriChip removal was documented on film by surgical staff.
The first time Boyce noticed what turned out to be the first of two chips was in early April, 2009 when he was working with a former associate, Bob Potchen (http://www.google.com/search?&q=Bob+Potchen+PTI), of Precombustion Technologies Inc. (PTI), now "The Cell (http://thecell.cc/)", who he first met in July of 2008. Potchen, formerly with NSA, was implementing Boyce's hydroxy gas booster technology into a product to take to market. Their relationship had been growing tense, and Boyce was preparing to depart.

After drinking a "refreshment" drink Potchen provided, Boyce had fallen asleep at a desk at PTI's office, pulling an all-nighter. When he awoke, his right shoulder felt like it had been numbed; and when he rubbed it, he noticed a small, hard lump there. Having recently had some benign skin cancer removed, he assumed it was just another tumor, and thought no more of it, until the skin turned red and his shoulder became very sore many months later.
Close-up of a VeriChip Back at his own lab, he noticed that his shoulder was "transmitting" RF radiation. Then, when he had the tumor that formed there removed, he looked at the small-grain-of-rice-sized microchip before the doctor took the tissue away to be examined by pathology. He then researched various companies that manufacture implantable microchips, and he saw that the chip that had been removed from his shoulder matched the chip design by VeriChip (http://www.verichipcorp.com/). In particular, there is a thin, white rubber-like coating on one end that the tissue grows to so the chip won't migrate. The pathology report did not mention the chip.

Due to the politics of the situation, Boyce has had a hard time finding a surgeon to remove the chip and document its removal. This time around, Boyce wanted to make sure there was proper legal "chain of custody" when the second chip was removed, as certified by the surgeon when placed in a specimen container, which was sealed, labeled, dated, and signed by the surgeon.

The reason for Boyce's falling out was that Potchen, who is former Military Intelligence, had been making modifications to the hydroxy-generating device that Boyce said were reducing the cell's efficiency. Prior to those modifications, the cell was producing great results when installed in test vehicles. In one case, the mileage of a truck increased from 5.5 mpg to 11.7 mpg – more than double.

Boyce described a number of modifications that Potchen made in the name of making the cell cheaper to produce, but which significantly worked against the efficiency. "It's as if he was intentionally sabotaging the system to discredit the field."

Boyce withdrew his endorsement of Potchen's device and published his concerns to some hydroxy forums.

The saga from there is long and drawn-out and still ongoing. This is the latest installation.

Ironically, Boyce's operation yesterday was exactly one year after we posted a story: Boyce chip implanter suspect identified (http://pesn.com/2009/12/06/9501593_Boyce_Chip_Implanter_Suspect_Identified/).
# # #

The chip photos were taken by the surgeon's staff. The VeriChip (called "foreign body" for political reasons) was removed from the tissue (made blue from the dyes used to identify cancerous tissue) and placed in a specimen container and sealed by the surgeon. Part of the problem with the fuzzy resolution is that these are photos of photos taken by the staff. Bob has these posted on his site at http://www.bobboyce.org/cancer.htm
I don't recommend looking at these photos while eating, which is what I was doing this afternoon when I first looked at them.

Bob sent this photo to me on Dec. 10, showing his stitches from the surgery. The redness ahead of the stitches on the right in the photo is from an allergic reaction Boyce had to the tape used to hold the bandage on.
He also sent me these medical reports from last year.
Pathology/Radiology Reports from 2009

The pathology report from 2009 when Boyce had the VeriChip-induced tumor removed, along with the chip, didn't mention the foreign body. The radiology report on the right was from the X-rays that were taken when Boyce discovered that a second chip was still embedded in his shoulder.
2009 Pathology Report
Click image to download larger version.
http://pesn.com/2010/12/07/9501740_Bob_Boyce_verichip_removed/Boyce_Pathology_report_2009_labeled_300.jpg (http://pesn.com/2010/12/07/9501740_Bob_Boyce_verichip_removed/Boyce_Pathology_report_2009_labeled_jp70.jpg) Pathologists Associated...

Diagnosis: Malignant melanoma, desmoplastic type...
Right shoulder

2009 Radiology Report
Click image to download larger version.
http://pesn.com/2010/12/07/9501740_Bob_Boyce_verichip_removed/Boyce_Radiology_report_2009_labeled_300.jpg (http://pesn.com/2010/12/07/9501740_Bob_Boyce_verichip_removed/Boyce_Radiology_report_2009_labeled_jp70.jpg) Murphy Medical Center...


Two AP views of the right shoulder were obtained. There is a subcutaneous 5.3 mm x 1 mm metallic foreign body superior to the humeral head and lateral to the AC joint....

D: 12/14/09 13:48

Surgeons Willing to Remove Such Chips are Hard to Find

On December 10, 2010 11:17 AM MST, Dr. John Hall wrote:

I recently read your article about the inventor from Georgia, Mr. Bob Boyce. I am a medical doctor in Texas specializing in anesthesia and pain management. I am the author of, A New Breed: Satellite Terrorism in America and host a website at www.satweapons.com (http://www.satweapons.com/).

Over the past ten years I have dealt with many patients from here and other states suspecting covert chipping. The topic of my book is the struggle of a former patient and ex-fiancé who was victimized by a PI group utilizing advanced surveillance methods. I have since become an activist against non-consensual experimentation and have found implants in several individuals who have sent me their scans. This is a growing national problem that has received very little attention from the mainstream media. A great majority of these patients are labeled as delusional and further victimized by the medical community, largely ignorant of advances in surveillance technology.

I would be very interested in speaking with Mr. Boyce to find out what surgeon was willing to perform his excision. Patients in whom we have identified implants are having trouble finding surgeons willing to remove them, often resorting to fabrication of an incident in order to even get an X-ray or MRI to find them, much less have them excised. If you are allowed, please forward my email and email address to him. He may be of a great assistance to others with similar problems. Thank you for your time.

- - - -

Sterling responded:

You should be aware of Dr. Roger Leir, who specializes in removing chips implanted by aliens. He was interviewed on Coast to Coast AM on November 5, 2010. http://www.coasttocoastam.com/show/2010/11/05

I called in that night, after that interview, having done a story that day about a couple of the other guests on that show:
http://pesn.com/2010/11/06/9501720_Colbern_confirms_Hutchison_frequency_gener ator_effects/

* * * *
Boyce Chip Saga Stories

http://pesn.com/2010/12/07/9501740_Bob_Boyce_verichip_removed/Verichip_removed_from_Boyce_tumor_95x95.jpg (http://pesn.com/2010/12/07/9501740_Bob_Boyce_verichip_removed/)

Featured (http://www.peswiki.com/index.php/Latest): Buyer Beware (http://www.peswiki.com/index.php/Directory:Buyer_Beware#Precombustion_Technologies_ Inc._.28PTI.29) / Suppression (http://www.peswiki.com/index.php/Directory:Suppression) > Hydroxy (http://www.peswiki.com/index.php/Directory:Hydroxy_or_HHO_Injection_Systems) > Boyce (http://www.peswiki.com/index.php/OS:Bob_Boyce_Electrolyzer_Plans) >
Bob Boyce's un-requested VeriChip and associated tumor removed (http://pesn.com/2010/12/07/9501740_Bob_Boyce_verichip_removed/) - Boyce finally had the second VeriChip implant removed yesterday along with the associated tumor. This time the surgical staff documented the implant with photos, and the surgeon placed the "foreign body" in a specimen container and sealed it to establish chain of custody evidence. (PESN; December 7, 2010)

http://pesn.com/2009/12/16/9501595_another_chip_in_Boyce_shoulder/Boyce_chip_X-ray_A1_accented_circled_95x95.jpg (http://pesn.com/2009/12/16/9501595_another_chip_in_Boyce_shoulder/)

Buyer Beware (http://peswiki.com/index.php/Directory:Buyer_Beware#Precombustion_Technologies_ Inc._.28PTI.29) / Suppression (http://peswiki.com/index.php/Directory:Suppression) > Hydroxy (http://peswiki.com/index.php/Directory:Hydroxy_or_HHO_Injection_Systems) > Boyce (http://peswiki.com/index.php/OS:Bob_Boyce_Electrolyzer_Plans) >
Another VeriChip Found in Inventor's Shoulder (http://pesn.com/2009/12/16/9501595_another_chip_in_Boyce_shoulder/) - An RFID reader and an X-ray confirm a VeriChip implant in Bob Boyce's shoulder, where a tumor subsequently formed. More witnesses step forward and steps being taken against Bob Potchen, the likely perpetrator of the implant, who also sabotaged Boyce's hydroxy technology. (PESN; Dec. 16, 2009)

http://pesn.com/images/2009/Verichip_injection_95x95.jpg (http://pesn.com/2009/12/06/9501593_Boyce_Chip_Implanter_Suspect_Identified/)

Buyer Beware (http://peswiki.com/index.php/Directory:Buyer_Beware) / Suppression (http://peswiki.com/index.php/Directory:Suppression) > Electrolysis (http://peswiki.com/index.php/Directory:Electrolysis) > Boyce (http://peswiki.com/index.php/OS:Bob_Boyce_Electrolyzer_Plans) >
Boyce chip implanter suspect identified (http://pesn.com/2009/12/06/9501593_Boyce_Chip_Implanter_Suspect_Identified/) - Bob Boyce first noticed what turned out to be the VeriChip implant that caused his malignant tumor when he was working with former associate, Bob Potchen. Having fallen asleep at a desk, when he awoke, his right shoulder felt like it had been numbed; and when he rubbed it, he noticed a small, hard lump there. (PESN; Dec. 6, 2009)

http://pesn.com/2009/11/28/9501591_Bob_Boyce_cancer_by_Verichip/Bob_Boyce_verichip_95x95.jpg (http://pesn.com/2009/11/28/9501591_Bob_Boyce_cancer_by_Verichip/)

Suppression (http://peswiki.com/index.php/Directory:Suppression) > EM Concerns (http://peswiki.com/index.php/Directory:Bio-Energetics#Environmental_Electromagnetic_Concerns) > Electrolysis (http://peswiki.com/index.php/Directory:Electrolysis) > Boyce (http://peswiki.com/index.php/OS:Bob_Boyce_Electrolyzer_Plans) >
Inventor's terminal cancer courtesy of VeriChip? (http://pesn.com/2009/11/28/9501591_Bob_Boyce_cancer_by_Verichip/) - Bob Boyce, who has invented a super-efficient electrolysis method, as well as a self-looping electrical circuit capable of charging batteries, discovered a microchip implant in his shoulder when having a tumor removed from that spot, which metastasized. It turns out the chip was made by VeriChip. (PESN; Nov. 28, 2009)

See also

Directory:Bob Boyce Hex Controller (http://peswiki.com/index.php/Directory:Bob_Boyce_Hex_Controller) - feature page at PESWiki
OS:Bob Boyce Electrolyzer Plans (http://peswiki.com/index.php/OS:Bob_Boyce_Electrolyzer_Plans) - index at PESWiki
Directory:Suppression (http://peswiki.com/index.php/Directory:Suppression) - index at PESWiki
Directory:Hydroxy_or_HHO_Injection_Systems (http://peswiki.com/index.php/Directory:Hydroxy_or_HHO_Injection_Systems) - index at PESWiki
OS:Water Fuel Cell (http://peswiki.com/index.php/OS:Water_Fuel_Cell) - index at PESWiki.com
Directory:Electrolysis (http://peswiki.com/index.php/Directory:Electrolysis) - index at PESWiki.com
Directory:Electromagnetic (http://peswiki.com/index.php/Directory:Electromagnetic) (overunity) - index at PESWiki.com
More Stories by Sterling D. Allan (http://pureenergysystems.com/about/personnel/SterlingDAllan/)

PESN (Pure Energy Systems News) (http://pesn.com/) - Feature stories on cutting-edge, clean energy technology.
Free Energy News (.com) (http://peswiki.com/energy/News) - Daily cutting-edge, clean energy technology news from around the world
PESWiki Latest (http://peswiki.com/index.php/Latest) - Newest feature pages in the publicly-editable energy directory.
This Week in Free Energy™ (http://pesn.com/ThisWeekinFreeEnergy/) - Ten-minute recap each Sunday, 7:50 - 8:00 pm Mountain.
Free Energy Now (.net) (http://pesn.com/Radio/Free_Energy_Now/) - in-depth interviews

Page composed by Sterling D. Allan (http://pureenergysystems.com/about/personnel/SterlingDAllan/) Dec. 7, 2009
Last updated December 12, 2010
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