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Thread: Energy and the Human Journey: Where We Have Been; Where We Can Go - Wade Frazier

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    Footnotes
    [1] I am not happy about the Israeli produce and will not buy it. Palestinians probably lived on that farm land before they were forcibly evicted for Jewish “settlers” and the store only began trading with Chinese farms after a healthy debate among the cooperative’s members and its board, and a compromise was met, in that the cooperative would only do business with Chinese firms that adhered to the cooperative’s environmental, animal, and worker treatment standards. I have never heard of that kind of debate ever happening at another American business, which is why I always shop for my food there, even though in many ways it is still mired in scarcity-based practices.

    [2] See Christopher Stringer and Peter Andrews’s The Complete World of Human Evolution, p. 208.

    [3] See The Beginning of the World as We Know It, edited by John P. Rafferty, pp. 115-120.

    [4] For instance, many islands and mountain chains have been formed by volcanic activity, and the mountain chain that formed the Hawaiian Islands is very evident on the Pacific Ocean’s floor. (Source: Wikimedia Commons)







    Today’s satellite technologies can measure the rate and direction in which the tectonic plates move (about the rate that fingernails grow), and rocks in the volcanoes of the Hawaiian-Emperor seamount chain have been dated, with the oldest volcanoes determined to be more than 80 million years old. Those radioactive ages conform to the rates of movement, as well as the eroded states of the older volcanoes.
    Another example is the fossil record and how its relative ages were established long before radioactivity was discovered. When radioactive dating was developed, it not only confirmed the relative dates, but it also established that the estimated absolute dates developed in the 19th century were not that far off. In Chapter IX of Charles Darwin’s Origin of the Species, he estimated that the latter part of the Mesozoic Era may have been more than 300 mya. It was more like 100 mya, or well within an order of magnitude of what it is considered to be today, which is far more precise than the 6,000 years of “begats” in the Book of Genesis.

    [5] See Nick Lane’s Oxygen, pp. 34-35, and 89-92.

    [6] For example, on sulfur see Nick Lane’s Oxygen, pp. 42-43, and 67-68, and for nitrogen see “Stable isotopes as indicators of change in the food procurement and food preference of Viking Age and Early Christian populations on Gotland (Sweden), by Steven B. Kosiba, et al., in Journal of Anthropological Anthropology, 26 (2007), pp. 394-411, and “Use of Nitrogen-15 natural abundance method to identify nitrate sources in Kansas groundwater,” by M.A. Townsend, et al., Proceedings of Waste Research Technology Conference, 2002.

    [7] See Charles A.S. Hall and Kent A. Klitgaard’s Energy and the Wealth of Nations, pp. 235-237.

    [8] See Doug Macdougall’s Frozen Earth, pp. 135-140.

    [9] See, The Beginning of the World as We Know It, edited by John P. Rafferty, pp. 79-155.

    [10] See Jared Diamond’s Collapse, pp. 136-156. During my studies, I came upon challenges to the version of Anasazi collapse in Diamond’s work, and the book Questioning Collapse, edited by Patricia McAnany and Norman Yoffee, was a direct challenge to Diamond’s hypothesis. Although I have never entirely agreed with Diamond’s work, Questioning Collapse was arguably libelous. It literally turned Diamond’s views on the Australian megafaunal extinctions upside down. In his Guns, Germs, and Steel, published in 1997, Diamond “credited” humans with that mass extinction, while a contributing author of Questioning Collapse, on the same page where he mentioned Guns, Germs, and Steel, rather snidely wrote that Diamond argued for the opposite: that humans had nothing to do with the extinctions. That means that the author did not even read Guns, Germs, and Steel or that he expected his audience to be uninformed or lazy. That was also by no means a new opinion of Diamond’s, as his earlier The Third Chimpanzee, published in 1992, has a chapter titled, “The Golden Age that Never Was,” wherein Diamond discussed a number of mass extinctions likely caused by humans, including Australia. Although Diamond’s theses deserved to be challenged, as all hypotheses do, efforts such as Questioning Collapse reflect the sloppy scholarship that can abound regarding these subjects.

    [11] See Mary H. Schweitzer’s “Blood from Stone”, in Scientific American’s special collector’s edition on dinosaurs, titled, Dinosaurs! How they lived; Why they Died, Summer 2014, pp. 104-11.

    [12] This essay links many times to Wikipedia. Readers should be cautioned, however. I performed an experiment with a friend in 2008, and the results showed a rather pronounced imperial, Eurocentric bias. On controversial “fringe” subjects, particularly ones that threaten the global power structure, such as free energy suppression, Wikipedia can be worse than worthless (although that article has marginally improved over the years), with Wikipedia articles dominated by trolls, and some of them were professionals. I use Wikipedia with caution, and I suggest that readers of this essay use similar caution. In several places at Wikipedia where this essay links to, I have seen errors and mainstream biases, which will probably always plague Wikipedia. In general, as I wrote this essay, the closer the story of life on Earth got to the human chapters, the more “vandalism” was evident in Wikipedia's articles, where people promoted their theories. When the story finally started dealing with Homo sapiens, the vandalism was so great at times that I hesitated to link to the articles, as they were so badly marred. Readers should be aware of that bias, which is consistent with how the massacre article was distorted and vandalized. If this essay becomes popular, I will suggest that readers might think of donating to Wikipedia. I respect their goal, and the work of millions has made it a valuable resource, even with its obvious limitations.

    [13] See Thomas Suddendorf's The Gap, pp. 4-5.

    [14] See, for instance, Douglas Futuyma’s Evolution, pp. 13-14, or Stephen Marshak’s Essentials of Geology, pp. 6-7.

    [15] See Michael J. Benton’s When Life Nearly Died, chapter 5. See Peter Ward’s Under a Green Sky, pp. 34-35.

    [16] See Henry Gee’s The Accidental Species, p. xiii.

    [17] See Donald Prothero’s The Eocene-Oligocene Transition, pp. 130-136. Prothero argued that studying mass extinctions became a fad. But studying them was taboo for more than a century, too. Was the “fad” partly an overreaction to suppression? Prothero’s observation about how scientists interact all too often is on page 130, which states: “Scientific meetings can degenerate into shouting matches and name-calling, although the preferred method of attack is to demolish one’s opponent with a witty riposte.”

    [18] The tale of the Big Bang and the physics of stars and solar systems can be found in numerous places on the Internet. A brief summary of the Big Bang and its immediate aftermath can be found in A.C. Phillips’s The Physics of Stars, pp. 1-3, and a less technical account is in Mark Foster Mortimer’s Civilization’s Future, How Energy Defines and Constrains our Progress, pp. 5-8.

    [19] See also Edward O. Wilson’s Consilience, chapter 3.

    [20] Many examples can be provided, such as the initially ridiculed light bulb and powered flight; demonstrations of those technologies were made in public, but mainstream scientists ignored the demonstrations as if they were never made. For a less famous example, the great linguist Joseph Greenberg ruffled many specialist feathers with his generalist synthesis for cataloging the world’s languages by seeking universal similarities. His generalist synthesis, while having errors in the details, is widely accepted today as largely accurate. See an account of the controversy in Nicholas Wade’s Before the Dawn, pp. 218-232. The taboo against studying mass extinctions prevailed for more than a century and was broken by a team led by a Nobel Laureate working outside of his field of expertise.

    [21] See, for instance, Frans B. M. de Wall and Pier Francesco Ferrari, eds., The Primate Mind, for a bottom-up approach, which is a departure from the top-down approaches. In that instance, the top-down approach compared non-human primates with humans, seeing how close their cognitive processes came to human processes. The bottom-up approach explored the foundations of non-human primate cognition, not how they compared to human cognition.

    [22] The inventors of the heat pump that my partner sold cut their published performance data in half so that engineers would not ridicule that “impossible” data. The microscopes of Royal Rife and Gaston Naessens are older than I am, and those microscopes attain optical resolutions considered “impossible” by today’s optical theory, some of which hails all the way back to Isaac Newton. When Naessens tried patenting his microscope, with its “impossible” optical resolutions, he was unable to explain its resolutions in terms of orthodox optical theory and had to abandon the patent process. Rife earlier invented a microscope that attained similar “impossible” resolutions, and while the medical establishment did its best to crush Rife’s work, surviving micrographs prove that it indeed attained such resolutions. Brown’s Gas has long been an enigma, with its exact composition unknown. It is made of the hydrogen and oxygen resulting from splitting water, but seems to be unusually bonded. The transmutation experiment with Brown’s Gas has been performed a hundred times or more, including by national governments, and orthodox theory cannot explain the results. While scientists were stumped over just exactly what Brown’s Gas was and how it produced “impossible” results, Yull Brown was not too interested in the theories; he was more interested in what Brown’s Gas could do. Sparky Sweet’s free energy device, which produced a million times the energy that went into it, and also produced antigravity effects, was baffling even to Sparky. He and his partner wrote a book to explain how it worked, but there was still plenty of mystery regarding how it worked. When Sparky demonstrated it to a close colleague, Sparky himself shrugged in amazement, saying that it indeed defied electric theory, but there it was, working. The free energy, antigravity, and other exotic technologies that were demonstrated to my friend blew his mind, and almost any scientist viewing that demonstration would have been stunned into bewilderment.

    [23] See David Bohm’s Wholeness and the Implicate Order, pp. 240-245, which refers to Bohm’s original calculation in his Causality and Chance in Modern Physics, p. 163. Bohm’s calculation is summarized as follows: “If one computes the amount of energy that would be in one cubic centimeter of space…it turns out to be very far beyond the total energy of all the matter in the known universe.” See discussion of Bohm’s theory and the evidence for it in Michael Talbot’s The Holographic Universe, pp. 51-55, and Bohm’s opinions on the relationship between consciousness and quantum phenomena in Bruce Rosenblum and Fred Kuttner’s Quantum Enigma, pp. 213-215.

    [24] In Einstein’s “Sidelights on Relativity,” a speech delivered on May 5th, 1920, at the University of Leyden, Einstein finished with: “Recapitulating, we may say that according to the general theory of relativity space is endowed with physical properties; in this sense, therefore, there exists an ether.”

    [25] See Jeane Manning and Joel Garbon’s Breakthrough Power, p. 123 for thirty of the names that Jeane has collected over the years for the field that is tapped by so-called free energy technology.

    [26] A recent example is Nassim Haramein’s “Quantum Gravity and the Holographic Mass”, Physical Review & Research International, volume 3, issue 4, October - December 2013, pp. 270-292, and related press release.

    [27] “Black projects” are efforts that the public is not officially aware of, engaged in by various “national security” organizations, some large “aerospace” companies and other private interests, many of whose names have never been publicly revealed.

    [28] The tales of Rife’s and Naessens’s microscopes are some of the best that I know of to demonstrate the literal blindness of establishment science. Naessens is still active in 2014, and his microscopes are available to any scientist with the courage to look through the lens. If attaining such “impossible” resolutions were all that those microscopes did, that would be plenty, but those microscopes were the primary instruments used by their inventors to investigate life processes at greater resolutions than any electron microscope or other establishment microscope can attain. They both independently confirmed the general findings of one of Louis Pasteur’s contemporaries, Antoine Béchamp, whose research pointed to a very different dynamic of life processes than Pasteur’s germ theory, which may have been a poorly understood plagiarism of Béchamp’s work. The findings of those microscopes led to, among other things, cancer treatments that are harmless, cheap, and effective, but Morris Fishbein and the American Medical Association wiped Rife out, and Naessens has been treated similarly. They may have even discovered the boundary between inanimate matter and life, which exists in the sub-cellular milieu. That situation is one of the more stunning and public examples of vested economic interests suppressing scientific advances.

    [29] Two works that come to mind as I write this were See Thomas Suddendorf's The Gap and Steven Pinker's The Blank Slate, but I do not want to pick on them unnecessarily. Many orthodox works that I saw took that easy way out when dealing with phenomena that falsified the materialist models of consciousness.

    [30] For instance, numerous psi experiments have produced highly consistent results over many years, such as Ganzfeld experiments, receiving information in dreams, and other tests, including influencing the decay rate of radioactive elements. Those thousands of experiments were also subjected to professional meta-analysis, and the experimental results demonstrated high correlation and the odds of their being chance results are less than one in trillions, and even smaller probabilities. See Dean Radin’s Entangled Minds, chapter six, and Chris Carter’s Science and Psychic Phenomena, pp. 60-104. Carter’s book and Robert McLuhan’s Randi’s Prize analyze the reactions of a politically active arm of the scientific establishment known as organized skepticism. After a scandal, when the leading “skeptical” organization tried performing original research and seemingly manipulated the data to conform to their conclusion (see Chris Carter’s Science and Psychic Phenomena, pp. 24-37, and here), they never performed original research again, but challenge experimental results that call into question the materialist assumptions of mainstream science. Their challenges are generally ad hoc hypotheses that often beg the question, and their objections have become more logically strained over the years. My encounters with members of that organization were shocking, as they proved themselves to be deeply dishonest. For scientific investigations of paranormal phenomena, Randi’s Prize and Michael E. Flynn’s The Articulate Dead are good introductions to the kinds of findings that have been adduced.

    [31] See Bruce Rosenblum and Fred Kuttner’s Quantum Enigma, pp. 237-255. See Nick Herbert’s Elemental Mind, pp. 140-162.

    [32] Regarding the foundation of physics, Einstein wrote: “It is basic for physics that one assumes a real world existing independently from any act of perception – but this we do not know.” See Bruce Rosenblum and Fred Kuttner’s Quantum Enigma, p. 166. See Rupert Sheldrake’s The Science Delusion for a discussion of the faith-based assumptions that gird mainstream science, which include: ever since the Big Bang, when everything came from nothing, all matter and energy has been at the same total amount; the so-called “laws” of nature are invariable; nature has no purpose, and evolution has no goal; all consciousness is an illusory and ephemeral byproduct of the operation of brains; all biological inheritance is material, there is no such thing as psychic phenomena – all evidence adduced so far for it is due to error, wishful thinking, and fraud; mechanistic medicine is the only kind that works. None of those assumptions has been subjected to falsification, and several cannot be falsified, which is the acid test of science. Also, there is a great deal of evidence that those assumptions may be false.

    [33] See Bruce Rosenblum and Fred Kuttner’s Quantum Enigma, p, 101.

    [34] In Bruce Rosenblum and Fred Kuttner’s Quantum Enigma, pp. 3-5, Rosenblum describes a visit to Einstein’s home in the 1950s, when Rosenblum was a graduate student in physics. Einstein wanted to discuss the implications of quantum theory. In Rosenblum’s quantum physics class, the professor skipped over that part of the book (which Einstein’s protégé David Bohm wrote), to get into the math. It was not until many years later that Rosenblum began to understand what Einstein was concerned about. Late in his life, Einstein “reproached” Heisenberg for the randomness introduced by quantum theory. Einstein was upset by the quantum theory’s creation of reality by the observer, which would theoretically make the entire universe subjective, not objective. But his greatest disquiet was reserved for the “spooky action at a distance,” now termed “quantum entanglement,” where separate objects instantly interact with each other, no matter how far apart they are.

    [35] See Bruce Rosenblum and Fred Kuttner’s Quantum Enigma, p. 186.

    [36] See Bruce Rosenblum and Fred Kuttner’s Quantum Enigma, chapter 10.

    [37] In The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman said, “It is important to realize that in physics today, we have no knowledge what energy is.” Werner Heisenberg voiced the same caution.

    [38] See, for instance, Johannes Wirz’s “Progress towards complementarity in genetics.” Also, molecular clock data, whose timing is based on an assumption of macro-predictable random mutations of DNA, has been shown to be inaccurate, and the early exuberance toward genetic science has been sobered by the reality. Scientists can see what mutated, but have had to become more modest on asserting when it happened. See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, pp. 221-223. See Rupert Sheldrake’s The Science Delusion, chapter 6.

    [39] See T. Langen, et al.'s "Local emergence of thermal correlations in an isolated quantum many-body system", Nature Physics, volume 9, issue 10, pp. 640-643, October 2013.

    [40] See A.C. Phillips’s The Physics of Stars, p. 23. See Peter Ward and David Brownlee’s The Life and Death of Planet Earth, p. 103.

    [41] See Sean A. Crowe, et al.’s “Atmospheric oxygenation three billion years ago” in Nature, issue 201, pp. 535-538, September 26, 2013.

    [42] The only other plausible explanation for the Great Oxygenation Event is ultraviolet light's splitting water and, as the hydrogen escaped to space, the oxygen was left behind. But early on, atmospheric oxygen would have created the ozone layer and provided a “negative feedback” to ultraviolet light’s impact. See Nick Lane’s Oxygen, pp. 25-26.

    [43] A relatively recent and spectacular event to demonstrate that dynamic is the 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora. The next year was called the “Year Without a Summer,” as the volcanic ash caused a brief global cooling.

    [44] See Peter Ward’s “Impact from the Deep” in Scientific American, October, 2006.

    [45] See Nigel Harris's "The elevation history of the Tibetan Plateau and its implications for the Asian monsoon", Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, volume 241, Issue 1, November 2006, pp. 4-15. See Chengshan Wang, et al.'s "Constraints on the early uplift history of the Tibetan Plateau", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, April 1, 2008, volume 105, number 13, pp. 4987–4992.

    [46] See Douglas S. Wilson, et al.’s “Initiation of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and estimates of total Antarctic ice volume in the earliest Oligocene”, Geophysical Research Letters, volume 40, issue 16, pp. 4305-4309, August 2013. The research put the initial formation of the West Antarctic ice sheet at the same time as the East Antarctic ice sheet, about 34 mya.

    [47] The shorter light’s wavelength is, the more energy its photons possess, and visible light is ineffective in breaking water into hydrogen and oxygen. Today, scientists are using catalysts and other methods so that visible light can power the process of splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen, to use the hydrogen as fuel. Photosynthesis also uses light to split water, but does so with catalytic enzymes.

    [48] See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, p. 6.

    [49] See a discussion of that hydrogen-oxygen dynamic in Nick Lane’s Oxygen: The Molecule that made the World, especially pp. 319-320, and Lane’s Life Ascending, chapter 3.

    [50] See Jonathan Lunine’s Earth: Evolution of a Habitable World, pp. 208-209.

    [51] It is also theorized that the size of the atoms determined where they largely ended up in Earth’s layers, with iron largely sinking to Earth’s core, while lighter elements such as the alkali and alkaline metals migrated toward the surface. See discussion in Jonathan Lunine’s Earth, pp. 124-127.

    [52] See Jonathan Lunine’s Earth, p. 205.

    [53] The paper “Biotic vs. abiotic Earth: A model for mantle hydration and continental coverage”, in Planetary and Space Science, was first electronically published on October 25, 2013, by Dennis Höning, et al., and had media coverage, as this essay was being written, and is part of a general trend of seeing life processes as key terraforming processes.

    [54] See Jonathan Lunine’s Earth, pp. 200-209.

    [55] See Peter Ward and David Brownlee’s The Life and Death of Planet Earth, pp. 96-99. Also see Peter Ward’s Out of Thin Air, p. 231, which in turn refers to the PALEOMAP Project.

    [56] A similar version of the table below, as far as the human body is concerned, is here.
    Description Proportion of
    Earth's Atoms Earth's Mass Earth's Atmospheric Atoms The Human Body's Atoms
    Oxygen 50% 30% 21% 24%
    Iron 16% 32% 0.00067%
    Silicon 14% 15%
    Magnesium 15% 14% 0.007%
    Sulfur 1.6% 3% 0.04%
    Aluminum 1.2% 1.4%
    Nickel 1.0% 1.8%
    Calcium 0.88% 1.5% 0.24%
    Chromium 0.21%
    Hydrogen 0.020% 63%
    Sodium 0.013% 0.04%
    Potassium 0.0073% 0.03%
    Titanium 0.0040%
    Fluorine 0.0013%
    Carbon 0.00050% 12%
    Phosphorous 0.00043% 0.22%
    Chlorine 1-in-2.1 million 0.03%
    Nitrogen 1-in-4.1 million 78% 0.58%
    Cobalt 1-in-22 million 0.000003%
    Argon 1-in-2.5 billion 0.9%
    Uranium 1-in-4.5 billion
    Gold 1-in-1.5 trillion
    Carbon Dioxide 0.04%
    Oceans 1-in-4,400
    Atmosphere 1-in-1.2 million
    Biosphere 1-in-3.2 billion

    [57] See Peter Ward and David Brownlee’s Rare Earth, for a discussion of those dynamics that may be rare in the universe.

    [58] The atmospheric pressure may have been more than 60 times today’s. See Jonathan Lunine’s Earth, p. 171.

    [59] See Nick Lane’s Life Ascending, chapter 1, and his Power, Sex, Suicide, chapter 6. Another hypothesis is that life evolved in some freshwater pond on land. See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, pp. 12-13.

    [60] Andrew Knoll wrote on page 245 of his Life on a Young Planet that scientists see the ancient religious texts as parables, and that, “Science’s creation story accounts for process and history, not intent.” On science and religion, Knoll wrote, “That these two ways of comprehending should be confused in either form or purpose strikes me as both absurd and unfortunate.” But arch-materialists such as Carl Sagan, Richard Dawkins, and Stephen Hawking, and “skeptics” such as Michael Shermer are the face of science that the public sees. The genuine giants of physics, such as Einstein, Heisenberg, and Schrödinger, are immensely better examples of how scientists approach those issues.

    [61] See Nick Lane’s Oxygen, chapter 8.

    [62] See Charles A.S. Hall and Kent A. Klitgaard’s Energy and the Wealth of Nations, pp. 231-233.

    [63] See Jonathan Lunine’s Earth, pp. 169-176. See Peter Ward and David Brownlee’s The Life and Death of Planet Earth, pp. 57-67, and 105-115.

    [64] See Peter Ward and David Brownlee’s The Life and Death of Planet Earth, chapters 6 and 7.

    [65] See Nick Lane’s Life Ascending, chapter 4.

    [66] See Nick Lane’s “The Evolution of Oxidative Stress”, p. 4, in Principles of Free Radical Biomedicine, volume 1, K. Pantopoulos and H. M. Schipper, editors.

    [67] See Stefan Bengtson’s “Origins and Early Evolution of Predation”, Paleontological Society Papers, volume 8, 2002.

    [68] See Oliver Morton’s Eating the Sun, pp. 168-174.

    [69] Chemosynthesis relies on the potential energy of chemicals, as does all life, and the only way that the potential energy exists on Earth is because the Sun’s energy keeps the oceans and atmosphere in chemical disequilibrium with Earth’s crust. See Nick Lane’s Power, Sex, Suicide, p. 100. See Oliver Morton’s Eating the Sun, p. 173.

    [70] See Nick Lane’s Life Ascending, p. 25.

    [71] Oliver Morton’s Eating the Sun surveys the days of unraveling the details of photosynthesis and the chase for Nobel Prizes that attended the pursuit. As recounted on page 45, when Morton asked Andrew Benson if Melvin Calvin deserved his Nobel Prize (for discovering what is called the Calvin Cycle, also known as the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle), Benson replied that he deserved it more than Calvin did.

    [72] See Nick Lane’s “The Evolution of Oxidative Stress”, chapter 1 in Principles of Free Radical Biomedicine, volume 1, K. Pantopoulos and H. M. Schipper, editors.

    [73] See Nick Lane’s Life Ascending, chapter 3.

    [74] See Nick Lane’s Oxygen, p. 73.

    [75] See Peter Ward’s Under a Green Sky, p. 118. See Nick Lane’s Oxygen, p. 73. See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, pp. 24-25.

    [76] Another hypothesis is that purple photosynthesizing bacteria oxidized iron in its photosynthesis process. Two non-life-based hypotheses for forming at least some BIFs are: ultraviolet light's oxidizing the iron before the ozone layer formed, and the chemistry of hydrothermal vents in the oceans creating BIFs. See a discussion of the BIF formation controversy in Nick Lane’s Oxygen, pp. 37-49. See Jelte P. Harnmeijer’s “Banded Iron-Formation: A Continuing Enigma of Geology”.

    [77] See Doug Macdougall’s Frozen Earth, pp. 161-163.

    [78] The methanogen population may have been severely reduced due to a nickel famine.

    [79] See Nick Lane’s Power, Sex, Suicide, chapter 3.

    [80] There was some chemical evidence of eukaryotes existing as early as 2.7 bya, announced in 1999. See Andrew Knoll’s Life on a Young Planet, p. 94, and Nick Lane’s Oxygen, pp. 35-36. However, the leader of the team that produced the evidence was part of an effort to investigate the situation further, and in 2008 that effort determined that the evidence was not as old as originally thought. This is an example of how the evidence regarding findings of early Earth is tentative and subject to revision to the point of completely discarding the evidence.

    [81] See Nick Lane’s Power, Sex, Suicide, p. 12.

    [82] See discussion in Nick Lane’s Power, Sex, Suicide regarding the controversy regarding the pedigree of mitochondria. On the purple bacterium origin, see these papers (1, 2). According to the hydrogen hypothesis, hydrogenosomes and mitochondria descended from the same ancestor. Some scientists believe that mitochondria descended from a bacterium in the Rickettsia genus. Whatever the true ancestor was, all hypotheses agree that it was purple.

    [83] The formula for surface area is four-times-pi-times-the-radius-squared (4πr2), and the formula for volume is 4/3πr3. See discussion in Nick Lane’s Power, Sex, Suicide, pp. 121-123.

    [84] See discussion in Nick Lane’s Power, Sex, Suicide, p. 130.

    [85] A man’s body contains around 100 trillion cells, and each cell contains, on average, 200 mitochondria, and there are about 10,000 ATP Synthase motors per mitochondria, which totals 200 quintillion ATP Synthase molecules. ATP Synthase rotates at up to 700 times per second.

    [86] See Nick Lane’s “The Evolution of Oxidative Stress”, p. 10, in Principles of Free Radical Biomedicine, volume 1, K. Pantopoulos and H. M. Schipper, editors. See discussion in Lane’s Power, Sex, Suicide, chapter 8.

    [87] See Jonathan Lunine’s Earth, pp. 139-141.

    [88] See Nick Lane’s Oxygen, p. 72.

    [89] See Miklós Müller, et al.'s "Biochemistry and Evolution of Anaerobic Energy Metabolism in Eukaryotes", Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, June 2012, volume 76, number 2, pp. 444-495.

    [90] See Nick Lane’s Life Ascending, pp. 163-165 for a delightful description of the workings of complex cells.

    [91] See Nick Lane’s Life Ascending, chapter 6.

    [92] See Peter Ward’s and Donald Brownlee’s Rare Earth, pp. 222-226. See abstract of Jacques Laskar, et al.’s “Stabilization of the Earth's obliquity by the Moon”, Nature, February 18, 1993, volume 361, pp. 615-617.

    [93] See Jonathan Lunine’s Earth, p. 205.

    [94] See Nick Lane’s Oxygen, pp. 16-28. See Andrew Knoll’s Life on a Young Planet, pp. 106-107.

    [95] See Nick Lane’s Oxygen, p. 24.

    [96] See Andrew Knoll’s Life on a Young Planet, pp. 157-159. See these links (1, 2, 3).

    [97] See Andrew Knoll’s Life on a Young Planet, p. 154.

    [98] Andrew Knoll, in his Life on a Young Planet, on page 150, estimates that the event that led to plants happened at least 1.2 bya.

    [99] See Oliver Morton’s Eating the Sun, p. 206.

    [100] See Andrew Knoll’s Life on a Young Planet, pp. 149-150.

    [101] See Nick Lane’s Oxygen, chapter 6.

    [102] See Nick Lane’s Power, Sex, Suicide, chapters 9 and 10.

    [103] This concept is used in The 10,000 Year Explosion, by Gregory Cochran and Henry Harpending, p. 181, to explain the rise of the Proto-Indo-Europeans, as they genetically adapted to digesting lactose, making raising cattle for their milk feasible, which produces five times the calories per acre of raising cattle for meat.

    [104] See Nick Lane’s Power, Sex, Suicide, pp. 107-147.

    [105] Even the Frankensteinian experiments that may well be happening in the above-top-secret world are not likely to give a tree a brain, or allow humans to get their energy via photosynthetic skin.

    [106] See Andrew Knoll’s Life on a Young Planet, p. 151.

    [107] Some cyanobacterial colonies eventually developed filaments with specialized cells. See Andrew Knoll’s Life on a Young Planet, p. 112.

    [108] See Doug Macdougall’s Frozen Earth, pp. 4, 34.

    [109] See Doug Macdougall’s Frozen Earth, p. 66.

    [110] See Doug Macdougall’s Frozen Earth, p. 87.

    [111] See Doug Macdougall’s Frozen Earth, p. 128.

    [112] See Doug Macdougall’s Frozen Earth, pp. 144-147. See Gabrielle Walker’s Snowball Earth, pp. 74-78, 131-132.

    [113] See William F. Ruddiman’s Plows, Plagues, and Petroleum, pp. 169-174.

    [114] See, for instance, Jeffrey T. Kiehl and Christine A. Shields’s “Climate simulation of the latest Permian: Implications for mass extinction”, Geology, September 2005, pp. 757-760. See Peter Ward’s Under a Green Sky, pp. 121-128. Ward made a video on this subject on PBS, here.

    [115] See Gabrielle Walker’s Snowball Earth, pp. 91-92.

    [116] See Gabrielle Walker’s Snowball Earth, pp. 83-100.

    [117] Hoffman’s journey is told in great detail in Gabrielle Walker’s Snowball Earth.

    [118] See Doug Macdougall’s Frozen Earth, pp. 4-49, for the early days of ice age discoveries and theory, and the role of erratics.

    [119] See Hoffman, el at., “A Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth”, Science, August 28, 1998, volume 281.

    [120] See D.E. Canfield’s “A new model for Proterozoic ocean chemistry,” in Nature, December 3, 1998, volume 396.

    [121] See Nick Lane’s Oxygen, pp. 60-65.

    [122] See Don E. Canfield, et al.’s “Late-Neoproterozoic Deep-Ocean Oxygenation and the Rise of Animal Life”, Science, January 5, 2007, volume 315. This is a controversial area. See G. J. Retallack’s “Ediacaran Gaskiers Glaciation of Newfoundland reconsidered”, Journal of the Geological Society 2013, volume 170, pp. 19-36.

    [123] See Douglas H. Erwin and James W. Valentine’s The Cambrian Explosion, pp. 39-44.

    [124] See Douglas H. Erwin and James W. Valentine’s The Cambrian Explosion, p. 128.

    [125] See Daniel H. Rothman, et al.’s “Dynamics of the Neoproterozoic carbon cycle”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, July 8, 2003, volume 100, number 14, pp. 8124-8129. See Andy Ridgwell’s “Evolution of the ocean's “biological pump”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, October 4, 2011, volume 108, number 40, pp. 16485–16486. The model proposed by Rothman and associates has been generally dismissed, partly because there would not have been enough fecal pellets for the job. See discussion in Douglas H. Erwin and James W. Valentine’s The Cambrian Explosion, pp. 54-55. Nick Butterfield’s hypothesis is that larger organisms in the nascent “arms race” sank instead of floated in the water column, achieving a similar effect.

    [126] See John P. Grotzinger, et al.’s “Enigmatic origin of the largest-known carbon isotope excursion in Earth’s history”, (abstract here) Nature Geoscience, 4, 285–292 (2011). See Cal Tech’s article on their investigations here.

    [127] See Grant Young’s “Evolution of Earth’s climatic system: Evidence from ice ages, isotopes, and impacts”, GSA Today, October 2013.

    [128] See Christian J. Bjerrum and Donald E. Canfield’s “Towards a quantitative understanding of the late Neoproterozoic carbon cycle”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, April 5, 2011, volume 108, number 14, pp. 5542–5547 (also here).

    [129] This glaciation is called the Gaskiers glaciation, but it is currently questioned as being a global glaciation. See G. J. Retallack’s “Ediacaran Gaskiers Glaciation of Newfoundland reconsidered”, Journal of the Geological Society 2013, v.170; pp. 19-36. However, see data showing the Gaskiers glaciation discontinuity in carbon ratio data in See Douglas H. Erwin and James W. Valentine’s The Cambrian Explosion, p. 41.

    [130] See evidence of repeated excursions in Charles Verdel et al.’s “The Shuram and subsequent Ediacaran carbon isotope excursions from southwest Laurentia, and implications for environmental stability during the metazoan radiation”, Geological Society of America Bulletin, July/August 2011. Although the authors of that paper do not state the hypothesis directly, those kinds of papers are used by a school of thought, of which Nick Butterfield is a prominent representative, which sees life as the protagonist and geology/environment as the scenery.

    [131] See Nick Lane’s Oxygen, pp. 67-68.

    [132] See Nick Lane’s Oxygen, pp. 65-67.

    [133] See Geoffrey Wray, et al.’s “Molecular Evidence for Deep Precambrian Divergences Among Metazoan Phyla”, Science, October 25, 1996, volume 274. See another of Wray’s papers here, on the subject.

    [134] See Andrew Knoll’s Life on a Young Planet, pp. 200-205. See Nick Lane’s Oxygen, pp. 57-58.

    [135] The most beautiful fossil book I have yet encountered is Prehistoric Life, published by Dorling Kindersley.

    [136] See Andrew Knoll’s Life on a Young Planet, color plates 4 and 6.

    [137] See Andrew Knoll’s Life on a Young Planet, p. 151.

    [138] See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, p. 47.

    [139] See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, p. 2.

    [140] Before the 1700s, fossils were not universally recognized as being the mineralized remains of life forms. There were influential schools of thought that presented arguments that fossils were either some kind of faith-testing deceptions placed there by the Creator, or were somehow illusions that were fabricated by some geological “plastic force.” It was not until about 1750 that most naturalists accepted the idea that fossils were made from life forms, but they still denied the idea of extinction, as it conflicted with Christian notions of God’s inerrancy. See Michael J. Benton’s When Life Nearly Died, pp. 25-26.

    [141] See Andrew Knoll’s Life on a Young Planet, chapter 9.

    [142] The arguments and evidence regarding the Ediacaran biota are presented in some detail in Douglas H. Erwin and James W. Valentine’s The Cambrian Explosion, pp. 128-145.

    [143] See Douglas H. Erwin and James W. Valentine’s The Cambrian Explosion, pp. 138-139. See Andrew Knoll’s Life on a Young Planet, pp. 174-177.

    [144] See A. Hallam and P.B. Wignall’s Mass Extinction and their Aftermath, pp. 26-29.

    [145] See Nicholas Eyles and Nicole Januszczak’s “‘Zipper-rift’: a tectonic model for Neoproterozoic glaciations during the breakup of Rodinia after 750 Ma”, Earth-Science Reviews 65 (2004) 1 –73.

    [146] The paper that supports that view was co-authored by scientist who actually coined “Snowball Earth.” See Joseph Kirschvink et al.’s “Evidence for a Large-Scale Reorganization of Early Cambrian Continental Masses by Inertial Interchange True Polar Wander”, Science, July 25, 1997; volume 277, number 5325, pp. 541-545. See a response and rebuttal here.

    [147] See Eli Tziperman, et al.’s “Biologically induced initiation of Neoproterozoic snowball-Earth events”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, July 20, 2011, volume 108, number 37, pp. 15091-15096. See N. J. Butterfield’s “Inventing the Phanerozoic biological pump - and inducing Snowball Earth”, Goldschmidt 2013 Conference Abstracts. See Gordon D. Love et al.’s “Fossil steroids record the appearance of Demospongiae during the Cryogenian period”, Nature, February 5, 2009, volume 457. For the land plant hypothesis, see Daniel S. Heckman, et al.’s “Molecular Evidence for the Early Colonization of Land by Fungi and Plants”, Science, August 10, 2001, volume 293.

    [148] See Nick Butterfield’s “Oxygen, animals and oceanic ventilation: an alternative view”, Geobiology (2009), 7, 1– 7.

    [149] This is Nick Butterfield’s view, and it has sympathy among Precambrian specialists. Butterfield’s hypothesis of a stratified, anoxic, turbid, cyanobacterial water column giving way to an algae-dominated, clear water column is the preferred scenario in Douglas H. Erwin and James W. Valentine’s The Cambrian Explosion (pp. 52-53).

    [150] See Graham E. Budd’s “The earliest fossil record of the animals and its significance”, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, April 27, 2008. See Graham Shields-Zhou and Lawrence Och’s “The case for a Neoproterozoic Oxygenation Event: Geochemical evidence and biological consequences”, GSA Today, March 2011.

    [151] See Graham Shields-Zhou and Lawrence Och’s “The case for a Neoproterozoic Oxygenation Event: Geochemical evidence and biological consequences”, GSA Today, March 2011.

    [152] See L. Paul Knauth’s “Temperature and salinity history of the Precambrian ocean: implications for the course of microbial evolution”, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 219 (2005) 53– 69.

    [153] See N. J. Butterfield’s “Oxygen, animals and oceanic ventilation: an alternative view”, Geobiology January 2009, volume 7, issue 1, pp. 1-7.

    [154] This is a general theme in works such as Butterfield’s.

    [155] See Donald Prothero’s After the Dinosaurs, pp. 126-129.

    [156] See Michael J. Benton’s When Life Nearly Died, chapters 3 to 6.

    [157] See George R. McGhee and et al.’s “Ecological ranking of Phanerozoic biodiversity crises: The Serpukhovian (early Carboniferous) crisis had a greater ecological impact than the end-Ordovician”, Geology, February 2002, volume 40, number 2, pp. 147-150. On the issue of ranking extinctions, see A. M. Celâl Şengör, et al.’s “A scale of greatness and causal classification of mass extinctions: Implications for mechanisms”, in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, September 16, 2008, volume 105, number 37, pp. 13736-13740.

    [158] See Douglas Futuyma’s Evolution, chapter 18.

    [159] A joke in selfish-gene circles is that a chicken is just a way for an egg to reproduce itself. The author of the selfish-gene theory is the arch-materialist Richard Dawkins. Although a materialist and atheist, while promoting his theories Dawkins engages in anthropomorphic flourishes in attributing volition to genes. See Rupert Sheldrake’s The Science Delusion, chapter 6, for a discussion of genetic theories of inheritance and Dawkins’s advocacy.

    [160] The light-colored hair, skin, and eyes of northern Europeans are all likely related to adaptions to climates with less sunlight. See Gregory Cochran and Henry Harpending’s The 10,000 Year Explosion, pp. 90-94, 148-153.

    [161] Such creatures are called facultative anaerobes. LUCA may have been able to respire by using oxygen. See Nick Lane’s Oxygen, pp. 31-32.

    [162] See Douglas Futuyma’s Evolution, p. 168.

    [163] See Douglas Futuyma’s Evolution, p. 171.

    [164] See Dorrik Stow’s Vanished Ocean, p. 77.

    [165] See Peter Ward’s The Medea Hypothesis, pp. 70-71, 77-78. See Peter Ward’s Under a Green Sky, pp. 114-121.

    [166] See Peter Ward’s Under a Green Sky, pp. 199-203.

    [167] See Peter Ward’s Under a Green Sky, pp. 107-14. Ward was a nautilus specialist. See his account of the nautiloid and ammonoid similarities and differences in his On Methuselah’s Trail, chapters 4 and 5. In 2013, he disputed whether nautiloids are truly a living fossil. See his "Ingenious: Nautilis and Me", Nautilus, Issue 0, April 29, 2013.

    [168] See Michael J. Benton’s When Life Nearly Died, pp. 226-227.

    [169] See A. Hallam and P.B. Wignall’s Mass Extinction and their Aftermath, pp. 4-12.

    [170] See Donald Prothero’s The Eocene-Oligocene Transition, pp. 212-213.

    [171] See Michael J. Benton’s When Life Nearly Died, pp. 85-91.

    [172] See John Terborgh and James E. Estes, eds., Trophic Cascades.

    [173] On the coelacanth’s journey, see Peter Ward’s On Methuselah’s Trail, chapter 8.

    [174] See Douglas Futuyma’s Evolution, p. 549. See Richard C. Moore and Michael D. Purugganan’s “The early stages of duplicate gene evolution”, in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, December 23, 2003, volume 100, number 26, pp. 15682–15687.

    [175] See Andrew Knoll’s Life on a Young Planet, chapters 11 and 12. See Douglas Erwin H. and James W. Valentine’s The Cambrian Explosion, pp. 337-342.

    [176] See Peter Ward’s Out of Thin Air, pp. 42-49.

    [177] See Chapter IX, “On the imperfection of the geological record”, in Darwin’s Origin of Species. See Andrew Knoll’s Nick Life on a Young Planet, chapter 1, and Nick Lane’s Oxygen, chapter 4.

    [178] See Douglas H. Erwin and James W. Valentine’s The Cambrian Explosion, pp. 223-226.

    [179] See Nick Lane’s Oxygen, chapter 4, and Douglas Erwin H. and James W. Valentine’s The Cambrian Explosion, pp. 6-9.

    [180] See, for instance, Werner von Bloh, et al.’s “Cambrian explosion triggered by geosphere-biosphere feedbacks”, in Geophysical Research Letters, volume 30, number 18, September 27, 2003.

    [181] See Stefan Bengtson’s “Origins and Early Evolution of Predation”, Paleontological Society Papers, volume 8, 2002.

    [182] See Matt Ridley’s The Red Queen, which was a favored read of corporate raiders in the 1990s.

    [183] See Douglas H. Erwin and James W. Valentine’s The Cambrian Explosion, pp. 9-10.

    [184] See the appendix of Douglas Erwin H. and James W. Valentine’s The Cambrian Explosion for a table of the “First Appearances of Major Metazoan Clades in the Fossil Record”, compiled by Sarah Tweedt. The vast majority first appeared in the Cambrian period.

    [185] See Douglas H. Erwin and James W. Valentine’s The Cambrian Explosion, pp. 330-333.

    [186] See Douglas H. Erwin and James W. Valentine’s The Cambrian Explosion, p. 104.

    [187] See Nick Lane’s Oxygen, pp. 56-57.

    [188] See Douglas Erwin H. and James W. Valentine’s The Cambrian Explosion, p. 9.

    [189] See Nick Lane’s Oxygen, pp. 69-70. Again, the school of thought in which Nick Butterfield is prominent hypothesizes that different dynamics were responsible for removing carbon from the oceans.

    [190] See Douglas H. Erwin and James W. Valentine’s The Cambrian Explosion, pp. 149-152, 215.

    [191] See Chapter VI, “Difficulties on Theory,” in Charles Darwin’s Origin of Species

    [192] See Nick Lane’s Life Ascending, chapter 7.

    [193] See Nick Lane’s Life Ascending, pp. 176-179.

    [194] See Nick Lane’s Life Ascending, p. 183.

    [195] See Nick Lane’s Life Ascending, pp. 197-200.

    [196] See Rupert Sheldrake’s The Science Delusion, chapter 4.

    [197] See Nick Lane’s Oxygen, pp. 72-73, 183-184.

    [198] See Peter Ward’s Out of Thin Air, pp. 58-63.

    [199] See Peter Ward’s On Methuselah’s Trail, pp. 43-60.

    [200] See Peter Ward’s Out of Thin Air, pp. 68-70.

    [201] See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, p. 85. See Peter Ward’s Out of Thin Air, pp. 70-75.

    [202] See Peter Ward’s Out of Thin Air, pp. 75-78.

    [203] See a correction of GEOSCARBSULF’s carbon dioxide model in Benjamin J. Fletcher, et. al.’s “Atmospheric carbon dioxide linked with Mesozoic and early Cenozoic climate change”, Letter in Nature Geoscience, January 2008, volume 1, pp. 43 - 48, which reduces the peak Cretaceous carbon dioxide levels to about three times today’s, from about today’s levels in the end-Triassic.

    [204] See Peter Ward’s Out of Thin Air, p. 47.

    [205] See Douglas H. Erwin and James W. Valentine’s The Cambrian Explosion, p. 39.

    [206] See Matthew R. Saltzman, et al.’s “Pulse of atmospheric oxygen during the late Cambrian”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, March 3, 2011, volume 108, number 10, pp. 3876–3881.

    [207] See Douglas H. Erwin and James W. Valentine’s The Cambrian Explosion, pp. 293-317.

    [208] See A. Hallam and P.B. Wignall’s Mass Extinction and their Aftermath, pp. 34-35.

    [209] See Douglas H. Erwin and James W. Valentine’s The Cambrian Explosion, pp. 163-164.

    [210] See A. Hallam and P.B. Wignall’s Mass Extinction and their Aftermath, pp. 34-38.

    [211] See Douglas H. Erwin and James W. Valentine’s The Cambrian Explosion, p 58.

    [212] See Peter Ward’s Out of Thin Air, pp. 78-79.

    [213] See Oliver Morton’s Eating the Sun, p. 91.

    [214] See Thomas Homer-Dixon’s The Upside of Down, pp. 225-234.

    [215] See Thomas Homer-Dixon’s The Upside of Down, p. 229.

    [216] See Charles A.S. Hall and Kent A. Klitgaard’s Energy and the Wealth of Nations, pp. 243-244.

    [217] See Discontinuities in Ecosystems and other Complex Systems, edited by Craig R. Allen and C. S. Holling (and they authored the cited passage), p. 224-226.

    [218] See Douglas H. Erwin and James W. Valentine’s The Cambrian Explosion, pp. 337-342.

    [219] See Gauthier Chapelle and Lloyd S. Peck’s “Polar gigantism dictated by oxygen availability”, Nature, May 13, 1999, 399, 114-115. See Nick Lane’s Oxygen, pp. 101-104, on the study.

    [220] See Nick Lane’s Power, Sex, Suicide, chapter 9.

    [221] See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, pp. 14-15, 67.

    [222] See Peter Ward’s Out of Thin Air, p. 85.

    [223] See George R. McGhee’s When the Invasion of Land Failed, p. 31.

    [224] See Peter M. Sheehan’s “The Late Ordovician Mass Extinction”, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, May 2001, volume Vol. 29: 331-364. Again, there is dispute and controversy regarding the magnitude of the extinction.

    [225] See A. Hallam and P.B. Wignall’s Mass Extinction and their Aftermath, p. 55.

    [226] See A. Hallam and P.B. Wignall’s Mass Extinction and their Aftermath, p. 39-61 for that mass extinction in general.

    [227] See Kenneth Deffeyes’s Hubbert’s Peak, chapter 2. For how Cretaceous anoxic sediments were formed, see João Trabucho Alexandre, et al.’s “The mid-Cretaceous North Atlantic nutrient trap: Black shales and OAEs”, Paleoceanography, volume 25, PA4201, December 2010.

    [228] See Scott D. Sampson’s Dinosaur Odyssey, p. 203.

    [229] See George R. McGhee’s When the Invasion of Land Failed, p. 101.

    [230] See George R. McGhee’s When the Invasion of Land Failed, p. 266.

    [231] See Tais W. Dahl, et al.’s “Devonian rise in atmospheric oxygen correlated to the radiations of terrestrial plants and large predatory fish”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, October 19, 2010, volume 107, number 42, pp. 7911–17915. See response by N.J. Butterfield in his “Was the Devonian radiation of large predatory fish a consequence of rising atmospheric oxygen concentration?”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, March 1, 2011, volume 108, number 9, p. E28.

    [232] See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, pp. 92-97.

    [233] See John A. Long, et al.’s “Live birth in the Devonian period”, Nature, May 28, 2008, 453, 650-652.

    [234] See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, pp. 98-111.

    [235] See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, pp. 104-105.

    [236] See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, p. 97.

    [237] See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, p. 108.

    [238] See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, p. 109. See George R. McGhee’s When the Invasion of Land Failed, pp. 168-177.

    [239] See Oliver Morton’s Eating the Sun, p. 223. See George R. McGhee’s When the Invasion of Land Failed, pp. 40-45.

    [240] See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, p. 103.

    [241] See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, p. 104.

    [242] See Dimitrios Floudas, et al.’s “The Paleozoic Origin of Enzymatic Lignin Decomposition Reconstructed from 31 Fungal Genomes”, Science June 29, 2012; volume 336, number 6089, pp. 1715-1719.

    [243] See David Beerling’s The Emerald Planet, p. 33.

    [244] See George R. McGhee’s When the Invasion of Land Failed, p. 101.

    [245] See Eneas Salati and Peter B. Vose’s “Amazon Basin: A System in Equilibrium”, Science, July 13, 1984, volume 225, Number 4658. See y E. A. B. Eltahir and R. L. Bras’s “Precipitation recycling in the Amazon basin”, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, (1994), 120, pp. 861-880.

    [246] See Scott D. Sampson’s Dinosaur Odyssey, p. 78.

    [247] See George W. Koch, et al.’sThe limits to tree height”, Nature, April 22, 2004, 428, 851-854.

    [248] See Kaare H. Jensen and Maciej A. Zwieniecki’s “Physical Limits to Leaf Size in Tall Trees”, Physical Review Letters, January 4, 2013.

    [249] Forests use between 50% and 80% of their gross primary production for respiration. See David A. Perry’s Forest Ecosystems, p. 317.

    [250] See George R. McGhee’s When the Invasion of Land Failed, pp. 137-154.

    [251] See A. Hallam and P.B. Wignall’s Mass Extinction and their Aftermath, pp. 85-86.

    [252] See George R. McGhee’s When the Invasion of Land Failed, pp. 107-110.

    [253] See George R. McGhee’s When the Invasion of Land Failed, pp. 118-132.

    [254] See George R. McGhee’s When the Invasion of Land Failed, pp. 101, 264.

    [255] See George R. McGhee’s When the Invasion of Land Failed, pp. 99-107.

    [256] See George R. McGhee’s When the Invasion of Land Failed, pp. 110-111.

    [257] See George R. McGhee’s When the Invasion of Land Failed, p. 141.

    [258] See George R. McGhee’s When the Invasion of Land Failed, p. 49-51.

    [259] See George R. McGhee’s When the Invasion of Land Failed, pp. 106, 161.

    [260] See George R. McGhee’s When the Invasion of Land Failed, pp. 188-199.

    [261] On the Devonian extinction in general, see A. Hallam and P.B. Wignall’s Mass Extinction and their Aftermath, pp. 62-91. See George R. McGhee’s When the Invasion of Land Failed, pp. 179-184.

    [262] See George R. McGhee’s When the Invasion of Land Failed, pp. 266-273.

    [263] See George R. McGhee’s When the Invasion of Land Failed, pp. 184-188.

    [264] See George R. McGhee’s When the Invasion of Land Failed, pp. 187-188.

    [265] See Peter Ward, et al.’s “Confirmation of Romer's Gap as a low oxygen interval constraining the timing of initial arthropod and vertebrate terrestrialization”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, November 7, 2006, volume 103, number 45, pp. 16818-16822. See Peter Ward’s Out of Thin Air, p. 104-109.

    [266] See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, pp. 166-167.

    [267] See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, pp. 167-169.

    [268] I can imagine a scene with Roy Scheider reprising his Jaws scene, but in a rubber raft on a lake, with a fisherman’s hat, watching that apex predator swim by, maybe bumping the raft, and Scheider saying to himself, “I need a bigger raft.”

    [269] See Jon F. Harrison, et al.’s “Atmospheric oxygen level and the evolution of insect body size”, Proceedings of the Royal Society, July 7, 2010; volume 277, number 1690, pp. 1937–1946.

    [270] See David E. Fastovsky and David B. Weishampel’s Dinosaurs, A Concise Natural History, p. 62.

    [271] See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, p. 113.

    [272] See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, pp. 118-120.

    [273] See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, p. 94.

    [274] See George R. McGhee’s When the Invasion of Land Failed, p. 266.

    [275] See George R. McGhee, Jr., et al.'s "Ecological ranking of Phanerozoic biodiversity crises: The Serpukhovian (early Carboniferous) crisis had a greater ecological impact than the end-Ordovician", Geology, February 2012, volume 40, number 2, pp. 147-150. See George R. McGhee, Jr., et al.'s "A new ecological-severity ranking of major Phanerozoic biodiversity crises", Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Volume 370, January 15, 2013, pp. 260–270. See A. Hallam and P.B. Wignall’s Mass Extinction and their Aftermath, pp. 92-93.

    [276] See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, pp. 191-197.

    [277] See Nick Lane’s Life Ascending, p. 209.

    [278] See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, pp. 138-139.

    [279] See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, p. 140.

    [280] See Peter Ward’s Out of Thin Air, pp. 130-131.

    [281] See Peter Ward’s Out of Thin Air, pp. 144-150.

    [282] See A. Hallam and P.B. Wignall’s Mass Extinction and their Aftermath, pp. 110-111. See Michael J. Benton’s When Life Nearly Died, chapter pp. 219, 252.

    [283] See Dorrik Stow’s Vanished Ocean, p. 75. See A. Hallam and P.B. Wignall’s Mass Extinction and their Aftermath, pp. 125-126, 132-133.

    [284] See Dorrik Stow’s Vanished Ocean, pp. 51-54.

    [285] See Paul B. Wignall, et al.’s “Capitanian (middle Permian) mass extinction and recovery in western Tethys: A fossil, facies, and δ13C study from Hungary and Hydra Island (Greece)”, Palaios, 2012, v. 27, number 2, pp. 78-89. See David P.G. Bond, et al.’s “The Middle Permian (Capitanian) mass extinction on land and in the oceans”, Earth-Science Reviews, September 2010, volume 102, issues 1–2, pp. 100–116.

    [286] See A. Hallam and P.B. Wignall’s Mass Extinction and their Aftermath, pp. 133, 248.

    [287] See Seth D. Burgess, et al.'s "High-precision timeline for Earth’s most severe extinction", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, March 4, 2014, volume 111, number 9, pp. 3316–3321. See articles here (1, 2).

    [288] See Peter Ward’s Under a Green Sky, chapter 3. See Michael J. Benton’s When Life Nearly Died, chapter pp. 259-262.

    [289] See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, pp. 77-80. See A. Hallam and P.B. Wignall’s Mass Extinction and their Aftermath, pp. 94-141. See Michael J. Benton’s When Life Nearly Died, chapter pp. 180-283.

    [290] See A. Hallam and P.B. Wignall’s Mass Extinction and their Aftermath, p. 115.

    [291] See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, p. 79.

    [292] See Matthew E. Clapham and Jonathan L. Payne’s “Acidification, anoxia, and extinction: A multiple logistic regression analysis of extinction selectivity during the Middle and Late Permian”, Geology, November 2011, volume 39, number 11, pp. 1059-1062. See this New York Times article.

    [293] See Sandra C. Jasinoski, et al.’s, “Comparative Feeding Biomechanics of Lystrosaurus and the Generalized Dicynodont Oudenodon”, The Anatomical Record, June 2009, volume 292, issue 6, pp. 862–874.

    [294] See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, pp. 200-201.

    [295] See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, pp. 200-201.

    [296] See J. Peckmann, et al.’s “Mass Occurrences of the Brachiopod Halorella in Late Triassic Methane-Seep Deposits, Eastern Oregon”, The Journal of Geology, 2011, volume 119, pp. 207–220.

    [297] See Peter Ward’s Out of Thin Air, p. 214-216.

    [298] See Peter Ward’s Out of Thin Air, p. 188-191.

    [299] See Peter Ward’s Out of Thin Air, p. 164.

    [300] See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, p. 140.
    "I think it would be a good idea." Mahatma Gandhi, when asked what he thought of Western civilization.

    The philosophers have only interpreted the world, in various ways; the point is to change it.
    Karl Marx.

    "Well, he would, wouldn't he?" Mandy Rice-Davies, 1963, replied Ms Rice Davies when the prosecuting counsel pointed out that Lord Astor denied an affair or having even met her.

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    [301] See Scott D. Sampson’s Dinosaur Odyssey, pp. 3-6.

    [302] See David E. Fastovsky and David B. Weishampel’s Dinosaurs, A Concise Natural History, pp. 69-70.

    [303] See David E. Fastovsky and David B. Weishampel’s Dinosaurs, A Concise Natural History, pp. 255-256. See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, pp. 158-159.

    [304] See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, pp. 146-147.

    [305] See Sterling J. Nesbitt, et al.'s "The oldest dinosaur? A Middle Triassic dinosauriform from Tanzania", Biology Letters, February 23, 2013, volume 9, number 1.

    [306] See Peter Ward’s Out of Thin Air, p. 168.

    [307] See Joel Achenbach's When Dinosaurs Ruled, National Geographic special edition, 2014, p. 61.

    [308] See A. Hallam and P.B. Wignall’s Mass Extinction and their Aftermath, pp. 142-147.

    [309] See Scott D. Sampson’s Dinosaur Odyssey, chapter 12. See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, pp. 137-143.

    [310] See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, pp. 129-130.

    [311] See David E. Fastovsky and David B. Weishampel’s Dinosaurs, A Concise Natural History, pp. 94-95.

    [312] See Scott D. Sampson’s Dinosaur Odyssey, pp. 183-184.

    [313] See John R. Horner, et al.’s “How Dinosaurs Grew so Large and so Small”, in Scientific American’s special collector’s edition on dinosaurs, titled, Dinosaurs! How they lived; Why they Died, Summer 2014, pp. 4-11.

    [314] See Scott D. Sampson’s Dinosaur Odyssey, chapter 11. See David E. Fastovsky and David B. Weishampel’s Dinosaurs, A Concise Natural History, chapter 12.

    [315] See Peter Ward’s Out of Thin Air, pp. 171-183.

    [316] See Patrick M. O’Connor and Leon P. A. M. Claessens’s “Basic avian pulmonary design and flow-through ventilation in non-avian theropod dinosaurs”, July 14, 2005, Nature, volume 436, pp. 253-256.

    [317] See Peter Ward’s Out of Thin Air, pp. 199-213.

    [318] See David E. Fastovsky and David B. Weishampel’s Dinosaurs, A Concise Natural History, pp. 76-83.

    [319] See David E. Fastovsky and David B. Weishampel’s Dinosaurs, A Concise Natural History, pp. 168, 256.

    [320] See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, pp. 158-160.

    [321] See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, p. 158.

    [322] See David E. Fastovsky and David B. Weishampel’s Dinosaurs, A Concise Natural History, pp. 64-69.

    [323] See David E. Fastovsky and David B. Weishampel’s Dinosaurs, A Concise Natural History, p. 313. See Scott D. Sampson’s Dinosaur Odyssey, chapter 12. See A. Hallam and P.B. Wignall’s Mass Extinction and their Aftermath, pp. 142-147.

    [324] See Peter Ward’s Out of Thin Air, pp. 201-204.

    [325] See Caroline M.B. Jaraula, et al.’s “Elevated pCO2 leading to Late Triassic extinction, persistent photic zone euxinia, and rising sea levels”, Geology, published online July 11, 2013.

    [326] See Peter Ward’s Out of Thin Air, p. 152.

    [327] See Peter Ward’s Out of Thin Air, pp. 195-197.

    [328] See David E. Fastovsky and David B. Weishampel’s Dinosaurs, A Concise Natural History, p. 285. See Kristina A. Curry Rogers and Michael D. D’Emic’s “Triumph of the Titans”, in Scientific American’s special collector’s edition on dinosaurs, titled, Dinosaurs! How they lived; Why they Died, Summer 2014, pp. 12-19.

    [329] See David E. Fastovsky and David B. Weishampel’s Dinosaurs, A Concise Natural History, pp. 171-173.

    [330] See David E. Fastovsky and David B. Weishampel’s Dinosaurs, A Concise Natural History, pp. 168-174.

    [331] See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, pp. 284-285.

    [332] See Sharon Levy’s Once and Future Giants, pp. 35-64.

    [333] See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, pp. 191-197.

    [334] See David E. Fastovsky and David B. Weishampel’s Dinosaurs, A Concise Natural History, p. 285.

    [335] See David E. Fastovsky and David B. Weishampel’s Dinosaurs, A Concise Natural History, pp. 286-287.

    [336] See Richard O. Prum and Alan H. Brush’s “Which Came First, the Feather or the Bird?”, in Scientific American’s special collector’s edition on dinosaurs, titled, Dinosaurs! How they lived; Why they Died, Summer 2014, pp. 76-85.

    [337] See David E. Fastovsky and David B. Weishampel’s Dinosaurs, A Concise Natural History, chapters 10 and 11. See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, pp. 173-179.

    [338] See Nick Lane’s Power, Sex, Suicide, chapter 9.

    [339] See Nick Lane’s Oxygen, p. 255.

    [340] See Nick Lane’s Power, Sex, Suicide, pp. 269-273, 304-307.

    [341] See Bas van de Schootbrugge, et al.’s “Microbes, mud and methane: cause and consequence of recurrent Early Jurassic anoxia following the end-Triassic mass extinction”, Paleontology, July 2013, volume 56, issue 4, pp. 685-709.

    [342] About the only exceptions are oil deposits formed along the coast of California in the Miocene Epoch, about 20 mya, with a formation near Ventura, where I was raised, with one of the youngest, of Pleistocene age, about a kilometer or two away from the house where I grew up.

    [343] See A. Hallam and P.B. Wignall’s Mass Extinction and their Aftermath, pp. 161-166.

    [344] See Peter Ward’s Out of Thin Air, pp. 216-218.

    [345] See Peter Ward’s Out of Thin Air, p. 219.

    [346] See A. Hallam and P.B. Wignall’s Mass Extinction and their Aftermath, pp. 166-168. See Dorrik Stow’s Vanished Ocean, p. 139.

    [347] See David E. Fastovsky and David B. Weishampel’s Dinosaurs, A Concise Natural History, p. 285.

    [348] Recent discoveries on Madagascar throw doubt on some of the assumptions of Northern Hemisphere origins for some mammals, reptiles, and dinosaurs, as well as when certain features evolved. See John Flynn and André R. Wyss’s “Madagascar’s Mesozoic Secrets”, in Scientific American’s special collector’s edition on dinosaurs, titled, Dinosaurs! How they lived; Why they Died, Summer 2014, pp. 28-37.

    [349] See David E. Fastovsky and David B. Weishampel’s Dinosaurs, A Concise Natural History, p. 282.

    [350] See Patricia Vickers-Rocha and Thomas Hewitt Richs’s “Dinosaurs of Polar Australia”, in Scientific American’s special collector’s edition on dinosaurs, titled, Dinosaurs! How they lived; Why they Died, Summer 2014, pp. 46-53. See Anthony R. Fiorillo’s “Dinosaurs of Arctic Alaska”, in Scientific American’s special collector’s edition on dinosaurs, titled, Dinosaurs! How they lived; Why they Died, Summer 2014, pp. 54-61.

    [351] See Peter Ward’s Out of Thin Air, pp. 219-221.

    [352] See Peter Ward’s Out of Thin Air, pp. 214-216.

    [353] See A. Hallam and P.B. Wignall’s Mass Extinction and their Aftermath, pp. 171-183.

    [354] See David E. Fastovsky and David B. Weishampel’s Dinosaurs, A Concise Natural History, pp. 282-288. See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, pp. 191-197.

    [355] See David E. Fastovsky and David B. Weishampel’s Dinosaurs, A Concise Natural History, p. 287.

    [356] See David E. Fastovsky and David B. Weishampel’s Dinosaurs, A Concise Natural History, pp. 298-299.

    [357] See Peter Ward’s Under a Green Sky, chapter 1.

    [358] See Peter Ward’s Under a Green Sky, pp. 107-114.

    [359] See David E. Fastovsky and David B. Weishampel’s Dinosaurs, A Concise Natural History, pp. 322-343. See a more uncertain assessment in Richard Cowen’s History of Life, pp. 212-219.

    [360] See Peter Ward’s Under a Green Sky, chapter 3.

    [361] See Donald Prothero’s After the Dinosaurs, p. 50.

    [362] See Donald Prothero’s After the Dinosaurs, p. 55.

    [363] See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, pp. 201-202.

    [364] See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, pp. 200-201.

    [365] See Leslie C. Aiello and Peter Wheeler’s “The Expensive-Tissue Hypothesis”, Current Anthropology, volume 36, number 2, April 1995, pp. 199-221.

    [366] See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, pp. 200-201.

    [367] See Edward L. Simpson et al.'s "Predatory digging behavior by dinosaurs", Geology, volume 38, number 8, pp. 699-702. See also this Smithsonian article.

    [368] See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, pp. 203-204.

    [369] See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, p. 140.

    [370] See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, pp. 207-210.

    [371] See Stephen B. Vander Wall’s “The Evolutionary Ecology of Nut Dispersal”, The Botanical Review, January-March 2001, volume 67, issue 1.

    [372] See Donald Prothero’s After the Dinosaurs, p. 57. See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, pp. 221-224.

    [373] See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, pp. 226-227.

    [374] See Felisa A. Smith, et al.’s “The Evolution of Maximum Body Size of Terrestrial Mammals”, Science, November 26, 2010, volume 330, Number 6008, pp. 1216-1219

    [375] See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, p. 228.

    [376] See Brian Fagan’s The Great Warming, pp. 55-56.

    [377] See Donald Prothero’s After the Dinosaurs, pp. 67-70.

    [378] See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, pp. 230-231.

    [379] See David Beerling’s The Emerald Planet, chapter 6.

    [380] See David Beerling’s The Emerald Planet, p. 148.

    [381] See David Beerling’s The Emerald Planet, chapter 7, titled “Paradise Lost.” The subtitle of Donald Prothero’s The Eocene-Oligocene Transition is “Paradise Lost.”

    [382] See Donald Prothero’s After the Dinosaurs, p. 87.

    [383] See Dorrik Stow’s Vanished Ocean, pp. 259-264.

    [384] See Donald Prothero’s The Eocene-Oligocene Transition, p. 76.

    [385] See Donald Prothero’s After the Dinosaurs, p. 115.

    [386] See A. Hallam and P.B. Wignall’s Mass Extinction and their Aftermath, pp. 227-234.

    [387] See Donald Prothero’s After the Dinosaurs, pp. 143-145.

    [388] See Donald Prothero’s After the Dinosaurs, pp. 145-147.

    [389] See Donald Prothero’s After the Dinosaurs, pp. 150.

    [390] See A. Hallam and P.B. Wignall’s Mass Extinction and their Aftermath, pp. 233-234.

    [391] See Donald Prothero’s After the Dinosaurs, pp. 163-164.

    [392] See Donald Prothero’s After the Dinosaurs, pp. 167.

    [393] See, for instance, Jonathan P. LaRiviere, et al.’s “Late Miocene decoupling of oceanic warmth and atmospheric carbon dioxide forcing”, Nature, volume 486, pp. 97-100, June 7, 2012. See Mark Pagani, et al.’s “High Earth-system climate sensitivity determined from Pliocene carbon dioxide concentrations”, Nature Geoscience, volume 3, published online December 20, 2009. It can also be particularly instructive to see how the climate change “skeptics” react to such findings, such as here. Note a defense of the fossil fuel industry at the end of that response. That kind of response is typical of those who openly defend the fossil fuel industry (and usually funded by them, as that “skeptical” organization is) by their “business as usual” climate change “skepticism.”

    [394] See Donald Prothero’s After the Dinosaurs, pp. 181, 211-214.

    [395] See Donald Prothero’s After the Dinosaurs, pp. 188-191.

    [396] See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, p. 230.

    [397] See Donald Prothero’s After the Dinosaurs, p. 247.

    [398] See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, pp. 244-246. See Donald Prothero’s After the Dinosaurs, pp. 199-200.

    [399] See Donald Prothero’s After the Dinosaurs, p. 204.

    [400] See Donald Prothero’s After the Dinosaurs, p. 212.

    [401] See Peter Ward and David Brownlee’s The Life and Death of Planet Earth for an exploration of those ideas, and see this presentation for some of the ideas in their work.

    [402] See Donald Prothero’s After the Dinosaurs, pp. 214-223.

    [403] See Donald Prothero’s After the Dinosaurs, pp. 214-218.

    [404] See Donald Prothero’s After the Dinosaurs, p. 230.

    [405] See Donald Prothero’s After the Dinosaurs, p. 231.

    [406] See Donald Prothero’s After the Dinosaurs, p. 247.

    [407] See Dorrik Stow’s Vanished Ocean, pp. 259-264. See Donald Prothero’s After the Dinosaurs, pp. 225-230.

    [408] See Donald Prothero’s After the Dinosaurs, pp. 229-230.

    [409] See Donald Prothero’s After the Dinosaurs, p. 253.

    [410] On the Great American Biotic Interchange, see Richard Cowen’s History of Life, pp. 241-244, and Donald Prothero’s After the Dinosaurs, pp. 250-256. See Michael O. Woodburn's ""The Great American Biotic Interchange: Dispersals, Tectonics, Climate, Sea Level and Holding Pens", Journal of Mammalian Evolution, December 2010, volume 17, issue 4, pp. 245-264.

    [411] See Donald Prothero’s After the Dinosaurs, pp. 247-250.

    [412] There is a pronounced resistance in anthropological circles toward the idea of culture among great apes. One chimpanzee researcher, Victoria, Horner, said, in frustration: “In anthropological terms culture is the human niche…These things are so exclusive from the get-go. If we want to understand our place in the animal kingdom, we need to understand that the chimp/human border is so slim. Culture is just the next step. At what point are people going to give in and say, ‘Yes, we are apes?’ And be able to handle that? Darwin’s famous quote is that it’s a difference of degree, not of kind. People are just hell-bent on it being a difference in kind.” That quote is from Jon Cohen’s Almost Chimpanzee, p. 175.

    [413] See Alan Walker and Pat Shipman’s The Ape in the Tree for an account of the history of Proconsul research, from the first fossil discoveries to 21st century research and findings.

    [414] See Alan Walker and Pat Shipman’s The Ape in the Tree, pp. 37-42.

    [415] See Alan Walker and Pat Shipman’s The Ape in the Tree, pp. 186-187.

    [416] See Christopher Stringer and Peter Andrews’s The Complete World of Human Evolution, pp. 90-91.

    [417] See Clive Finlayson’s The Humans Who Went Extinct, pp. 20-21.

    [418] See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, p. 255.

    [419] See Christopher Stringer and Peter Andrews’s The Complete World of Human Evolution, pp. 96-97. See Alan Walker and Pat Shipman’s The Ape in the Tree, p. 163.

    [420] See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, pp. 255-256. See Alan Walker and Pat Shipman’s The Ape in the Tree, pp. 167, 196-199.

    [421] See Clive Finlayson’s The Humans Who Went Extinct, p. 9.

    [422] See Christopher Stringer and Peter Andrews’s The Complete World of Human Evolution, pp. 100-103.

    [423] See Alan Walker and Pat Shipman’s The Ape in the Tree, p. 194. See Ian Tattersall's Masters of the Planet, p. 2.

    [424] See Christopher Stringer and Peter Andrews’s The Complete World of Human Evolution, p. 103.

    [425] See Christopher Stringer and Peter Andrews’s The Complete World of Human Evolution, p. 103. See Clive Finlayson’s The Humans Who Went Extinct, pp. 10-11.

    [426] See Christopher Stringer and Peter Andrews’s The Complete World of Human Evolution, pp. 104-105.

    [427] See Christopher Stringer and Peter Andrews’s The Complete World of Human Evolution, pp. 110-113.

    [428] See Ian Tattersall’s The World from Beginnings to 4000 BCE, p. 41.

    [429] See Nicholas Wade’s Before the Dawn, pp. 14-16.

    [430] See Christopher Stringer and Peter Andrews’s The Complete World of Human Evolution, pp. 114-115.

    [431] See Richard Wrangham and Dale Peterson’s Demonic Males, chapter 3.

    [432] See, for instance, the human evolutionary tree in Ian Tattersall’s The World from Beginnings to 4000 BCE, p. 42.

    [433] See Richard Wrangham’s Catching Fire, pp. 98-102.

    [434] See Thomas Suddendorf's The Gap, chapter 3.

    [435] This is a prominent theme in Thomas Suddendorf's The Gap.

    [436] See abstract of P.M. Kappeler’s “Patterns of sexual dimorphism in body weight among prosimian primates”, Folia Primatol (Basel), 1991; issue 3, volume 57, pp. 132-146.

    [437] See Nicholas Wade’s Before the Dawn, p. 44.

    [438] See Richard C. Francis’s Why Men Won’t Ask for Directions. See Steven Pinker's The Blank Slate, chapter 6.

    [439] See Richard W. Young’s “Evolution of the human hand: the role of throwing and clubbing”, Journal of Anatomy, January 2003, volume 2, issue 1, pp. 165-174.

    [440] See Christopher Stringer and Peter Andrews’s The Complete World of Human Evolution, pp. 114, 126.

    [441] See Peter B. deMenocal's "Climate Shocks", in Scientific American's special evolution issue titled, Evolution, The Human Saga, pp. 48-53, September 2014. See also his "Climate and Human Evolution", Science, volume 331, February 4, 2011, pp. 540-542. See also "A grassy trend in human ancestors' diets", ScienceDaily, June 3, 2013. See Ian Tattersall's Masters of the Planet, chapter 3.

    [442] See Alan Walker and Pat Shipman’s The Ape in the Tree, pp. 109-112. See Christopher Stringer and Peter Andrews’s The Complete World of Human Evolution, p. 125.

    [443] See Christopher Stringer and Peter Andrews’s The Complete World of Human Evolution, p. 128. See Ian Tattersall’s The World from Beginnings to 4000 BCE, p. 47.

    [444] See Ian Tattersall’s The World from Beginnings to 4000 BCE, p. 47. See Ian Tattersall's Masters of the Planet, pp. 57-61.

    [445] See Richard Wrangham and Dale Peterson’s Demonic Males, pp. 46-47.

    [446] See Ian Tattersall’s The World from Beginnings to 4000 BCE, pp. 55-60.

    [447] See Stanley H. Ambrose’s “Paleolithic Technology and Human Evolution”, Science, March 2, 2001, volume 291, number 5509, pp. 1748-1753.

    [448] See Nicholas Wade’s Before the Dawn, pp. 13-14.

    [449] See Dario Maestripieri’s Machiavellian Intelligence, p. 61.

    [450] See Dario Maestripieri’s Machiavellian Intelligence, p. 144.

    [451] See Elisabetta Visalberghi and Dorothy Fragaszy’s “Learning how to Forage: Socially Biased Individual Learning and ‘Niche Construction’ in Wild Capuchin Monkeys”, chapter six of Frans B. M. de Wall and Pier Francesco Ferrari, eds., The Primate Mind.

    [452] See Susan Perry and Joseph H. Manson’s Manipulative monkeys; The Capuchins of Lomas Barbudal, chapter 9.

    [453] See Susan Perry and Joseph H. Manson’s Manipulative monkeys; The Capuchins of Lomas Barbudal, chapter 8.

    [454] See Carel van Schaik’s “Why are some animals so smart?”, in Scientific American, special edition titled “Becoming Human”, September 2006.

    [455] See Thomas Suddendorf's The Gap, chapter 9.

    [456] See Marco Iacoboni’s “The Human Mirror Neuron System and Its Role in Imitation and Empathy”, chapter three of Frans B. M. de Wall and Pier Francesco Ferrari, eds., The Primate Mind.

    [457] See Gary Stix's The "It" Factor", in Scientific American's special evolution issue titled, Evolution, The Human Saga, pp. 72-79, September 2014. See Steven Pinker's The Blank Slate, chapter 4. See Ian Tattersall's Masters of the Planet, pp. 213-216.

    [458] See Richard Wrangham’s Catching Fire, p. 42.

    [459] See Ian Tattersall’s The World from Beginnings to 4000 BCE, pp. 56-57.

    [460] See Christopher Stringer and Peter Andrews’s The Complete World of Human Evolution, p. 208.

    [461] See Kimberley J. Hockings, et al.’s “Chimpanzees Share Forbidden Fruit”, PLoS ONE, Published online September 12, 2007.

    [462] Suzana Herculano-Houzel and Jon H. Kaas’s “Gorilla and Orangutan Brains Conform to the Primate Cellular Scaling Rules: Implications for Human Evolution”, Brain, Behavior, and Evolution, February 2011; volume 7, number 1, pp. 33–44.

    [463] See Karina Fonseca-Azevedo and Suzana Herculano-Houzel’s “Metabolic constraint imposes tradeoff between body size and number of brain neurons in human evolution”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, November 6, 2012, volume 109, number 45, pp. 18571–18576.

    [464] R.I.M Dunbar and Susanne Shultz’s “Understanding primate brain evolution”, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, April 29, 2007, volume 362, number 1480, pp. 649-658.

    [465] See M. Dworak et al.’s “Sleep and Brain Energy Levels: ATP changes during sleep”, The Journal of Neuroscience, June 30, 2010, volume 30, number 26, pp. 9007-9016.

    [466] See Karin Isler and Carel van Schaik’s “Metabolic costs of brain size evolution”, Biology Letters, 2006 December 22, 2006, volume 2, number 4, pp. 557–560.

    [467] See Michael D. Sockol, et al.’s “Chimpanzee locomotor energetics and the origin of human bipedalism”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, July 24, 2007, volume 104, number 30, pp. 12265–12269. See Herman Pontzera, et al.’s “The metabolic cost of walking in humans, chimpanzees, and early hominins”, Journal of Human Evolution, volume 56, issue 1, January 2009, pp. 43–54. See Ian Tattersall's Masters of the Planet, pp. 15-16.

    [468] See Nicholas Wade’s Before the Dawn, p. 17.

    [469] See Leslie C. Aiello and Peter Wheeler’s “The Expensive-Tissue Hypothesis,” Current Anthropology, volume 36, number 2, April 1995, pp. 199-221.

    [470] See Leslie C. Aiello and Peter Wheeler’s “The Expensive-Tissue Hypothesis,” Current Anthropology, volume 36, number 2, April 1995, pp. 199-221.

    [471] See Richard Wrangham’s Catching Fire, pp. 117-118.

    [472] See Dario Maestripieri’s Machiavellian Intelligence, pp. 38-42, 72-73.

    [473] See Ana Navarrete et al.’s “Energetics and the evolution of human brain size”, Nature, December 1, 2011, volume 480, pp. 91-94.

    [474] See Richard Wrangham’s Catching Fire, pp. 100-102.

    [475] See Richard Wrangham’s Catching Fire, pp. 118-119.

    [476] See Richard Wrangham’s “Evolution of Coalitionary Killing”, Yearbook Of Physical Anthropology, volume 110, Issue Supplement 29, pp. 1–30. 1999. See Richard Wrangham and Dale Peterson’s Demonic Males for an examination of male-inflicted violence in great apes.

    [477] See Richard Wrangham’s “Evolution of Coalitionary Killing”, Yearbook Of Physical Anthropology, volume 110, Issue Supplement 29, pp. 1–30.

    [478] See Nicolas Wade’s Before the Dawn, pp. 22-27. See Ian Tattersall's Masters of the Planet, pp. 109-110.

    [479] See, for instance, Ian Tattersall’s The World from Beginnings to 4000 BCE, pp. 64, 68. In Clive Finlayson’s The Humans Who Went Extinct, he strenuously argues that modern humans had nothing to do with the disappearance of Neanderthals, but the notions that modern humans drove Neanderthals to extinction, as well as Homo erectus in Asia, are constantly debated today.

    [480] See Ian Tattersall’s The World from Beginnings to 4000 BCE, p. 42; he calls the human family tree depicted there “highly speculative.” Or see all the question marks in this human family tree.

    [481] See Tracy L. Kivell, et al.’s “Australopithecus sediba Hand Demonstrates Mosaic Evolution of Locomotor and Manipulative Abilities”, Science, September 9, 2011, volume 333, number 6048, pp. 1411-1417.

    [482] See Ian Tattersall’s The World from Beginnings to 4000 BCE, p. 64.

    [483] See Johan Goudsblom’s Fire and Civilization, p. 19.

    [484] See Richard Wrangham’s Catching Fire, pp. 190-191.

    [485] See Richard Wrangham’s Catching Fire, pp. 190-194.

    [486] See Frederick L Coolidge and Thomas Wynn’s “The effects of the tree-to-ground sleep transition in the evolution of cognition in early Homo”, Before Farming: the archaeology and anthropology of hunter-gatherers, 2006, issue 4, article 11.

    [487] See Jon Cohen’s Almost Chimpanzee, pp. 277-284.

    [488] See Richard Wrangham’s Catching Fire, p. 90.

    [489] See Chris Organ, et al.’s “Phylogenetic rate shifts in feeding time during the evolution of Homo”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, August 30, 2011, volume 108, number 35, pp. 14555–14559.

    [490] See Karina Fonseca-Azevedo and Suzana Herculano-Houzel’s “Metabolic constraint imposes tradeoff between body size and number of brain neurons in human evolution”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, November 6, 2012, volume 109, number 45, pp. 18571–18576.

    [491] See Richard Wrangham’s Catching Fire, pp. 92-93.

    [492] See Francesco Berna, et al.’s “Microstratigraphic evidence of in situ fire in the Acheulean strata of Wonderwerk Cave, Northern Cape province, South Africa”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, May 15, 2012, volume 109, number 20, pp. 7593–7594. See Ian Tattersall's Masters of the Planet, p. 112.

    [493] See Peter Bellwood’s First Migrants, pp. 47-48.

    [494] See Christopher Stringer and Peter Andrews’s The Complete World of Human Evolution, p. 225.

    [495] See Nicholas Wade’s Before the Dawn, pp. 17-19.

    [496] See Richard Wrangham’s Catching Fire, pp. 47-48.

    [497] See Ian Tattersall's If I Had a Hammer", in Scientific American's special evolution issue titled, Evolution, The Human Saga, pp. 55-59, September 2014. See Ian Tattersall's Masters of the Planet, chapter 9.

    [498] See Richard Wrangham’s Catching Fire, p. 100.

    [499] See Nicholas Wade’s Before the Dawn, pp. 141-146.

    [500] See Richard Wrangham and Dale Peterson’s Demonic Males, p. 224.

    [501] See Richard Wrangham and Dale Peterson’s Demonic Males, p. 148.

    [502] See Richard Wrangham and Dale Peterson’s Demonic Males, p. 159.

    [503] See Jon Cohen’s Almost Chimpanzee, p. 260.

    [504] See Nicholas Wade’s Before the Dawn, pp. 144-145.

    [505] See Richard Wrangham and Dale Peterson’s Demonic Males, pp. 146-151, 166.

    [506] See Tommaso Paoli’s “The Absence of Sexual Coercion in Bonobos”, chapter 16 of Martin Muller and Richard Wrangham, eds., Sexual Coercion in Primates and Humans.

    [507] See Christopher Stringer and Peter Andrews’s The Complete World of Human Evolution, pp. 144-147.

    [508] See Nicholas Wade’s Before the Dawn, pp. 154-158. See Lawrence H. Keeley’s War Before Civilization, pp. 103-106. See Ian Tattersall's Masters of the Planet, pp. 152-154, 172-173.

    [509] See Richard Wrangham’s Catching Fire, p. 93.

    [510] See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, p. 268.

    [511] See Peter Bellwood’s First Migrants, p. 51.

    [512] See Chris Stringer’s Lone Survivors, pp. 199-201.

    [513] See Peter Bellwood’s First Migrants, chapter 3.

    [514] See Nicholas Wade’s Before the Dawn, chapters 4 and 5.

    [515] See Nicholas Wade’s The Faith Instinct, pp. 119-123.

    [516] See Ian Tattersall’s The World from Beginnings to 4000 BCE, p. 16.

    [517] The source for the below list is from an anthropology course. See another summary in the appendix of Steven Pinker's The Blank Slate.
    UP (the Universal People) have mastered language, and UP’s languages all have universal traits, such as:
    Have nouns, verbs, and possessives;
    Have a number of grammatical and semantic rules that are identical across all UP’s languages, when there was no known reason for them to independently converge; there were other equally valid ways to structure sentences and grammar;
    Have dualistic traits, when it is not required, such as no UP’s language has single words for these three: good, not good, and bad; or bad, not bad, and good; UP’s languages do not have single words with those intermediate meanings, but related to the poles instead; their languages also describe the middles between the extremes, and can grade them;
    Have male and female terms;
    Have time-related terms, in both linear and circular terms;
    Newborns can be put into any culture on Earth and will grow up mastering the languages they were raised with.
    UP all use their languages for similar purposes, such as:
    Use special forms of speech, including poems and oratory, and they have structural similarities;
    Tell stories and myths, and their cultures have creation myths to explain how the world, and UP’s role in it, came to be, and until the explanations of modern science appeared, all explanations had supernatural aspects to them;
    Gossip;
    Use humor and insults;
    Use language to deceive, and others try to detect deceptive language, partly by inspecting non-verbal cues, such as facial expressions, posture, and gestures.
    UP have universally understood facial expressions, such as smiles and frowns.
    UP’s infants have a fear of loud noises, and by nearly one year of age, they fear all strangers.
    UP have a natural fear of snakes.
    UP are seen by their societies as individuals who commit acts intentionally and have a sense of personal responsibility for their actions.
    UP have a similar conception of age, which is not the only way to think about age.
    The primary social unit of UP is mothers and their children.
    UP have a sexual division of labor, with women doing most childrearing and men usually performing strenuous/dangerous labor to economically provide for the society and/or social unit, or protect it.
    UP have institutions that grant males preferential sexual access to females; and all have standards of appropriate potential mates – the incest taboo is not quite universal, but standards of appropriate unions are.
    UP have standards of sexual attractiveness which usually relate to a woman’s ability to bear healthy offspring and a man’s ability to economically provide for and protect the primary social unit.
    UP have hygiene standards;
    UP’s men commit most violence and men dominate all societies.
    UP’s fathers and young sons compete for the mother’s attention, which creates a tension that has been called the Oedipus complex.
    UP’s senior kin are partly responsible for socializing offspring, and UP recognize kin relationships;
    UP’s children learn partly via mimicry, and play and fight; their activities help develop adult skills.
    UP dance and make music, with those activities often conjoined, and UP have music for children.
    UP’s societies control fire and make tools and shelter.
    UP are territorial and judge others by their own standards.
    UP societies have complex political scheming.
    UP engage in reciprocal economic exchanges, and can retaliate when exchanges are unequal or other personal inequalities are not addressed.
    UP plan for the future.
    UP distinguish right from wrong, and regulate their public affairs.
    UP groups have leaders, whom the group members want to be generous.
    UP societies are never democratic or autocratic, so all are oligarchic.
    UP make promises and can empathize.
    Envy is common among UP, and all societies try to minimize it.
    UP think that they are more objective than they really are.
    UP have laws, particularly against murder and rape, although in warfare those strictures are often relaxed.
    People who offend the laws are punished.
    Conflict is common, and UP’s societies try to reduce it, and conflicts are structured around in-group versus out-group dynamics, with different ethical standards for dealing with in-group and out-group people.
    UP have etiquette and hospitality as ideals.
    UP’s societies have customary behaviors.
    UP’s societies have standard eating times and other daily routines, and occasions for feasts.
    UP’s sexual activities and bodily excretion are conducted in private.
    UP have fashion and style their hair.
    UP have taboos on certain foods and utterances.
    UP’s societies anthropomorphize phenomena and have beliefs that are demonstrably false.
    UP practiced magic to protect life and attract the opposite sex, and have theories of luck.
    UP have rituals, and some are regarding status changes, such as rites of passage and marriage; they mourn their dead.
    UP have supernatural beliefs and believe in extra-physical activities.
    UP are still materialists, and value property and how it transfers to others, including descendants
    UP dream and attempt to interpret the dreams.
    UP try to explain sickness and death, and know that they are connected. They try to heal the sick and use medicines.
    UP practice divination and try to control the weather.

    [518] See David Cogswell’s Chomsky for Beginners, p. 44.

    [519] See Randy Allen Harris’s The Linguistics Wars.

    [520] See Nicholas Wade’s Before the Dawn, pp. 37-40.

    [521] See Nicholas Wade’s Before the Dawn, chapter 3.

    [522] See Nicholas Wade’s Before the Dawn, chapter 5.

    [523] See Nicholas Wade’s The Faith Instinct, chapter 9.

    [524] See Steven L. Kuhn’s and Mary C. Steiner’s “The antiquity of hunter-gatherers”, p. 102 in chapter 5 of Hunter-Gatherers: An Interdisciplinary Perspective, Catherine Panter-Brick, et al., eds.

    [525] See Joachim Radkau’s Nature and Power, p. 47.

    [526] See Shepard Krech III’s, The Ecological Indian, chapter 5.

    [527] See Richard Cowen’s History of Life, pp. 286-287. See Sharon Levy’s Once and Future Giants, pp. 79-105. See Jared Diamond’s Guns, Germs, and Steel, pp. 42-44. See Tim Flannery’s The Future Eaters, pp. 180-194. See Joachim Radkau’s Nature and Power, p. 47. See William F. Ruddiman’s Plows, Plagues, and Petroleum, chapter 6. See Charles A.S. Hall and Kent A. Klitgaard’s Energy and the Wealth of Nations, p. 44.

    [528] Paul L. Koch and Anthony D. Barnosky’s “Late Quaternary Extinctions: State of the Debate”, The Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 2006, volume 37, pp. 215-250. A few months after this chapter was first drafted, a new paper confirmed my views. The authors cited some of the very same papers that I thought were seriously flawed, which concluded that climate change killed off the Australian and South American megafauna, for instance. See Christopher Sandom, et al.'s "Global late Quaternary megafauna extinctions linked to humans, not climate change", Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, July 2014, volume 281, number 1787, 20133254. The paper was first published on June 4, 2014.

    [529] See Clive Finlayson’s The Humans Who Went Extinct, chapter 4.

    [530] The loyal opposition to the idea of human agency in the megafauna extinctions is led by Donald Grayson, who has challenged Paul Martin’s overkill hypothesis from the early days. See Sharon Levy’s Once and Future Giants, chapter 1. A recent paper that Grayson coauthored is Stephen Wroe, et al.’s “Climate change frames debate over the extinction of megafauna in Sahul (Pleistocene Australia-New Guinea)”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2013. Wroe has long challenged the notion of human-caused megafauna extinctions. See, for instance, Stephen Wroe’s “Would the Australian megafauna be extinct had there been no climate change?Quaternary Science Reviews, 2007, volume 26, pp. 565–567. See Wroe’s paper coauthored with Judith Field, “A review of the evidence for a human role in the extinction of Australian megafauna and an alternative interpretation”, Quaternary Science Reviews, 2006, volume 25, pp. 2692–2703. They have made careers out of challenging the notion of human agency in Australian megafauna extinctions.

    [531] See Gavin J. Prideaux, et al.’s “An arid-adapted middle Pleistocene vertebrate fauna from south-central Australia”, Nature, January 25, 2007, volume 445, pp. 422-425. See Richard G. Roberts, et al.’s “New Ages for the Last Australian Megafauna: Continent-Wide Extinction About 46,000 Years Ago”, Science, June 8, 2001, volume 292, pp. 1888-1892. See Susan Rule, et al.’s “The Aftermath of Megafaunal Extinction: Ecosystem Transformation in Pleistocene Australia”, Science, March 23, 2012, volume 335, number 6075, pp. 1483-1486. See David Biello’s “Big Kill, Not Big Chill, Finished Off Giant Kangaroos”, Scientific American, March 22, 2012.

    [532] See Lawrence H. Keeley’s War Before Civilization, pp. 5-15.

    [533] See Lawrence H. Keeley’s War Before Civilization, pp. vii-24.

    [534] See Nicholas Wade’s Before the Dawn, pp. 60-63.

    [535] See Irina Pugach, et al.’s “Genome-wide data substantiate Holocene gene flow from India to Australia”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, January 29, 2013, volume 110, number 5, pp. 1803-1808.

    [536] See Raymond C. Kelly’s Warless Societies and the Origin of War, chapter 3.

    [537] See Nicholas Wade’s The Faith Instinct, chapter 5.

    [538] See Robert Boyd, et al.’s “Coordinated Punishment of Defectors Sustains Cooperation and Can Proliferate When Rare”, Science, April 30, 2010, Volume 328, number 5978, pp. 617-620. See also this article. Controlled experiments have shown that people are vigilant of cheaters and will punish them if they can, even at significant cost to themselves.

    [539] See Nicholas Wade’s Before the Dawn, pp. 67.

    [540] See Tim Flannery’s The Future Eaters, pp. 189-190, relating an anecdote in which Charles Darwin watched a boy kill his dinner in the Galapagos Islands by killing birds that came to a well to drink. The area had been settled for several years, and the boy had already made it a regular practice to kill his meals that way in the same place.

    [541] See Tim Flannery’s The Future Eaters, pp. 187-194.

    [542] See Michael F. Hammer, et. al.’s “Genetic evidence for archaic admixture in Africa”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, September 13, 2011, volume 108, number 37, pp. 15123-15128.

    [543] See Peter Bellwood’s First Migrants, p. 67. See Nicholas Wade’s Before the Dawn, pp. 94-95.

    [544] See Ian Tattersall’s The World from Beginnings to 4000 BCE, pp. 96-105. See Clive Finlayson’s The Humans Who Went Extinct, chapters 6 and 7. See Brian Fagan’s Cro-Magnon, pp. 130-131. See Christopher Stringer and Peter Andrews’s The Complete World of Human Evolution, pp. 164-165.

    [545] See S. Péan’s “Mammoth and subsistence practices during the Mid Upper Palaeolithic of Central Europe (Moravia, Czech Republic)”, The Proceedings of The World of Elephants - International Congress, Rome 2001. See Brian Fagan’s Cro-Magnon, chapter 9. See abstract of Jiřı́ Svoboda, et al.’s “Mammoth bone deposits and subsistence practices during Mid-Upper Palaeolithic in Central Europe: three cases from Moravia and Poland”, Quaternary International, 2005, Volumes 126-128, 2005, pp. 209-221.

    [546] See Clive Ponting’s A New Green History of the World, pp. 27-33.

    [547] See Jean Guilaine and Jean Zammit’s The Origins of War, p. 50.

    [548] See Jean Guilaine and Jean Zammit’s The Origins of War for many photographs of such artifacts and wounds.

    [549] See Jean Guilaine and Jean Zammit’s The Origins of War, pp. 49-60.

    [550] See Jean Guilaine and Jean Zammit’s The Origins of War, pp. 67-72.

    [551] See Peter Ward’s The Call of Distant Mammoths, p. 138.

    [552] Deloria was a prominent member of the debate. See Paul Martin’s Twilight of the Mammoths, p. 146. Velikovsky was a Jewish Biblical catastrophist who proposed a hypothesis that storied events such as parting the Red Sea and manna from heaven were historical events caused by Earth’s near misses with Venus and Mars. I stumbled into the Velikovsky issue in the 1990s while investigating Carl Sagan’s debunking career, and I am still on the controversy’s fringes. There is no astronomical evidence to support Velikovsky’s ideas of wandering and young planets, and the common catastrophist idea that the megafauna extinctions were due to celestial events is less tenable than the climate-change hypotheses. Although some in the scientific establishment acted scandalously regarding the reception of Velikovsky’s work (Einstein was one of the few gracious ones), very little data supports Velikovsky’s hypothesis, and the data falsifies it in numerous aspects, such as his idea that Venus erupted from Jupiter several thousand years ago. Catastrophism and uniformitarianism have been two poles of geophysical debate for two centuries, but basing scientific arguments on literal interpretations of ancient myths is a dubious approach. Deloria himself became persona non grata in various catastrophic circles when he dismissed the Saturn Myth, which was an even more involved version of the wandering planets scenario. There is little evidence in support of those highly speculative ideas, other than novel interpretations of mythical texts, and a great deal of geophysical and astronomical evidence falsifies them.

    [553] See Stephen Ambrose’s Undaunted Courage, pp. 90, 154.

    [554] See, for instance, chapter 9 of Richard Fariña, et al.’s Megafauna; Giant Beasts of Pleistocene South America. Donald Prothero has similarly “nuanced” extinction explanations in his After the Dinosaurs.

    [555] Most of my career has been spent producing and analyzing financial data and designing, implementing, and maintaining information systems. I reviewed highly complex analyses by employees that I supervised, some of which was running models that I designed. Modeling and analysis results are only as good as the algorithms and inputs. Use flawed inputs, or models that do not reflect reality, and the results can be bizarre. In reviewing my subordinates’ work, I had to dive deeply into the details to ensure that the models still functioned how I designed them and that the data was valid, and I would then pull back to the high levels and see if the results made sense. When they did not, I would closely examine the data and algorithms, find the problems, fix them or direct my employees to, and then direct my employees to try again. Sometimes unusual results were genuine, but that was rare.
    Human-agency skeptics publish papers with data, graphs, and minutia, with hypotheses for why various climate dynamics impacted mass extinctions, but their answers do not make sense. How does a continental ecosystem that evolved in splendid isolation for more than forty million years, and readily adapted to the vagaries of the current ice age, suddenly lose its entire guild of large herbivores and related predators, during a climatically unremarkable period, and climate change somehow did it? At the same climatically unremarkable time, the greatest predator in Earth’s history coincidentally arrived, which would have been highly motivated to exterminate the herbivores that formed that guild, and very likely would have found it an effortless task, at least until the easy meat was gone.
    History's most successful land mammal not only survived invasions that exterminated most of its neighbors but flourished like no other land mammal ever did, and did well everywhere that it could migrate to, and had nearly twenty million years of unprecedented success. Suddenly, all of those highly successful animals that did not evolve near that super-predator went extinct when first encountering it. Those with some familiarity took longer to drive to extinction, and those with the longest experience survived, but those with no experience quickly went extinct, and an entire hemisphere of them, from tundra to grasslands to mountains to rainforests, both tropical and temperate. Likewise, a mammal that was even larger and was one of the few survivors of an invasion three million years earlier, and had 30 million years of success, suddenly went extinct, just when that super-predator arrived, and would have found that animal among the world’s easiest to kill. In two other instances, some of humanity’s most prized domestic animals, one of which lived in its homeland for 50 million years and the other for 40 million years, and succeeded on the continents where that super-predator hunted them and eventually domesticated them, suddenly went extinct in their homeland, right when that super-predator arrived. I have not seen any human-agency skeptics deal satisfactorily with those rapid extinctions of highly successful mammals. I rarely even see them mentioned, as they sell climate-change stories. Their stories make no sense.
    If my employees produced the analyses that human-agency skeptics have for the megafauna extinctions, I would have told them to start over, and further informed them that they had wasted our valuable time. They came up with answers that only made sense if they obsessively focused on the model’s minutia without ever subjecting their results to the “sniff test.” Getting “lost in the weeds” like that is common among young analysts, and that is what supervisors are for, and human-agency skeptics could probably use some. Even worse is when such models are used to hoodwink the naïve and unwary, which I have seen happen often enough. That is one way that financial and accounting fraud is committed.
    In summary, the vanished megafauna displayed many attributes and an incredibly long history which present virtually insurmountable hurdles for a climate-change explanation, particularly when the global and staggered nature of the extinctions are considered, and human agency is the only plausible alternative. Human-agency skeptics remind me of defense attorneys conjuring fantastic scenarios to lodge a sliver of doubt in the minds of jury members. Humans had the means, motive, and opportunity to go on their first global energy spree, and they had no motive or awareness to ameliorate their practices before they began mining the dregs in the spree’s aftermath and fighting over scraps in a classic resource depletion scenario, which humans have inflicted many times, including today's depletion of hydrocarbon deposits. Climate change may have helped make the job quicker and easier, but the frenzy’s conclusion was foregone when it began.

    [556] See Raymond C. Kelly’s “The evolution of lethal intergroup violence”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, October 25, 2005, volume 102, number 43, pp. 15,294-15,298.

    [557] The term “primitive” was used by anthropologists to describe how nonliterate peoples conducted war. Today, it is called “nonliterate” or “native” warfare. See Keith F. Otterbein’s The Anthropology of War, p. 2.

    [558] See Jonathan Lunine’s Earth: Evolution of a Habitable World, p. 299.

    [559] My family home in Ventura, California was on about a third of an acre, or 0.13 hectares, or 130% of what that Japanese rice farmer needs to feed his family.

    [560] See Lawrence H. Keeley’s War Before Civilization, pp. 89, 93.

    [561] See Jean Guilaine and Jean Zammit’s The Origins of War, chapter 3.

    [562] See Raymond C. Kelly’s Warless Societies and the Origin of War, pp. 132-133.

    [563] See Lawrence H. Keeley’s War Before Civilization, chapter 8. See Raymond C. Kelly’s Warless Societies and the Origin of War, pp. 132-133.

    [564] See Nicholas Wade’s The Faith Instinct, pp. 45-52. On the enforced egalitarianism, see Hunter-Gatherers: An Interdisciplinary Perspective, Catherine Panter-Brick, et al., eds., pp. 30-31.

    [565] See Lawrence H. Keeley’s War Before Civilization, pp. 108-121.

    [566] See Lawrence H. Keeley’s War Before Civilization, pp. 123.

    [567] See Keith F. Otterbein’s The Anthropology of War, pp. 24-28.

    [568] See Keith F. Otterbein’s The Anthropology of War, pp. 77-82.

    [569] See Raymond C. Kelly’s Warless Societies and the Origin of War, pp. 27-29. See Kelly’s book in general, and also Lawrence H. Keeley’s War Before Civilization, and Richard Wrangham and Dale Peterson’s Demonic Males for more background.

    [570] See Brian Fagan’s The Long Summer, pp. 82-85.

    [571] See Charles A.S. Hall and Kent A. Klitgaard’s Energy and the Wealth of Nations, p. 49.

    [572] See Keith F. Otterbein’s The Anthropology of War, pp. 76-82.

    [573] See Paul Bairoch’s Cities and Economic Development, chapter 1.

    [574] See Paul Bairoch’s Cities and Economic Development, pp. 6-7.

    [575] See Paul Bairoch’s Cities and Economic Development, pp. 6-7.

    [576] See Robert H. Layton’s “Hunter-gatherers, their neighbours and the Nation-State”, chapter 1 of Hunter-Gatherers: An Interdisciplinary Perspective, Catherine Panter-Brick, et al., eds.

    [577] See Keith F. Otterbein’s The Anthropology of War, chapter 5. See Nicholas Wade’s Before the Dawn, pp. 156-158.

    [578] See Earl Cook’s Man, Energy, Society, pp. 174-175, 421-422.

    [579] See Joyce Marcus and Jeremy A. Sabloff, eds., The Ancient City, pp. 30-31.

    [580] See Clive Ponting’s A New Green History of the World, p. 68.

    [581] See Clive Ponting’s A New Green History of the World, chapter 5.

    [582] See Jessica Pearson, et al.’s “Food and social complexity at Çayönü Tepesi, southeastern Anatolia: Stable isotope evidence of differentiation in diet according to burial practice and sex in the early Neolithic”, Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, June 2013, volume 32, issue 2, pp. 180–189.

    [583] See John Perlin’s A Forest Journey, pp. 70-71.

    [584] See Clive Ponting’s A New Green History of the World, p. 75.

    [585] See William Bond’s “Consumer Control by Megafauna and Fire,” chapter 16 of John Terborgh and James E. Estes, eds., Trophic Cascades, p. 276.

    [586] See Ross Hassig’s Mexico and the Spanish Conquest, p. 151.

    [587] See David E. Nye’s Consuming Power, p. 60.

    [588] See Barbara Freese’s Coal: A human History, p. 22.

    [589] See Paul Bairoch’s Cities and Economic Development, pp. 11-12.

    [590] See Paul Bairoch’s Cities and Economic Development, pp. 376-378.

    [591] See Paul Bairoch’s Cities and Economic Development, pp. 8-9.

    [592] See Clive Ponting’s A New Green History of the World, p. 55.

    [593] See Charles A.S. Hall and Kent A. Klitgaard’s Energy and the Wealth of Nations, p. 48.

    [594] See J.N. Postgate’s Early Mesopotamia, pp. 254-258. See Clive Ponting’s A New Green History of the World, pp. 56-59.

    [595] See J.N. Postgate’s Early Mesopotamia, pp. 257-258.

    [596] See Nicholas Wade’s The Faith Instinct, pp. 130-139.

    [597] See J.N. Postgate’s Early Mesopotamia, chapter 6.

    [598] See J.N. Postgate’s Early Mesopotamia, chapter 10. See K. Anne Pyburn’s “Pomp and Circumstance before Belize”, in chapter 13 of Joyce Marcus and Jeremy A. Sabloff, eds., The Ancient City, pp. 250-252, 266-272, for a survey of how it worked with the classic Maya.

    [599] See J.N. Postgate’s Early Mesopotamia, chapter 7.

    [600] See Keith F. Otterbein’s The Anthropology of War, pp. 77-82.

    [601] See Keith F. Otterbein’s The Anthropology of War, p. 82.

    [602] See Nicholas Wade’s The Faith Instinct, pp. 124-127.

    [603] See J.N. Postgate’s Early Mesopotamia, pp. 200-204.

    [604] See John Perlin’s A Forest Journey, pp. 35-39.

    [605] See John Perlin’s A Forest Journey, pp. 39.

    [606] See John Perlin’s A Forest Journey, pp. 40-42.

    [607] See John Perlin’s A Forest Journey, p. 42.

    [608] See John Perlin’s A Forest Journey, pp. 43. See Clive Ponting’s A New Green History of the World, pp. 69-72. See Charles L. Redman’s Human Impact on Ancient Environments, pp. 133-139.

    [609] See Elinor G. K. Melville’s A Plague of Sheep, pp. 60-77.

    [610] See Joseph Tainter’s The Collapse of Complex Societies, Jared Diamond’s Collapse, and Tainter’s review of Diamond’s Collapse in “Collapse, Sustainability, and the Environment: How Authors Choose to Fail or Succeed”, Reviews in Anthropology, volume 37, number 4, pp. 342-371.

    [611] See Thomas Homer-Dixon’s The Upside of Down for his arguments and analyses. He writes on his primary issues at this link, among many others.

    [612] See Brian Fagan’s The Great Warming for an account of how droughts that visited societies across Earth collapsed numerous civilizations during Europe’s Medieval Warm Period, between about 950 CE and 1250 CE.

    [613] See Michael T. Klare’s Resource Wars for a survey of modern resource issues and resultant conflicts.

    [614] See Thomas Homer-Dixon’s The Upside of Down, pp. 57-60, 245-250.

    [615] See Clive Ponting’s A New Green History of the World, chapter 5.

    [616] See Tainter's critiques of Diamond's work, for instance.

    [617] See Anthony N. Penna’s The Human Footprint, pp. 117-121.

    [618] See Paul Bairoch’s Cities and Economic Development, chapter 14 and p. 505

    [619] See Jared Diamond and Peter Bellwood’s “Farmers and Their Languages: The First Expansions”, Science, April 25, 2003, volume 300, number 5619, pp. 597-603. See Jared Diamond’s Guns, Germs, and Steel, chapter 10. See Bruce D. Smith’s “Eastern North America as an independent center of plant domestication”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, August 15, 2006, volume 133, number 33, pp. 12223–12228.

    [620] See Nicholas Wade’s The Faith Instinct, p. 133.

    [621] If viewed through the “Soul Age” model of human development, those hunter-gatherers that conquered the world were largely Infant Souls, members of early civilizations were mostly Baby Souls, today’s materialists (atheists, etc., or the greedy ones on Wall Street) are Young Souls, progressives are mainly Mature Souls, and Old Souls are trying to help humanity turn the corner, and manifestations of the Infinite Soul, such as Jesus, Ra, Lao-Tzu, Buddha, and Krishna, sought to help humanity remember its true roots beyond the physical plane and our purpose for being here. Nobody needs to “believe” that framework, but many have found it helpful, including me, and there are plenty of similar frameworks, which likely all have at least some validity. I think that high quality reports of afterlife realms are valid; I have known people who have journeyed there and returned. While mainstream science ignores or derides those aspects of existence it plays a small game, for the greatest science of all is probably the science of consciousness.

    [622] See Joseph Tainter’s The Collapse of Complex Societies, pp. 33-37.

    [623] See Bruce Trigger’s “Craft Workers, Kings, and Controlling the Supernatural” chapter 3 of Joyce Marcus and Jeremy A. Sabloff, eds., The Ancient City, p. 56.

    [624] See Clive Ponting’s A New Green History of the World, chapter 6.

    [625] See Joachim Radkau’s Nature and Power, pp. 36-45.

    [626] See William F. Ruddiman’s Plows, Plagues, and Petroleum, p. 108.

    [627] See William F. Ruddiman’s Plows, Plagues, and Petroleum, chapter 8 and p. 108.

    [628] See Paul Bairoch’s Cities and Economic Development, pp. 13-15.

    [629] See William F. Ruddiman’s Plows, Plagues, and Petroleum, p. 69.

    [630] See Arther Ferrill’s The Origins of War, chapter 6.

    [631] See Nicholas Wade’s The Faith Instinct, chapter 7.

    [632] See William G. Dever’s Who Were the Early Israelites and Where Did the Come From?, chapter 12.

    [633] See Nicholas Wade’s The Faith Instinct, pp. 154-155.

    [634] See Clive Ponting’s A New Green History of the World, pp. 82-86.

    [635] See J. Donald’s Hughes’s Pan’s Travail, pp. 40-41.

    [636] See Paul Bairoch’s Cities and Economic Development, pp. 53-54.

    [637] See Brian Fagan’s Floods, Famines, and Emperors, chapter 6.

    [638] See J. Donald’s Hughes’s Pan’s Travail, p. 42.

    [639] See Charles A.S. Hall and Kent A. Klitgaard’s Energy and the Wealth of Nations, p. 67.

    [640] See Adam Wasserman’s Two Sides of the Coin: A History of Gold, pp. 43-55.

    [641] See Adam Wasserman’s Two Sides of the Coin: A History of Gold, pp. 55-62.

    [642] See John Perlin’s A Forest Journey, pp. 46-47.

    [643] See John Perlin’s A Forest Journey, p. 55.

    [644] See Joachim Radkau’s Nature and Power, pp. 22-27.

    [645] See John Perlin’s A Forest Journey, p. 72.

    [646] See John Perlin’s A Forest Journey, p. 73.

    [647] See John Keegan's A History of Warfare, chapter 4.

    [648] See John Perlin’s A Forest Journey, p. 61.

    [649] See John Perlin’s A Forest Journey, p. 62.

    [650] See John Perlin’s A Forest Journey, pp. 64-65.

    [651] See John Perlin’s A Forest Journey, p. 68.

    [652] See John Perlin’s A Forest Journey, p. 75-81.

    [653] See Paul Bairoch’s Cities and Economic Development, pp. 72-80.

    [654] See John Perlin’s A Forest Journey, pp. 82-84.

    [655] See John Perlin’s A Forest Journey, p. 88.

    [656] See J. Donald’s Hughes’s Pan’s Travail, p. 2.

    [657] See John Perlin’s A Forest Journey, p. 93-94.

    [658] See J. Donald’s Hughes’s Pan’s Travail, pp. 82-85.

    [659] See J. Donald’s Hughes’s Pan’s Travail, pp. 4, 64-65, 85.

    [660] See John Perlin’s A Forest Journey, p. 104.

    [661] See Paul Bairoch’s Cities and Economic Development, pp. 81-87.

    [662] See J. Donald’s Hughes’s Pan’s Travail, pp. 100-103.

    [663] See J. Donald’s Hughes’s Pan’s Travail, pp. 105-108.

    [664] See John Perlin’s A Forest Journey, p. 116.

    [665] See J. Donald’s Hughes’s Pan’s Travail, p. 85.

    [666] See John Perlin’s A Forest Journey, pp. 118-119.

    [667] See John Perlin’s A Forest Journey, pp. 120-121.

    [668] See J. Donald’s Hughes’s Pan’s Travail, pp. 115.

    [669] See Peter Garnsey and Richard Saller’s The Roman Empire: Economy, Society, and Culture, chapter 3.

    [670] See Adam Wasserman’s Two Sides of the Coin: A History of Gold, pp. 63-86.

    [671] See John Perlin’s A Forest Journey, pp. 124-125.

    [672] See John Perlin’s A Forest Journey, pp. 119-120.

    [673] See Clive Ponting’s A New Green History of the World, p. 76.

    [674] See John Perlin’s A Forest Journey, pp. 124-125, 135.

    [675] See Clive Ponting’s A New Green History of the World, pp. 76-77.

    [676] See John Perlin’s A Forest Journey, p. 128.

    [677] See John Perlin’s A Forest Journey, p. 125.

    [678] That image is from the inside cover of Carl Roebuck’s The World of Ancient Times, published in 1966, and reproduced here under Fair use law.

    [679] See Thomas Homer-Dixon’s The Upside of Down, p. 243.

    [680] See J. Donald’s Hughes’s Pan’s Travail, p. 74.

    [681] See Thomas Homer-Dixon’s The Upside of Down, p. 59.

    [682] See William F. Ruddiman’s Plows, Plagues, and Petroleum, p. 92.

    [683] See Joachim Radkau’s Nature and Power, p. 128.

    [684] See Joachim Radkau’s Nature and Power, pp. 107-117.

    [685] See Jared Diamond’s Guns, Germs, and Steel, pp. 411-417.

    [686] See Joachim Radkau’s Nature and Power, pp. 103-104.

    [687] See Gregory Cochran and Henry Harpending’s The 10,000 Year Explosion, pp. 175-186.

    [688] See Gregory Cochran and Henry Harpending’s The 10,000 Year Explosion, pp. 91-94.

    [689] See Joachim Radkau’s Nature and Power, p. 65.

    [690] See Jean Guilaine and Jean Zammit’s The Origins of War, pp. 86-91.

    [691] See Jean Guilaine and Jean Zammit’s The Origins of War, chapter 3.

    [692] See Jean Guilaine and Jean Zammit’s The Origins of War, chapters 4 and 5.

    [693] See Nicholas Wade’s Before the Dawn, p. 152.

    [694] See Peter Bellwood’s First Migrants, pp. 215-218.

    [695] See Nicholas Wade’s Before the Dawn, pp. 164-168.

    [696] See Nicholas Wade’s Before the Dawn, pp. 154-158. See Lawrence H. Keeley’s War Before Civilization, pp. 103-106.

    [697] Brian Fagan’s Before California explores that issue.

    [698] Charles C. Mann’s 1491 surveys those native practices.

    [699] See Jared Diamond's Guns, Germs, and Steel, chapter 10.

    [700] See Steven Pinker's The Blank Slate, pp. 68-69

    [701] Brian Fagan’s The Great Warming surveys the great droughts and other effects of the Medieval Warming Period.

    [702] See Jean-Claude Debeir, et al.’s In the Servitude of Power, p. 72.

    [703] See Jean-Claude Debeir, et al.’s In the Servitude of Power, pp. 38-39.

    [704] See Jean-Claude Debeir, et al.’s In the Servitude of Power, pp. 58-59.

    [705] See Jean-Claude Debeir, et al.’s In the Servitude of Power, pp. 74-77.

    [706] See Jean-Claude Debeir, et al.’s In the Servitude of Power, p. 91.

    [707] See Jean-Claude Debeir, et al.’s In the Servitude of Power, pp. 78.

    [708] See Jean-Claude Debeir, et al.’s In the Servitude of Power, pp. 75-77.

    [709] See abstract of Julia Pongratz, et al.’s “Coupled climate–carbon simulations indicate minor global effects of wars and epidemics on atmospheric CO2 between ad 800 and 1850”, The Holocene, August 2011, volume 21, number 5, pp. 843-851. Many articles were published in the study’s wake, such as at these links (1, 2, 3). A more recent paper is here.

    [710] See David Stannard’s American Holocaust, pp. 188-189.

    [711] See Brian Fagan’s The Great Warming, chapter 11.

    [712] See Joachim Radkau’s Nature and Power, p. 158. See Alfred Crosby’s Ecological Imperialism, chapter 2.

    [713] See Jean-Claude Debeir, et al.’s In the Servitude of Power, p. 91.

    [714] See David E. Nye’s Consuming Power, p. 18.

    [715] See William F. Ruddiman’s Plows, Plagues, and Petroleum, pp. 90-91.

    [716] See Barbara Freese’s Coal: A Human History, p. 24.

    [717] See Barbara Freese’s Coal: A Human History, p. 25-26.

    [718] See Barbara Freese’s Coal: A Human History, p. 30-31.

    [719] See Ellen Meiksins Wood’s The Pristine Culture of Capitalism, pp. 31-38.

    [720] See John Perlin’s A Forest Journey, pp. 164-165.

    [721] See John Perlin’s A Forest Journey, pp. 165-166.

    [722] See John Perlin’s A Forest Journey, pp. 167-170.

    [723] See John Perlin’s A Forest Journey, pp. 197-201, 213-214.

    [724] The quintessential example of that phenomenon was Daniel Boone, the "pioneer" of Kentucky. Boone originally filed claims on more than 60 square miles (more than 15,000 hectares) of Kentucky's land. The rigged legal system, largely in the Virginian gentry's control, saw Boone lose all of his Kentucky land, and Boone moved on to Missouri. By age 75, Boone owned no land at all. By the 1790s, less than half of Kentucky's white families owned any land. See David Hackett Fischer and James C. Kelly's Bound Away, p. 164.

    [725] The late Joe Bageant wrote about the modern state of poor rural whites, growing up as one himself in West Virginia, but who escaped during the USA’s postwar boom, and his writings about his people can particularly be found in his Deer Hunting with Jesus and Rainbow Pie. On the origins of those pejorative terms and the borderers in general, see David Hackett Fischer’s Albion’s Seed, especially pp. 754-782.

    [726] See Barbara Freese’s Coal: A Human History, p. 44-46. See Michael Perelman’s The Invention of Capitalism, p. 249.

    [727] See Barbara Freese’s Coal: A Human History, p. 44-56.

    [728] See John Perlin’s A Forest Journey, pp. 281-282.

    [729] See Charles A.S. Hall and Kent A. Klitgaard’s Energy and the Wealth of Nations, p. 63.

    [730] See John Perlin’s A Forest Journey, pp. 281-282.

    [731] See Michael Perelman’s The Invention of Capitalism, chapter 3.

    [732] See Paul Bairoch’s Cities and Economic Development, chapter 15.

    [733] See Joachim Radkau’s Nature and Power, p. 149, 191.

    [734] See John Perlin’s A Forest Journey, pp. 238-240.

    [735] See Rondo Cameron’s A Concise Economic History of the World, pp. 175-176.

    [736] See Maxine Berg’s The Age of Manufactures: 1700-1820, pp. 37, 46.

    [737] See Maxine Berg’s The Age of Manufactures: 1700-1820, p. 45.

    [738] See Maxine Berg’s The Age of Manufactures: 1700-1820, p. 95.

    [739] See Paul Kennedy’s The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers, p. 200.

    [740] See Vaclav Smil’s Harvesting the Biosphere, p. 225.

    [741] See T.K. Derry and Trevor I. Williams’s A Short History of Technology, pp. 123-124.

    [742] See Charles A.S. Hall and Kent A. Klitgaard’s Energy and the Wealth of Nations, pp. 103-104.

    [743] See Michael Perelman’s The Invention of Capitalism, pp. 132-133.

    [744] See Michael Perelman’s The Invention of Capitalism, chapter 7.

    [745] See Michael Perelman’s The Invention of Capitalism, pp. 22-24.

    [746] Michael Perelman’s The Invention of Capitalism thoroughly reviews those classical economists and their predecessors.

    [747] See Michael Perelman’s The Invention of Capitalism, chapter 13.

    [748] See Karl Marx’s Capital, chapter 26, titled, “The Secret of Primitive Accumulation.”

    [749] See Robin Blackburn’s The Making of New World Slavery, pp. 459-476.

    [750] See Noam Chomsky’s World Orders Old and New, pp. 114-115.

    [751] See Richard Heinberg’s The Party’s Over, pp. 68-69.

    [752] See Eric R. Wolf’s Europe and the People Without History, part 3.

    [753] See Godfrey Hodgson’s A Great and Godly Adventure, chapters 3 and 4.

    [754] See David Stannard’s American Holocaust, the last sentence of chapter 4.

    [755] See David Stannard’s Before the Horror, p. 48.

    [756] See Daniel R. Hedrick’s The Tools of Empire, chapter 3.

    [757] This is a common theme in Noam Chomsky’s political writings. See, for instance, his Year 501, pp. 17-18.

    [758] See the second book on “economic hit men,” which Perkin’s work inspired, titled, A Game as Old as Empire, edited by Steven Hiatt.

    [759] See David E. Nye’s Consuming Power, p. 21.

    [760] See David E. Nye’s Consuming Power, p. 21.

    [761] See David E. Nye’s Consuming Power, p. 22.

    [762] See Walter Licht’s Industrializing America, p. 1.

    [763] See Walter Licht’s Industrializing America, p. 23.

    [764] See David E. Nye’s Consuming Power, pp. 71-72.

    [765] See David E. Nye’s Consuming Power, p. 44.

    [766] See William Cronon’s Changes in the Land, p. 121.

    [767] See John Perlin’s A Forest Journey, pp. 286-324.

    [768] See William Cronon’s Changes in the Land, pp. 122-123.

    [769] See David E. Nye’s Consuming Power, pp. 74-75.

    [770] See Paul Kennedy’s The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers, pp. 99, 199.

    [771] See Paul Kennedy’s The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers, p. 149.

    [772] See Paul Kennedy’s The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers, p. 330.

    [773] See Paul Kennedy’s The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers, p. 369.

    [774] See Eric R. Wolf’s Europe and the People Without History, chapter 12.

    [775] See Crosbie Smith’s The Science of Energy, chapter 5.

    [776] Crosbie Smith’s The Science of Energy surveys those early days of the development of the science of energy.

    [777] See Douwe G. Van Der Meer, et al.'s "Plate tectonic controls on atmospheric CO2 levels since the Triassic", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, March 10, 2014, volume 111, number 12, pp. 4380-4385.

    [778] See Eric Rignot, et al.'s "Acceleration of the contribution of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to sea level rise", Geophysical Research Letters, volume 38, issue 5, March 16, 2011. See M. E. Weber, et al.'s "Millennial-scale variability in Antarctic ice-sheet discharge during the last deglaciation", Nature Letter, volume 510, issue 7503, June 5, 2014, pp. 134-138. See B. Wouters, et al.'s "Limits in detecting acceleration of ice sheet mass loss due to climate variability", Nature Geoscience Letter, published online July 14, 2013 for a cautionary paper on extrapolating trends. See Ian Joughin, et al.'s "Marine Ice Sheet Collapse Potentially Under Way for the Thwaites Glacier Basin, West Antarctica", Science, May 16, 2014, volume 344, number 6185, pp. 735-738. See M. Morlighem, et al.'s "Deeply incised submarine glacial valleys beneath the Greenland ice sheet", Nature Geoscience Letter, volume 41, issue 7, pp. 418-422. See J. Mouginot, et al.'s "Sustained increase in ice discharge from the Amundsen Sea Embayment, West Antarctica, from 1973 to 2013", Geophysical Research Letters, volume 41, issue 5, pp. 1576–1584, March 16, 2014.

    [779] See William F. Ruddiman’s Plows, Plagues, and Petroleum, chapter 18.

    [780] See Paul Kennedy’s The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers, p. 149.

    [781] See Paul Kennedy’s The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers, p. 202.

    [782] Robert Kennedy, Jr. enthusiastically endorsed James Douglass's JFK and the Unspeakable. See pages 370-373 of that work, which argue that Robert's murder was committed by the same people who murdered John, and they would kill any Kennedy in position to become president (such speculation is prominent concerning John Jr.'s untimely death), and who could expose the conspiracy.

    [783] See Peter Collier and David Horowitz’s The Rockefellers, pp. 18-19.

    [784] See Peter Collier and David Horowitz’s The Rockefellers, p. 56.

    [785] See Mark Seifer’s Wizard, p. 272.

    [786] See Mark Seifer’s Wizard, pp. 300-301.

    [787] See Mark Seifer’s Wizard, pp. 423-425.

    [788] See F. David Peat’s In Search of Nikola Tesla.

    [789] See Mark Seifer’s Wizard, pp. 457-461.

    [790] See Mike Davis’s Late Victorian Holocausts, chapters 4 to 6.

    [791] See Mike Davis’s Late Victorian Holocausts, p. 140.

    [792] See Mike Davis’s Late Victorian Holocausts, p. 7.

    [793] See Peter Collier and David Horowitz’s The Rockefellers, p. 50.

    [794] See Charles A.S. Hall and Kent A. Klitgaard’s Energy and the Wealth of Nations, pp. 104-105.

    [795] See Charles A.S. Hall and Kent A. Klitgaard’s Energy and the Wealth of Nations, chapter 12.

    [796] See Charles A.S. Hall and Kent A. Klitgaard’s Energy and the Wealth of Nations, chapters 5, 12, 13, and 16.

    [797] See Charles A.S. Hall and Kent A. Klitgaard’s Energy and the Wealth of Nations, p. 6.

    [798] See Charles A.S. Hall and Kent A. Klitgaard’s Energy and the Wealth of Nations, pp. 218-219.

    [799] See Charles A.S. Hall and Kent A. Klitgaard’s Energy and the Wealth of Nations, p. 304.

    [800] See Paul Kennedy’s The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers, pp. 206-209.

    [801] See David Stannard’s American Holocaust, p. 153.

    [802] See Michael Adams's The Best War Ever, p. 30.

    [803] See Paul Kennedy’s The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers, pp. 209-215, 307.

    [804] See Mike Davis’s Late Victorian Holocausts, p. 297.

    [805] See Mike Davis’s Late Victorian Holocausts, p. 311.

    [806] See Charles A.S. Hall and Kent A. Klitgaard’s Energy and the Wealth of Nations, p. 266.

    [807] See Gregory Cochran, et al.’s “Natural History of Ashkenazi Intelligence”, Journal of Biosocial Science, September 17, 2006, volume 38, number 5, pp. 659-693.

    [808] See Peter Collier and David Horowitz’s The Rockefellers, pp. 225-226.

    [809] See Steven Pinker's The Blank Slate, p. 157.

    [810] See Steven Pinker's The Blank Slate, p. 157.

    [811] See Charles A.S. Hall and Kent A. Klitgaard’s Energy and the Wealth of Nations, p. 224.

    [812] Since 1980, Americans have been using about 334 million BTUs per person per year. At 2,500 calories per day (which is around the American average, and various organizations developed different numbers, from 2,000 to 3,700), American energy amounts to 92 times their dietary calories. At 3,700 dietary calories, it “only” amounts to 62 times.

    [813] My calculation is 85 million barrels per day, and each barrel provides ten man-years of work, and oil provides about a third of global energy consumption. That equals about 1.2 trillion energy slaves. If we discount half of those barrels, as they are burned to provide heat, then it would be "only" 600 billion energy slaves.

    [814] See Stephen C. Webster's "Earth’s supercomputing power surpasses human brain three times over", The Raw Story, June 18, 2012.

    [815] See Charles A.S. Hall and Kent A. Klitgaard’s Energy and the Wealth of Nations, pp. 270-273.

    [816] See Charles A.S. Hall and Kent A. Klitgaard’s Energy and the Wealth of Nations, pp. 215-216.

    [817] See Charles A.S. Hall and Kent A. Klitgaard’s Energy and the Wealth of Nations, p. 200.

    [818] See Charles A.S. Hall and Kent A. Klitgaard’s Energy and the Wealth of Nations, p. 20.

    [819] The priest Sahagún recorded the Aztec perception of the Spanish gold craze thusly, after they were given some gold artifacts, “The Spaniards’ faces grinned: they were delighted, they were overjoyed. They snatched up the gold like monkeys…They were swollen with greed; they were ravenous; they hungered for that gold like wild pigs.” See Ronald Wright’s Stolen Continents, p. 26.

    [820] See Tzvetan Todorov’s The Conquest of America, p. 142.

    [821] Attributed to an Abenaki from the Odanak reserve near Montreal. See this research on attribution.

    [822] See Charles A.S. Hall and Kent A. Klitgaard’s Energy and the Wealth of Nations, chapter 2.

    [823] See Charles A.S. Hall and Kent A. Klitgaard’s Energy and the Wealth of Nations, pp. 72-74.

    [824] See Charles A.S. Hall and Kent A. Klitgaard’s Energy and the Wealth of Nations, p. 72.

    [825] See Charles A.S. Hall and Kent A. Klitgaard’s Energy and the Wealth of Nations, p. 247.

    [826] See Ward Churchill’s A Little Matter of Genocide, pp. 43-49.

    [827] See Mike Davis’s Late Victorian Holocausts, pp. 306-309.

    [828] Readers may note that the vast majority of references are to fairly orthodox sources, but there are important exceptions, and I have various reasons for them. One is that for the estimate of India’s excess deaths under British rule, I have never even seen an orthodox estimate. Also, the scientist making the estimate I believe is Jewish, and there has been a vociferous strain of genocide scholarship that has obsessively focused on the Jewish Holocaust to the exclusions of all other genocides, so it is refreshing and even inspiring to see a Jewish scientist toting up the imperial damage inflicted in the world’s peoples.

    [829] See Paul Bairoch’s Cities and Economic Development, p. 238.

    [830] See Bruce Trigger’s Understanding Early Civilizations, p. 125.

    [831] See Paul Bairoch’s Cities and Economic Development, chapter 14, and p. 342.

    [832] See Paul Bairoch’s Cities and Economic Development, p. 235.

    [833] See Paul Bairoch’s Cities and Economic Development, p. 125.

    [834] See Paul Bairoch’s Cities and Economic Development, p. 211.

    [835] See Paul Bairoch’s Cities and Economic Development, pp. 484-486.

    [836] See Paul Bairoch’s Cities and Economic Development, p. 463.

    [837] See James W. Douglass’s JFK and the Unspeakable, p. 16.

    [838] See Gary Wean’s There’s a Fish in the Courthouse, pp. 591-592.

    [839] See James W. Douglass’s JFK and the Unspeakable, chapter 1.

    [840] See Thomas Homer-Dixon’s The Upside of Down, p.52.

    [841] See Charles A.S. Hall and Kent A. Klitgaard’s Energy and the Wealth of Nations, p. 319.

    [842] See Charles A.S. Hall and Kent A. Klitgaard’s Energy and the Wealth of Nations, p. 313.

    [843] Those amounts are derived from data as of about 2010.

    [844] See Earl Cook’s Man, Energy, Society, pp. 70-71.

    [845] See Brian O’Leary’s The Energy Solution Revolution, appendix 1, pp. 251-266.

    [846] See Roger Annis's "Tar Sands, Natural Gas Fracking, Pipelines: The Fossil Fuel Wars in British Columbia and Canada", Global Research, December 23, 2013.

    [847] In 2013, I visited Mr. Professor's grave, and his funeral eleven years earlier is when that voice spoke to me for the last time so far, and I was not happy to hear from it. However, in the 2013, as I approached Mr. Professor's grave, a sudden and highly unexpected feeling of joy overcame me. Instead of a somber visit to his grave, it was a happy experience. I soon realized that it was likely Mr. Professor coming through, letting me know once again that he was doing fine, and was happy to be involved with us. Since then, I think happier thoughts when I think of him, which I am sure was his intent.

    [848] The need for a new science was the theme of Brian’s The Second Coming of Science, published in 1993, which covers the time when I met him.

    [849] See Steven Pinker's The Blank Slate, chapters 3-5, 18.

    [850] See Steven Pinker's The Blank Slate, chapter 19.

    [851] See Anthony D Barnosky, et al.’s “Has the Earth's sixth mass extinction already arrived?”, Nature, March 3, 2011, volume 471, pp. 51–57.

    [852] Brian O’Leary discussed that gulf in his books, and put a price tag of at least $100 million to develop a production-ready FE device from a working prototype, and later upped it to $200 million. See his Re-Inheriting the Earth, pp. 76-78, 286-288, and his Miracle in the Void, p. 251. Others such as Tom Bearden have made similar estimates. My guess is about $200 million today, or about one-thousandth of what has been spent to buy out such technologies.

    [853] See Frank Niele’s Energy: Engine of Evolution, published by Shell Global Solutions, pp. 106-108.

    [854] See Brian O’Leary’s The Energy Solution Revolution, chapter 21.

    [855] I do not know how long it was the case or if it still is today, but FE conferences in the 1990s were attended by CIA personnel, many of them, who had to identify their employers when asked (they even wore badges, according to regulations, but hid them under their lapels and the like), as they fulfilled the letter of the law, if not its spirit. Worldly FE inventors with the goods avoided such conferences, as they were crawling with not only CIA personnel, but those from other agencies, private interests, opportunists, and the other predators (the GCs’ agents definitely attended). Those conferences were seen as not only a waste of time by those inventors, but potentially fatal. The day that I met Dennis, I heard him speak to several hundred people at the Seattle Center, and several news crews recorded his talk (only a Canadian TV station broadcast coverage of the event, which is the only time that I ever saw positive TV media coverage of Dennis’s efforts), but the local media did not report on his talk, and smeared him not long after that event with their usual lies. In the audience that night was a heckler, sitting directly in front of me, who was Bill the BPA Hit Man’s lawyer, challenging Dennis about the phony bankruptcy suit that Bill had filed, with that attorney’s help. Bill was responsible for the death of one of Dennis’s employees several months earlier, so it was astounding chutzpah for that attorney to heckle Dennis as he did. After Dennis was released from jail in 1989, and left Ventura County under the judge’s approval to speak at a conference, Bill arrived to heckle him and destroy his efforts there.
    In Ventura in 1988, a pair of elderly European brothers told me of attending one of Max Gerson’s conferences when he was poisoned with arsenic, which ended the conference. Brian O’Leary told me that the medical racket secret teams are more ruthless than those in the energy racket, and in my circles I heard more than one tale of sudden deaths of key people at alternative medicine conferences that were likely murder.
    When we held FE shows in 1987-1988, we later heard about luminaries in the audiences, and some identified themselves at the shows, such as the head of the Department of Energy for the New England region. At a show in early 1988, Mr. Deputy was in the audience, and he obtained a search warrant for our facilities the next day, to strike the day after that, which began my life’s worst year. When I received a standing ovation at one conference in 1988, the man leading the ovation led the effort to steal our company a few months later. In 1992, soon before Dennis was kangarooed into prison, where prison officials repeatedly set him up to be murdered, Dennis flew me to a conference around his national ad campaign for FE. During my flight home, I was improbably sitting behind a conference speaker, and his assistant sitting next to him crafted a plan to steal Dennis’s company during that flight, which he inadvertently showed me soon before I disembarked, in one of my life’s more bizarre synchronicities.
    When Dennis held his Philadelphia show in 1996, with 5,000 people in attendance, we discovered that federal officials were in the audience to arrest Dennis (who was still on parole at the time) and Yull Brown (who spent 12 years in Soviet gulags and Turkish prisons), if they staged a transmutation experiment with radioactive materials at that show, after the federal government initially approved the demonstration and then withdrew it soon before the show. Yull was prepared for the demonstration, but Dennis decided to not have them risk more prison time. Mr. Skeptic was also in the audience, and the next day began his “skeptical” career. We were also subjected to a highly sophisticated sting operation immediately after that show.
    The week that we began planning our 2004 New Energy Movement conference, and a few days after Eugene Mallove agreed to be our first speaker, he was murdered. Brian then became the conference’s keynote speaker, and immediately after the conference he understandably moved to South America, where he lived for the rest of his life. Those are just some events that I saw and heard of regarding staging conferences on such subject matter, and there were other kinds of problems besides those.

    [856] From the early 1990s to about 2004, I spent significant time and effort reaching out to various “progressives.” I could not play at the level that Brian did, but tried what I could. About all that Brian and I experienced were permanent hairstyle changes from the wind of all the doors slammed in our faces. But some reactions stand out; I clearly recall them many years later, and one was by a progressive, “organic” environmental activist who evidenced some political savvy. His response was almost literally, “Wake me up when you deliver an FE device to my home.” That pretty much sums up the public’s perspective, too, but his response was memorable for two reasons germane to this essay:
    He will not wake up until FE is delivered to his home;
    He will wake up, however, if it is delivered.
    That response reinforces Machiavelli’s perspective, and also shows what will be needed to awaken the masses, even the “progressives,” maybe especially the “progressives” and the educated. The masses will not be talked into helping the Fifth Epochal Event manifest; it will need to be delivered to them before they will begin to understand and their world will be transformed, just as with the previous Epochal Events. It is simply the nature of the event; it will be initiated by a relative few.















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