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Thread: Was Jonestown a CIA medical experiment?

  1. #11


    Quote Originally Posted by Peter Presland View Post
    He also makes a long-winded distinction between 'investigative journalist' and 'conspiracist' - and pretty spurious one in my view - which illustrates the paranoia that the label engenders in anyone desperate to remain acceptable to the MSM:
    I agree Peter.

    It is a bitter pill to have to swallow to be labelled a Conspiracist by your own profession, academia - and all who sail in her - when you've been diligent in your investigation and have written only the facts. Repeating this experience can lead to extreme caution in carrying thorough to the obvious conclusions.

    But this attitude reveals an ingrained naivete imo, since it has ever been the case that attacking the status quo will alway result in a harsh reaction.
    The shadow is a moral problem that challenges the whole ego-personality, for no one can become conscious of the shadow without considerable moral effort. To become conscious of it involves recognizing the dark aspects of the personality as present and real. This act is the essential condition for any kind of self-knowledge.
    Carl Jung - Aion (1951). CW 9, Part II: P.14

  2. #12


    I have been asked to post the entire, footnoted, John Judge article entitled "The Black Hole of Guyana".

    It is a fine and important piece of work, and should be read as complementary to Michael Meiers' Was Jonestown a CIA Medical Experiment? and Jim Hougan's most valuable Jonestown articles.

    The Black Hole of Guyana
    The Untold Story of the Jonestown Massacre

    by John Judge

    * You Know the Official Version
    * But Just Suppose It
    Didn't Happen That Way...
    * Who Was Jim Jones?
    * What Was Jonestown?
    * One Too Many Jonestowns
    * The Links to U.S. Intelligence Agencies
    * The Strange Connection
    to the Murder of Martin Luther King
    * Aftermath

    | |
    | The ultimate victims of mind control at Jonestown are the |
    | American people. If we fail to look beyond the constructed |
    | images given us by the television and the press, then our |
    | consciousness is manipulated, just as well as the |
    | Jonestown victims' was. Facing nuclear annihilation, may |
    | see the current militarism of the Reagan policies, and |
    | military training itself, as the real "mass suicide cult." |
    | If the discrepancy between the truth of Jonestown and the |
    | official version can be so great, what other lies have we |
    | been told about major events? |
    | |
    | History is precious. In a democracy, knowledge must be |
    | accessible for informed consent to function. Hiding or |
    | distorting history behind "national security" leaves the |
    | public as the final enemy of the government. Democratic |
    | process cannot operate on "need to know." Otherwise we |
    | live in the 1984 envisioned by Orwell's projections and we |
    | must heed his warning that those who control the past |
    | control the future. |
    | |
    | The real tragedy of Jonestown is not only that it |
    | occurred, but that so few chose to ask themselves why or |
    | how, so few sought to find out the facts behind the |
    | bizarre tale used to explain away the death of more than |
    | 900 people, and that so many will continue to be blind to |
    | the grim reality of our intelligence agencies. In the long |
    | run, the truth will come out. Only our complicity in the |
    | deception continues to dishonor the dead. |
    | |

    Somewhere in the concrete canyons of New York City a recently
    formed rock group is using the name Jim Jones and the Suicides.
    Irreverent and disarming, the name reflects the new trend in punk
    rock, to take social issues head on. Cynicism about the Jonestown
    deaths and its social parallels abound in the lyrics of today's
    music. The messages are clear because we all know the story.

    In fact, people today recognize the name "Jonestown" more than any
    other event, a full 98% of the population.[1] The television and
    printed media were filled with the news for more than a year, even
    though the tale read like something from the National Enquirer
    tabloid. But despite all the coverage, the reality of Jonestown
    and the reasons behind the bizarre events remain a mystery. The
    details have faded from memory for most of us since November 18,
    1978, but not the outlines. Think back a moment and you'll

    You Know the Official Version

    A fanatic religious leader in California led a multiracial
    community into the jungles of remote Guyana to establish a
    socialist utopia. The People's Temple, his church, was in the
    heart of San Francisco and drew poor people, social activists,
    Blacks and Hispanics, young and old. The message was racial
    harmony and justice, and criticism of the hypocrisy of the world
    around his followers.[2]

    The Temple rose in a vacuum of leadership at the end of an era.
    The political confrontations of the 60s were almost over, and
    religious cults and "personal transformation" were on the rise.
    Those who had preached a similar message on the political soap box
    were gone, burnt out, discredited, or dead. The counter-culture
    had apparently degenerated into drugs and violence. Charlie Manson
    was the only visible image of the period. Suddenly, religion
    seemed to offer a last hope.[3]

    Even before they left for the Jonestown site, the People's Temple
    members were subjects of local scandal in the news.[4] Jim Jones
    claimed these exposs were attacks on their newly-found religion,
    and used them as an excuse to move most of the members to
    Guyana.[5] But disturbing reports continued to surround Jones, and
    soon came to the attention of congressional members like Leo Ryan.
    Stories of beatings, kidnapping, sexual abuse and mysterious
    deaths leaked out in the press.[6] Ryan decided to go to Guyana
    and investigate the situation for himself. The nightmare began.[7]

    Isolated on the tiny airstrip at Port Kaituma, Ryan and several
    reporters in his group were murdered. Then came the almost
    unbelievable "White Night," a mass suicide pact of the Jonestown
    camp. A community made up mostly of Blacks and women drank cyanide
    from paper cups of Kool-Aid, adults and children alike died and
    fell around the main pavilion. Jones himself was shot in the head,
    an apparent suicide. For days, the body count mounted, from 400 to
    nearly 1,000. The bodies were flown to the United States and later
    cremated or buried in mass graves.[8]

    Temple member Larry Layton is still facing charges of conspiracy
    in Ryan's murder. Ryan was recently awarded a posthumous Medal of
    Honor, and was the first Congress member to die in the line of

    Pete Hammill called the corpses "all the loose change of the
    sixties."[10] The effect was electric. Any alternative to the
    current system was seen as futile, if not deadly. Protest only led
    to police riots and political assassination. Alternative life
    styles and drugs led to "creepy-crawly" communes and violent
    murders.[11] And religious experiments led to cults and suicide.
    Social utopias were dreams that turned into nightmares. The
    television urged us to go back to "The Happy Days" of the
    apolitical 50s. The message was, get a job, and go back to
    church.[12] The unyielding nuclear threat generated only nihilism
    and hopelessness. There was no answer but death, no exit from the
    grisly future. The new ethic was personal success, aerobics,
    material consumption, a return to "American values," and the
    "moral majority" white Christian world. The official message was

    But Just Suppose It
    Didn't Happen That Way...

    The headlines the day of the massacre read: "Cult Dies in South
    American Jungle: 400 Die in Mass Suicide, 700 Flee into
    Jungle."[13] By all accounts in the press, as well as People's
    Temple statements there were at least 1,100 people at
    Jonestown.[14] There were 809 adult passports found there, and
    reports of 300 children (276 found among the dead, and 210 never
    identified). The headline figures from the first day add to the
    same number: 1,100.[15] The original body count done by the
    Guyanese was 408, and this figure was initially agreed to by U.S.
    Army authorities on site.[16] However, over the next few days, the
    total of reported dead began to rise quickly. The Army made a
    series of misleading and openly false statements about the
    discrepancy. The new total, which was the official final count,
    was given almost a week later by American authorities as 913.[17]
    A total of 16 survivors were reported to have returned to the
    U.S.[18] Where were the others?

    At their first press conference, the Americans claimed that the
    Guyanese "could not count." These local people had carried out the
    gruesome job of counting the bodies, and later assisted American
    troops in the process of poking holes in the flesh lest they
    explode from the gasses of decay.[19] Then the Americans proposed
    another theory -- they had missed seeing a pile of bodies at the
    back of the pavilion. The structure was the size of a small house,
    and they had been at the scene for days. Finally, we were given
    the official reason for the discrepancy -- bodies had fallen on
    top of other bodies, adults covering children.[20]

    It was a simple, if morbid, arithmetic that led to the first
    suspicions. The 408 bodies discovered at first count would have to
    be able to cover 505 bodies for a total of 913. In addition, those
    who first worked on the bodies would have been unlikely to miss
    bodies lying beneath each other since each body had to be
    punctured. Eighty-two of the bodies first found were those of
    children, reducing the number that could have been hidden below
    others.[21] A search of nearly 150 photographs, aerial and
    close-up, fails to show even one body lying under another, much
    less 500.[22]

    It seemed the first reports were true, 400 had died, and 700 had
    fled to the jungle. The American authorities claimed to have
    searched for people who had escaped, but found no evidence of any
    in the surrounding area.[23] At least a hundred Guyanese troops
    were among the first to arrive, and they were ordered to search
    the jungle for survivors.[24] In the area, at the same time,
    British Black Watch troops were on "training exercises," with
    nearly 600 of their best-trained commandos. Soon, American Green
    Berets were on site as well.[25] The presence of these soldiers,
    specially trained in covert killing operations, may explain the
    increasing numbers of bodies that appeared.

    Most of the photographs show the bodies in neat rows, face down.
    There are few exceptions. Close shots indicate drag marks, as
    though the bodies were positioned by someone after death.[26] Is
    it possible that the 700 who fled were rounded up by these troops,
    brought back to Jonestown and added to the body count?[27]

    If so, the bodies would indicate the cause of death. A new word
    was coined by the media, "suicide-murder." But which was it?[28]
    Autopsies and forensic science are a developing art. The
    detectives of death use a variety of scientific methods and clues
    to determine how people die, when they expire, and the specific
    cause of death. Dr. Mootoo, the top Guyanese pathologist, was at
    Jonestown within hours after the massacre. Refusing the assistance
    of U.S. pathologists, he accompanied the teams that counted the
    dead, examined the bodies, and worked to identify the deceased.
    While the American press screamed about the "Kool-Aid Suicides,"
    Dr. Mootoo was reaching a much different opinion.[29]

    There are certain signs that show the types of poisons that lead
    to the end of life. Cyanide blocks the messages from the brain to
    the muscles by changing body chemistry in the central nervous
    system. Even the "involuntary" functions like breathing and
    heartbeat get mixed neural signals. It is a painful death, breath
    coming in spurts. The other muscles spasm, limbs twist and
    contort. The facial muscles draw back into a deadly grin, called
    "cyanide rictus."[30] All these telling signs were absent in the
    Jonestown dead. Limbs were limp and relaxed, and the few visible
    faces showed no sign of distortion.[31]

    Instead, Dr. Mootoo found fresh needle marks at the back of the
    left shoulder blades of 80-90% of the victims.[32] Others had been
    shot or strangled. One survivor reported that those who resisted
    were forced by armed guards.[33] The gun that reportedly shot Jim
    Jones was lying nearly 200 feet from his body, not a likely
    suicide weapon.[34] As Chief Medical Examiner, Mootoo's testimony
    to the Guyanese grand jury investigating Jonestown led to their
    conclusion that all but three of the people were murdered by
    "persons unknown." Only two had committed suicide they said.[35]
    Several pictures show the gun-shot wounds on the bodies as
    well.[36] The U.S. Army spokesman, Lt. Col. Schuler, said, "No
    autopsies are needed. The cause of death is not an issue here."
    The forensic doctors who later did autopsies at Dover, Delaware,
    were never made aware of Dr. Mootoo's findings.[37]

    There are other indications that the Guyanese government
    participated with American authorities in a cover-up of the real
    story, despite their own findings. One good example was Guyanese
    Police Chief Lloyd Barker, who interfered with investigations,
    helped "recover" 2.5 million for the Guyanese government, and was
    often the first to officially announce the cover stories relating
    to suicide, body counts and survivors.[38] Among the first to the
    scene were the wife of Guyanese Prime Minister Forbes Burnham and
    his Deputy Prime Minister, Ptolemy Reid. They returned from the
    massacre site with nearly $1 million in cash, gold and jewelry
    taken from the buildings and from the dead. Inexplicably, one of
    Burnham's political party secretaries had visited the site of the
    massacre only hours before it occurred.[39] When Shirley Field
    Ridley, Guyanese Minister of Information, announced the change in
    the body count to the shocked Guyanese parliament, she refused to
    answer further questions. Other representatives began to point a
    finger of shame at Ridley and the Burnham government, and the
    local press dubbed the scandal "Templegate." All accused them of
    taking a ghoulish payoff.[40]

    Perhaps more significantly, the Americans brought in 16 huge C-131
    cargo planes, but claimed they could only carry 36 caskets in each
    one. These aircraft can carry tanks, trucks, troops and ammunition
    all in one load.[41] At the scene, bodies were stripped of
    identification, including the medical wrist tags visible in many
    early photos.[42] Dust-off operations during Vietnam clearly
    demonstrated that the military is capable of moving hundreds of
    bodies in a short period.[43] Instead, they took nearly a week to
    bring back the Jonestown dead, bringing in the majority at the end
    of the period.[44] The corpses, rotting in the heat, made autopsy
    impossible.[45] At one point, the remains of 183 people arrived in
    82 caskets. Although the Guyanese had identified 174 bodies at the
    site, only 17 (later 46) were tentatively identified at the
    massive military mortuary in Dover, Delaware.[46]

    Isolated there, hundreds of miles from their families who might
    have visited the bodies at a similar mortuary in Oakland that was
    used during Vietnam, many of the dead were eventually
    cremated.[47] Press was excluded, and even family members had
    difficulty getting access to the remains.[48] Officials in New
    Jersey began to complain that state coroners were excluded, and
    that the military coroners appointed were illegally performing
    cremations.[49] One of the top forensic body identification
    experts, who later was brought in to work on the Iranian raid
    casualties, was denied repeated requests to assist.[50] In
    December, the President of the National Association of Medical
    Examiners complained in an open letter to the U.S. military that
    they "badly botched" procedures, and that a simple fluid autopsy
    was never performed at the point of discovery. Decomposition,
    embalming and cremation made further forensic work impossible.[51]
    The unorthodox method of identification attempted, to remove the
    skin from the finger tip and slip it over a gloved finger, would
    not have stood up in court.[52]

    The long delay made it impossible to reconstruct the event. As
    noted, these military doctors were unaware of Dr. Mootoo's
    conclusions. Several civilian pathology experts said they
    "shuddered at the ineptness" of the military, and that their
    autopsy method was "doing it backwards." But in official
    statements, the U.S. attempted to discredit the Guyanese grand
    jury findings, saying they had uncovered "few facts."[53]

    Guyanese troops, and police who had arrived with American Embassy
    official Richard Dwyer, also failed to defend Congressman Leo Ryan
    and others who came to Guyana with him when they were shot down in
    cold blood at the Port Kaituma airstrip, even though the troops
    were nearby with machine guns at the ready.[54] Although Temple
    member Larry Layton has been charged with the murders of
    Congressman Ryan, Temple defector Patricia Parks, and press
    reporters Greg Robinson, Don Harris and Bob Brown, he was not in a
    position to shoot them.[55] Blocked from boarding Ryan's twin
    engine Otter, he had entered another plane nearby. Once inside, he
    pulled out a gun and wounded two Temple followers, before being
    disarmed.[56] The others were clearly killed by armed men who
    descended from a tractor trailer at the scene, after opening fire.
    Witnesses described them as "zombies," walking mechanically,
    without emotion, and "looking through you, not at you" as they
    murdered.[57] Only certain people were killed, and the selection
    was clearly planned. Certain wounded people, like Ryan's aide
    Jackie Speiers, were not harmed further, but the killers made sure
    that Ryan and the newsmen were dead. In some cases they shot
    people, already wounded, directly in the head.[58] These gunmen
    were never finally identified, and may have been under Layton's
    command. They may not have been among the Jonestown dead.[59]

    At the Jonestown site, survivors described a special group of
    Jones' followers who were allowed to carry weapons and money, and
    to come and go from the camp. These people were all white, mostly
    males.[60] They ate better and worked less than the others, and
    they served as an armed guard to enforce discipline, control labor
    and restrict movement.[61] Among them were Jones' top lieutenants,
    including George Phillip Blakey. Blakey and others regularly
    visited Georgetown, Guyana and made trips in their sea-going boat,
    the Cudjoe. He was privileged to be aboard the boat when the
    murders occurred.[62] This special armed guard survived the
    massacre. Many were trained and programmed killers, like the
    "zombies" who attacked Ryan. Some were used as mercenaries in
    Africa, and elsewhere.[63] The dead were 90% women, and 80%
    Blacks.[64] It is unlikely that men armed with guns and modern
    crossbows would give up control and willingly be injected with
    poisons. It is much more likely that they forced nearly 400 people
    to die by injection, and then assisted in the murder of 500 more
    who attempted to escape. One survivor clearly heard people
    cheering 45 minutes after the massacre. Despite government claims,
    they are not accounted for, nor is their location known.[65]

    Back in California, People's Temple members openly admitted that
    they feared they were targeted by a "hit squad," and the Temple
    was surrounded for some time by local police forces.[66] During
    that period, two members of the elite guard from Jonestown
    returned and were allowed into the Temple by police.[67] The
    survivors who rode to Port Kaituma with Leo Ryan complained when
    Larry Layton boarded the truck, "He's not one of us."[68] Rumors
    also persisted that a "death list" of U.S. officials existed, and
    some survivors verified in testimony to the San Francisco grand
    jury.[69] A congressional aide was quoted in the AP wires on May
    19, 1979, "There are 120 white, brainwashed assassins out from
    Jonestown awaiting the trigger word to pick up their hit."[70]

    Other survivors included Mark Lane and Charles Garry, lawyers for
    People's Temple who managed to escape the massacre somehow.[71] In
    addition to the 16 who officially returned with the Ryan party,
    others managed to reach Georgetown and come back home.[72]
    However, there have been continuing suspicious murders of those
    people here. Jeannie and Al Mills, who intended to write a book
    about Jones, were murdered at home, bound and shot.[73] Some
    evidence indicates a connection between the Jonestown operation
    and the murders of Mayor Moscone and Harvey Milk by police agent
    Dan White.[74] Another Jonestown survivor was shot near his home
    in Detroit by unidentified killers.[75] Yet another was involved
    in a mass murder of school children in Los Angeles.[76] Anyone who
    survived such massive slaughter must be somewhat suspect. The fact
    that the press never even spoke about nearly 200 survivors raises
    serious doubts.

    Who Was Jim Jones?

    In order to understand the strange events surrounding Jonestown,
    we must begin with a history of the people involved. The official
    story of a religious fanatic and his idealist followers doesn't
    make sense in light of the evidence of murders, armed killers and
    autopsy cover-ups. If it happened the way we were told, there
    should be no reason to try to hide the facts from the public, and
    full investigation into the deaths at Jonestown, and the murder of
    Leo Ryan would have been welcomed. What did happen is something
    else again.

    Jim Jones grew up in Lynn, in southern Indiana. His father was an
    active member of the local Ku Klux Klan that infest that area.[77]
    His friends found him a little strange, and he was interested in
    preaching the Bible and religious rituals.[78] Perhaps more
    important was his boyhood friendship with Dan Mitrione, confirmed
    by local residents.[79] In the early 50s, Jones set out to be a
    religious minister, and was ordained at one point by a Christian
    denomination in Indianapolis.[80] It was during this period that
    he met and married his lifelong mate, Marceline.[81] He also had a
    small business selling monkeys, purchased from the research
    department at Indiana State University in Bloomington.[82]

    A Bible-thumper and faith healer, Jones put on revivalist tent
    shows in the area, and worked close to Richmond, Indiana.
    Mitrione, his friend, worked as chief of police there, and kept
    him from being arrested or run out of town.[83] According to those
    close to him, he used wet chicken livers as evidence of "cancers"
    he was removing by "divine powers."[84] His landlady called him "a
    gangster who used a Bible instead of a gun."[85] His church
    followers included Charles Beikman, a Green Beret who was to stay
    with him to the end.[86] Beikman was later charged with the
    murders of several Temple members in Georgetown, following the

    Dan Mitrione, Jones' friend, moved on to the CIA-financed
    International Police Academy, where police were trained in
    counter-insurgency and torture techniques from around the
    world.[88] Jones, a poor, itinerant preacher, suddenly had money
    in 1961 for a trip to "minister" in Brazil, and he took his family
    with him.[89] By this time, he had "adopted" Beikman, and eight
    children, both Black and white.[90] His neighbors in Brazil
    distrusted him. He told them he worked with U.S. Navy
    Intelligence. His transportation and groceries were being provided
    by the U.S. Embassy as was the large house he lived in.[91] His
    son, Stephan, commented that he made regular trips to Belo
    Horizonte, site of the CIA headquarters in Brazil.[92] An American
    police advisor, working closely with the CIA at that point, Dan
    Mitrione was there as well.[93] Mitrione had risen in the ranks
    quickly, and was busy training foreign police in torture and
    assassination methods. He was later kidnapped by Tupermaro
    guerillas in Uruguay, interrogated and murdered.[94] Costa Gravas
    made a film about his death titled State of Siege.[95] Jones
    returned to the United States in 1963, with $10,000 in his
    pocket.[96] Recent articles indicate that Catholic clergy are
    complaining about CIA funding of other denominations for
    "ministry" in Brazil; perhaps Jones was an early example.[97]

    With his new wealth, Jones was able to travel to California and
    establish the first People's Temple in Ukiah, California, in 1965.
    Guarded by dogs, electric fences and guard towers, he set up Happy
    Havens Rest Home.[98] Despite a lack of trained personnel, or
    proper licensing, Jones drew in many people at the camp. He had
    elderly, prisoners, people from psychiatric institutions, and 150
    foster children, often transferred to care at Happy Havens by
    court orders.[99] He was contacted there by Christian missionaries
    from World Vision, an international evangelical order that had
    done espionage work for the CIA in Southeast Asia.[100] He met
    "influential" members of the community and was befriended by
    Walter Heady, the head of the local chapter of the John Birch
    Society.[101] He used the members of his "church" to organize
    local voting drives for Richard Nixon's election, and worked
    closely with the republican party.[102] He was even appointed
    chairman of the county grand jury.[103]

    "The Messiah from Ukiah," as he was known then, met and recruited
    Timothy Stoen, a Stanford graduate and member of the city DA's
    office, and his wife Grace.[104] During this time, the Layton
    family, Terri Buford and George Phillip Blakey and other important
    members joined the Temple.[105] The camp "doctor," Larry Schacht,
    claims Jones got him off drugs and into medical school during this
    period.[106] These were not just street urchins. Buford's father
    was a Commander for the fleet at the Philadelphia Navy Base for
    years.[107] The Laytons were a well-heeled, aristocratic family.
    Dr. Layton donated at least a quarter-million dollars to Jones.
    His wife son and daughter were all members of the Temple.[108]
    George Blakey, who married Debbie Layton, was from a wealthy
    British family. He donated $60,000 to pay the lease on the
    27,000-acre Guyana site in 1974.[109] Lisa Philips Layton had come
    to the U.S. from a rich Hamburg banking family in Germany.[110]
    Most of the top lieutenants around Jones were from wealthy,
    educated backgrounds, many with connections to the military or
    intelligence agencies. These were the people who would set up the
    bank accounts, complex legal actions, and financial records that
    put people under the Temple's control.[111]

    Stoen was able to set up important contacts for Jones as Assistant
    DA in San Francisco.[112] Jones changed his image to that of a
    liberal.[113] He had spent time studying the preaching methods of
    Fr. Divine in Philadelphia, and attempted to use them in a
    manipulative way on the streets of San Francisco. Fr. Divine ran a
    religious and charitable operation among Philadelphia's poor Black
    community.[114] Jones was able to use his followers in an election
    once again, this time for Mayor Moscone. Moscone responded in
    1976, putting Jones in charge of the city Housing Commission.[115]
    In addition, many of his key followers got jobs with the city
    Welfare Department and much of the recruitment to the Temple in
    San Francisco came from the ranks of these unemployed and
    dispossessed people.[116] Jones was introduced to many influential
    liberal and radical people there, and entertained or greeted
    people ranging from Roslyn Carter to Angela Davis.[117]

    The period when Jones began the Temple there marked the end of an
    important political decade. Nixon's election had ushered in a
    domestic intelligence dead set against the movements for peace,
    civil rights and social justice. Names like COINTELPRO, CHAOS, and
    OPERATION GARDEN PLOT, or the HOUSTON PLAN made the news following
    in the wake of Watergate revelations.[118] Senator Ervin called
    the White House plans against dissent "fascistic."[119] These
    operations involved the highest levels of military and civilian
    intelligence and all levels of police agencies in a full-scale
    attempt to discredit, disrupt and destroy the movements that
    sprang up in the 1960s. There are indications that these plans, or
    the mood they created, led to the assassinations of Martin Luther
    King and Malcolm X, as unacceptable "Black Messiahs."[120]

    One of the architects under then-Governor Reagan in California was
    now-Attorney General Edwin Meese. He coordinated "Operation Garden
    Plot" for military intelligence and all police operations and
    intelligence in a period that was plagued with violations of civil
    and constitutional rights.[121] Perhaps you recall the police
    attacks on People's Park, the murder of many Black Panthers and
    activists, the infiltration of the Free Speech Movement and
    antiwar activity, and the experimentation on prisoners at
    Vacaville, or the shooting of George Jackson.[122] Meese later
    bragged that this activity had damaged or destroyed the people he
    called "revolutionaries."[123] It was into this situation Jones
    came to usurp leadership.[124]

    After his arrival in Ukiah, his methods were visible to those who
    took the time to investigate.[125] His armed guards wore black
    uniforms and leather jackboots. His approach was one of deception,
    and if that wore off, then manipulation and threats. Loyalty to
    his church included signing blank sheets of paper, later filled in
    with "confessions' and used for blackmail purposes, or to extort
    funds.[126] Yet the vast membership he was extorting often owned
    little, and he tried to milk them for everything, from personal
    funds to land deeds.[127] Illegal activities were regularly
    reported during this period, but either not investigated or
    unresolved. He clearly had the cooperation of local police. Years
    later, evidence would come out of charges of sexual solicitation,
    mysteriously dropped.[128]

    Those who sought to leave were prevented and rebuked. Local
    journalist Kathy Hunter wrote in the Ukiah press about "Seven
    Mysterious Deaths" of the Temple members who had argued with Jones
    and attempted to leave. One of these was Maxine Swaney.[129] Jones
    openly hinted to other members that he had arranged for them to
    die, threatening a similar fate to others who would be
    disloyal.[130] Kathy Hunter later tried to visit Jonestown, only
    to be forcibly drugged by Temple guards, and deported to
    Georgetown.[131] She later charged that Mark Lane approached her,
    falsely identifying himself as a reporter for Esquire, rather than
    as an attorney for Jim Jones. He led her to believe he was seeking
    information on Jones for an expos in the magazine, and asked to
    see her evidence.

    The pattern was to continue in San Francisco. In addition, Jones
    required that members practice for the mysterious "White Night," a
    mass suicide ritual that would protect them from murder at the
    hands of their enemies.[132] Although the new Temple had no guards
    or fences to restrict members, few had other places to live, and
    many had given over all they owned to Jones. They felt trapped
    inside this community that preached love, but practiced

    Following press exposure, and a critical article in New West
    magazine, Jones became very agitated, and the number of suicide
    drills increased.[134] Complaints about mistreatment by current
    and ex-members began to appear in the media and reach the ears of
    congressional representatives. Sam Houston, an old friend of Leo
    Ryan, came to him with questions about the untimely death of his
    son following his departure from the Temple.[135] Later, Timothy
    and Grace Stoen would complain to Ryan about custody of their
    young son, who was living with Jones, and urge him to visit the
    commune.[136] Against advice of friends and staff members, Ryan
    decided to take a team of journalists to Guyana and seek the truth
    of the situation.[137] Some feel that Ryan's journey there was
    planned and expected, and used as a convenient excuse to set up
    his murder. Others feel that this unexpected violation of secrecy
    around Jonestown set off the spark that led to the mass murder. In
    either case, it marked the beginning of the end for Ryan and

    At one point, to show his powers, Jones arranged to be shot in the
    heart in front of the congregation. Dragged to a back room,
    apparently wounded and bleeding, he returned a moment later alive
    and well. While this may have been more of his stage antics to
    prompt believers' faith it may also have marked the end of Jim
    Jones.[139] For undisclosed reasons, Jones had and used
    "doubles."[140] This is very unusual for a religious leader, but
    quite common in intelligence operations.[141]

    Even the death and identification of Jim Jones were peculiar. He
    was apparently shot by another person at the camp.[142] Photos of
    his body do not show identifying tattoos on his chest. The body
    and face are not clearly recognizable due to bloating and
    discoloration.[143] The FBI reportedly checked his fingerprints
    twice, a seemingly futile gesture since it is a precise operation.
    A more logical route would have been to check dental records.[144]
    Several researchers familiar with the case feel that the body may
    not have been Jones. Even if the person at the site was one of the
    "doubles," it does not mean Jones is still alive. He may have been
    killed at an earlier point.

    What Was Jonestown?

    According to one story, Jones was seeking a place on earth that
    would survive the effects of nuclear war, relying only on an
    article in Esquire magazine for his list.[145] The real reason for
    his locations in Brazil, California, Guyana and elsewhere deserve
    more scrutiny.[146] At one point Jones wanted to set up in
    Grenada, and he invited then-Prime Minister Sir Eric Gairy to
    visit the Temple in San Francisco.[147] He invested $200,000 in
    the Grenada National Bank in 1977 to pave the way, and some
    $76,000 was still there after the massacre.[148]

    His final choice, the Matthew's Ridge section in Guyana is an
    interesting one. It was originally the site of a Union Carbide
    bauxite and manganese mine, and Jones used the dock they left
    behind.[149] At an earlier point, it had been one of seven
    possible sites chosen for the relocation of the Jews after World
    War II.[150] Plans to inhabit the jungles of Guyana's interior
    with cheap labor date back to 1919.[151] Resources buried there
    are among the richest in the world, and include manganese,
    diamonds, gold, bauxite and uranium.[152] Forbes Burnham, the
    Prime Minister, had participated in a scheme to repatriate Blacks
    from the UK to work in the area. Like all earlier attempts, it

    Once chosen, the site was leased and worked on by a select crew of
    Temple members in preparation for the arrival of the body of the
    church. The work was done in cooperation with Burnham and the U.S.
    Embassy there.[154] But if these were idealists seeking a better
    life, their arrival in "Utopia" was a strange welcome. Piled into
    busses in San Francisco, they had driven to Florida. From there,
    Pan American charter planes delivered them to Guyana.[155] When
    they arrived at the airport, the Blacks were taken off the plane,
    bound and gagged.[156] The deception had finally been stripped
    bare of all pretense. The Blacks were so isolated and controlled
    that neighbors as close as five miles from the site did not know
    that Blacks lived at Jonestown. The only public representatives
    seen in Guyana were white.[157] Guyanese children were "bought"

    According to survivors' reports, they entered a virtual slave
    labor camp. Worked for 16 to 18 hours daily, they were forced to
    live in cramped quarters on minimum rations, usually rice, bread
    and sometimes rancid meat. Kept on a schedule of physical and
    mental exhaustion, they were also forced to stay awake at night
    and listen to lectures by Jones. Threats and abuse became more
    common.[159] The camp medical staff under Dr. Lawrence Schacht was
    known to perform painful suturing without anaesthetic. They
    administered drugs, and kept daily medical records.[160]
    Infractions of the rules or disloyalty led to increasingly harsh
    punishments, including forced drugging, sensory isolation in an
    underground box, physical torture and public sexual rape and
    humiliation. Beatings and verbal abuse were commonplace. Only the
    special guards were treated humanely and fed decently.[161] People
    with serious injuries were flown out, but few ever returned.[162]
    Perhaps the motto at Jonestown should have been the same as the
    one at Auschwitz, developed by Larry Schacht's namesake, Dr.
    Hjalmar Schacht, the Nazi Minister of Economics, "Arheit Macht
    Frei," or "Work Will Make You Free." Guyana even considered
    setting up an "Auschwitz-like museum" at the site, but abandoned
    the idea.[163]

    By this point, Jones had amassed incredible wealth. Press
    estimates ranged from $26 million to $2 billion, including bank
    accounts, foreign investments and real estate. Accounts were set
    up worldwide by key members, often in the personal name of certain
    people in the Temple.[164] Much of this money, listed publicly
    after the massacre, disappeared mysteriously. It was a fortune far
    too large to have come from membership alone. The receivership set
    up by the government settled on a total of $10 million. Of special
    interest were the Swiss bank accounts opened in Panama, the money
    taken from the camp, and the extensive investments in Barclay's
    Bank.[165] Other sources of income included the German banking
    family of Lisa Philips Layton, Larry's mother.[166] Also, close to
    $65,000 a month income was claimed to come from welfare and social
    security checks for 199 members, sent to the Temple followers and
    signed over to Jones.[167] In addition, there are indications that
    Blakey and other members were supplementing the Temple funds with
    international smuggling of guns and drugs.[168] At one point,
    Charles Garry noted that Jones and his community were "literally
    sitting on a gold mine." Mineral distribution maps of Guyana
    suggest he was right.[169]

    To comprehend this well-financed, sinister operation, we must
    abandon the myth that this was a religious commune and study
    instead the history that led to its formation. Jonestown was an
    experiment, part of a 30-year program called MK-ULTRA, the CIA and
    military intelligence code name for mind control.[170] A close
    study of Senator Ervin's 1974 report, Individual Rights and the
    Government's Role in Behavior Modification, shows that these
    agencies had certain "target populations" in mind, for both
    individual and mass control. Blacks, women, prisoners, the
    elderly, the young, and inmates of psychiatric wards were selected
    as "potentially violent."[171] There were plans in California at
    the time for a Center for the Study and Reduction of Violence,
    expanding on the horrific work of Dr. Jos Delgado, Drs. Mark and
    Ervin, and Dr. Jolly West, experts in implantation, psychosurgery,
    and tranquilizers. The guinea pigs were to be drawn from the ranks
    of the "target populations," and taken to an isolated military
    missile base in California.[172] In that same period, Jones began
    to move his Temple members to Jonestown. The were the exact
    population selected for such tests.[173]

    The meticulous daily notes and drug records kept by Larry Schacht
    disappeared, but evidence did not.[174] The history of MK-ULTRA
    and its sister programs (MK-DELTA, ARTICHOKE, BLUEBIRD, etc.)
    records a combination of drugs, drug mixtures, electroshock and
    torture as methods for control. The desired results ranged from
    temporary and permanent amnesia, uninhibited confessions, and
    creation of second personalities, to programmed assassins and
    preconditioned suicidal urges. One goal was the ability to control
    mass populations, especially for cheap labor.[175] Dr. Delgado
    told Congress that he hoped for a future where a technology would
    control workers in the field and troops at war with electronic
    remote signals. He found it hard to understand why people would
    complain about electrodes implanted in their brains to make them
    "both happy and productive."[176]

    On the scene at Jonestown, Guyanese troops discovered a large
    cache of drugs, enough to drug the entire population of
    Georgetown, Guyana (well over 200,000)[177] for more than a year.
    According to survivors, these were being used regularly "to
    control" a population of only 1,100 people.[178] One footlocker
    contained 11,000 doses of thorazine, a dangerous tranquilizer.
    Drugs used in the testing for MK-ULTRA were found in abundance,
    including sodium pentathol (a truth serum), chloral hydrate (a
    hypnotic), demerol, thalium (confuses thinking), and many
    others.[179] Schacht had supplies of haliopareael and largatil as
    well, two other major tranquilizers.[180] The actual description
    of life at Jonestown is that of a tightly run concentration camp,
    complete with medical and psychiatric experimentation. The
    stresses and isolation of the victims is typical of sophisticated
    brainwashing techniques. The drugs and special tortures add an
    additional experimental aspect to the horror.[181] This more
    clearly explains the medical tags on the bodies, and why they had
    to be removed. It also suggests an additional motive for
    frustrating any chemical autopsies, since these drugs would have
    been found in the system of the dead.

    The story of Jonestown is that of a gruesome experiment, not a
    religious utopian society. On the eve of the massacre, Forbes
    Burnham was reportedly converted to "born again" Christianity by
    members of the Full Gospel Christian Businessman's Association,
    including Lionel Luckhoo, a Temple lawyer in Guyana.[182] This
    same group, based in California, also reportedly converted
    Guatemalan dictator Rios Montt prior to his massacres there and
    they were in touch with Jim Jones in Ukiah.[183] They currently
    conduct the White House prayer breakfasts for Mr. Reagan.[184]
    With Ryan on his way to Jonestown, the seal of secrecy was broken.
    In a desperate attempt to test their conditioning methods, the
    Jonestown elite apparently tried to implement a real suicide
    drill.[185] Clearly, it led to a revolt, and the majority of
    people fled, unaware that there were people waiting to catch them.

    One Too Many Jonestowns

    Author Don Freed, an associate of Mark Lane, said that Martin
    Luther King, "if he could see Johnstown would recognize it as the
    next step in his agenda, and he would say, one, two, three, many
    more Jonestowns."[186] Strangely enough, almost every map of
    Guyana in the major press located Jonestown at a different place
    following the killings. One map even shows a second site in the
    area called "Johnstown."[187] Perhaps there were multiple camps
    and Leo Ryan was only shown the one they hoped he would see. In
    any case, the Jonestown model survives, and similar camps, and
    their sinister designs, show up in many places.

    Inside Guyana itself, approximately 25 miles to the south of
    Matthews Ridge, is a community called Hilltown, named after
    religious leader Rabbi Hill. Hill has used the names Abraham
    Israel and Rabbi Emmanuel Washington. Hilltown, set up about the
    same time as Jonestown, followed the departure of David Hill, who
    was known in Cleveland, a fugitive of the U.S. courts. Hill rules
    with an "iron fist" over some 8,000 Black people from Guyana and
    America who believe they are the Lost Tribe of Israel and the real
    Hebrews of Biblical prophecy.[188] Used as strong-arm troops, and
    "internal mercenaries" to insure Burnham's election, as were
    Jonestown members, the Hilltown people were allowed to clear the
    Jonestown site of shoes and unused weapons, both in short supply
    in Guyana.[189] Hill says his followers would gladly kill
    themselves at his command, but he would survive since, unlike
    Jones, he is "in control."[190]

    Similar camps were reported at the time in the Philippines.
    Perhaps the best known example is the fascist torture camp in
    Chile known as Colonia Dignidad. Also a religious cult built
    around a single individual, this one came from Germany to Chile in
    1961. In both cases, the camp was their "Agricultural Experiment."
    Sealed and protected by the dreaded Chilean DINA police, Colonia
    Dignidad serves as a torture chamber for political dissidents. To
    the Jonestown monstrosities, they have added dogs specially
    trained to attack human genitals.[191] The operations there have
    included the heavy hand of decapitation specialist Michael Townley
    Welch, an American CIA agent, as well as reported visits by Nazi
    war criminals Dr. Josef Mengele and Martin Bormann. Currently,
    another such campsite exists at Pisagua, Chile.[192] Temple member
    Jeannie Mills, now dead, reported having seen actual films of a
    Chilean torture camp while at Jonestown. The only source possible
    at the time was the Chilean fascists themselves.[193]

    In the current period, Jonestown is being "repopulated" with
    100,000 Laotian Hmong people. Many of them grew opium for CIA
    money in Southeast Asia. Over 1,000 reside there already under a
    scheme designed by Billy Graham's nephew Ernest, and members of
    the Federation of Evangelical Ministries Association in Wheaton,
    Illinois (World Vision, World Medical Relief, Samaritan's Purse,
    and Carl McIntyre's International Council of Christian
    Churches).[194] Similar plans devised by the Peace Corps included
    moving inner-city Blacks from America to Jamaica, and other Third
    World countries. And World Relief attempted to move the population
    of the Island of Dominica to Jonestown.[195] It is only a matter
    of time before another Jonestown will be exposed, perhaps leading
    again to massive slaughter.

    The Links to U.S. Intelligence Agencies

    Our story so far has hinted at connections to U.S. intelligence,
    such as the long-term friendship of Jones and CIA associate Dan
    Mitrione. But the ties are much more direct when a full picture of
    the operation is revealed. To start with, the history of Forbes
    Burnham's rise to power in Guyana is fraught with the clear
    implication of a CIA coup d'tat to oust troublesome independent
    leader Cheddi Jagan.[196] In addition, the press and other
    evidence indicated the presence of a CIA agent on the scene at the
    time of the massacre. This man, Richard Dwyer, was working as
    Deputy Chief of Mission for the U.S. Embassy in Guyana.[197]
    Identified in Who's Who in the CIA, he has been involved since
    1959, and was last stationed in Martinique.[198] Present at the
    camp site and the airport strip, his accounts were used by the
    State Department to confirm the death of Leo Ryan. At the
    massacre, Jones said, "Get Dwyer out of here" just before the
    killings began.[199]

    Other Embassy personnel, who knew the situation at Jonestown well,
    were also connected to intelligence work. U.S. Ambassador John
    Burke, who served in the CIA with Dwyer in Thailand, was an
    Embassy official described by Philip Agee as working for the CIA
    since 1963. A Reagan appointee to the CIA, he is still employed by
    the Agency, usually on State Department assignments.[200] Burke
    tried to stop Ryan's investigation.[201] Also at the Embassy was
    Chief Consular officer Richard McCoy, described as "close to
    Jones," who worked for military intelligence and was "on loan"
    from the Defense Department at the time of the massacre.[202]
    According to a standard source, "The U.S. embassy in Georgetown
    housed the Georgetown CIA station. It now appears that the
    majority and perhaps all of the embassy officials were CIA
    officers operating under State Department covers . . ."[203] Dan
    Webber, who was sent to the site of the massacre the day after,
    was also named as CIA.[204] Not only did the State Department
    conceal all reports of violations at Jonestown from Congressman
    Leo Ryan, but the Embassy regularly provided Jones with copies of
    all congressional inquiries under the Freedom of Information

    Ryan had challenged the Agency's overseas operations before, as a
    member of the House Committee responsible for oversight on
    intelligence. He was an author of the controversial Hughes-Ryan
    Amendment that would have required CIA disclosure in advance to
    the congressional committees of all planned covert operations. The
    Amendment was defeated shortly after his death.[206]

    American intelligence agencies have a sordid history of
    cooperative relations with Nazi war criminals and international
    fascism.[207] In light of this, consider the curious ties of the
    family members of the top lieutenants to Jim Jones. The Layton
    family is one example. Dr. Laurence Layton was Chief of Chemical
    and Biological Warfare Research at Dugway Proving Grounds in Utah,
    for many years, and later worked as Director of Missile and
    Satellite Development at the Navy Propellant Division, Indian
    Head, Maryland.[208] His wife, Lisa, had come from a rich German
    family. Her father, Hugo, had represented I.G. Farben as a
    stockbroker.[209] Her stories about hiding her Jewish past from
    her children for most of her life, and her parents' escape from a
    train heading for a Nazi concentration camp seem shallow, as do
    Dr. Layton's Quaker religious beliefs. The same family sent money
    to Jonestown regularly.[210] Their daughter, Debbie, met and
    married George Philip Blakey in an exclusive private school in
    England. Blakey's parents have extensive stock holdings in Solvay
    drugs, a division of the Nazi cartel I.G. Farben.[211] He also
    contributed financially.[212]

    Terri Buford's father, Admiral Charles T. Buford, worked with Navy
    Intelligence.[213] In addition, Blakey was reportedly running
    mercenaries from Jonestown to CIA-backed UNITA forces in
    Angola.[214] Maria Katsaris' father was a minister with the Greek
    Orthodox Church, a common conduit of CIA fundings, and Maris
    claimed she had proof he was CIA. She was shot in the head, and
    her death was ruled a suicide, but at one point Charles Beikman
    was charged with killing her.[215] On their return to the United
    States, the "official" survivors were represented by attorney
    Joseph Blatchford who had been named prior to that time in a
    scandal involving CIA infiltration of the Peace Corps.[216] Almost
    everywhere you look at Jonestown, U.S. intelligence and fascism
    rear their ugly heads.

    The connection of intelligence agencies to cults is nothing new. A
    simple but revealing example is the Unification Church, tied to
    both the Korean CIA (i.e., American CIA in Korea), and the
    international fascist network known as the World Anti-Communist
    League (WACL). The Moonies hosted WACL's first international
    conference.[217] What distinguished Jonestown was both the level
    of control and the openly sinister involvement. It was imperative
    that they cover their tracks.[218]

    Maria Katsaris sent Michael Prokes, Tim Carter, and another guard
    out at the last minute with $500,000 cash in a suitcase, and
    instructions for a drop point. Her note inside suggests the funds
    were destined for the Soviet Union.[219] Prokes later shot himself
    at a San Francisco press conference, where he claimed to be an FBI
    informant.[220] Others reported meeting with KGB agents and plans
    to move to Russia.[221] This disinformation was part of a "red
    smear" to be used if they had to abandon the operation. The Soviet
    Union had no interest in the money and even less in Jonestown. The
    cash was recovered by the Guyanese government.[222]

    Their hidden funding may include more intelligence links. A
    mysterious account in Panama, totaling nearly $5 million in the
    name of an "Associacion Pro Religiosa do San Pedro, S.A." was
    located.[223] This unknown Religious Association of St. Peter was
    probably one of the twelve phony companies set up by Archbishop
    Paul Marcinkus to hide the illegal investments of Vatican funds
    through the scandal-ridden Banco Ambrosiano.[224] A few days after
    the story broke about the accounts, the President of Panama, and
    most of the government resigned, Roberto Calvi of Banco Ambrosiano
    was murdered, and the Jonestown account disappeared from public
    scrutiny and court record.[225]

    The direct orders to cover up the cause of death came from the top
    levels of the American government. Zbigniew Brezezinsky delegated
    to Robert Pastor, and he in turn ordered Lt. Col. Gordon Sumner to
    strip the bodies of identity.[226] Pastor is now Deputy Director
    of the CIA.[227] One can only wonder how many others tied to the
    Jonestown operation were similarly promoted.

    The Strange Connection
    to the Murder of Martin Luther King

    One of the persistent problems in researching Jonestown is that it
    seems to lead to so many other criminal activities, each with its
    own complex history and cast of characters. Perhaps the most
    disturbing of these is the connection that appears repeatedly
    between the characters in the Jonestown story and the key people
    involved in the murder and investigating of Martin Luther King.

    The first clue to this link appeared in the personal histories of
    the members of the Ryan investigation team who were so selectively
    and deliberately killed at Port Kaituma. Don Harris, a veteran NBC
    reporter, had been the only network newsman on the scene to cover
    Martin Luther King's activity in Memphis at the time of King's
    assassination. He had interviewed key witnesses at the site. His
    coverage of the urban riots that followed won him an Emmy
    award.[228] Gregory Robinson, a "fearless" journalist from the San
    Francisco Examiner, had photographed the same riots in Washington,
    D.C. When he was approached for copies of the films by Justice
    Department officials, he threw the negatives into the Potomac

    The role of Mark Lane, who served as attorney for Jim Jones, is
    even more clearly intertwined.[230] Lane had co-authored a book
    with Dick Gregory, claiming FBI complicity in the King
    murder.[231] He was hired as the attorney for James Earl Ray,
    accused assassin, when Ray testified before the House Select
    Committee on Assassinations about King.[232] Prior to this
    testimony, Ray was involved in an unusual escape plot at Brushy
    Mountain State Prison.[233] The prisoner who had helped engineer
    the escape plot was later inexplicably offered an early, parole by
    members of the Tennessee Governor's office. These officials, and
    Governor Blanton himself, were to come under close public scrutiny
    and face legal charges in regard to bribes taken to arrange
    illegal early pardons for prisoners.[234]

    One of the people living at Jonestown was ex-FBI agent Wesley
    Swearington, who at least publicly condemned the COINTELPRO
    operations and other abuses, based on stolen classified documents,
    at the Jonestown site. Lane had reportedly met with him there at
    least a year before the massacre. Terri Buford said the documents
    were passed on to Charles Garry. Lane used information from
    Swearingen in his thesis on the FBI and King's murder. Swearingen
    later served as a key witness in suits against the Justice
    Department brought by the Socialist Workers Party.[235] When Larry
    Flynt, the flamboyant publisher of Hustler magazine, offered a, $1
    million reward leading to the capture and conviction of the John
    F. Kennedy killers, the long distance number listed to collect
    information and leads was being answered by Mark Lane and Wesley

    With help from officials in Tennessee, Governor Blanton's office,
    Lane managed to get legal custody of a woman who had been
    incarcerated in the Tennessee state psychiatric system for nearly
    eight years.[237] This woman, Grace Walden Stephens, had been a
    witness in the King murder.[238] She was living at the time in
    Memphis in a rooming house across from the hotel when Martin
    Luther King was shot.[239] The official version of events had Ray
    located in the common bathroom of the rooming house, and claimed
    he used a rifle to murder King from that window.[240] Grace
    Stephens did, indeed, see a man run from the bathroom, past her
    door and down to the street below.[241] A rifle, later linked
    circumstantially to James Earl Ray, was found inside a bundle at
    the base of the rooming house stairs, and identified as the murder
    weapon.[242] But Grace, who saw the man clearly, refused to
    identify him as Ray when shown photographs by the FBI.[243] Her
    testimony was never introduced at the trial. The FBI relied,
    instead, on the word of her common law husband, Charles Stephens,
    who was drunk and unconscious at the time of the incident.[244]
    Her persistence in saying that it was not James Earl Ray was used
    at her mental competency hearings as evidence against her, and she
    disappeared into the psychiatric system.[245]

    Grace Walden Stephens took up residence in Memphis with Lane, her
    custodian, and Terri Buford, a key Temple member who had returned
    to the U.S. before the killings to live with Lane.[246] While
    arranging for her to testify before the Select Committee on Ray's
    behalf, Lane and Buford were plotting another fate for Grace
    Stephens. Notes from Buford to Jones, found in the aftermath of
    the killings, discussed arrangements with Lane to move Grace
    Stephens to Jonestown.[247] The problem that remained was lack of
    a passport, but Buford suggested either getting a passport on the
    black market, or using the passport of former Temple member Maxine
    Swaney.[248] Swaney, dead for nearly 2-1/2 years since her
    departure from the Ukiah camp, was in no position to argue and
    Jones apparently kept her passport with him.[249] Whether Grace
    ever arrived at Jonestown is unclear.

    Lane was also forced to leave Ray in the midst of testimony to the
    Select Committee when he got word that Ryan was planning to visit.
    Lane had attempted to discourage the trip earlier in a vaguely
    threatening letter.[250] Now he rushed to be sure he arrived with
    the group.[251] At the scene, he failed to warn Ryan and others,
    knowing that the sandwiches and other food might be drugged, but
    refrained from eating it himself.[252] Later, claiming that he and
    Charles Garry would write the official history of the
    "revolutionary suicide," Lane was allowed to leave the pieces of
    underwear to mark their way back to Georgetown.[253] If true, it
    seems an unlikely method if they were in any fear of pursuit. They
    had heard gunfire and screams back at the camp.[254] Lane was
    reportedly well aware of the forced drugging and suicide drills at
    Jonestown before Ryan arrived.[255]

    Another important figure in the murder of Martin Luther King was
    his mother, Alberta. A few weeks after the first public
    announcement by Coretta Scott King that she believed her husband's
    murder was part of a conspiracy, Mrs. Alberta King was brutally
    shot to death in Atlanta, while attending church services.[256]
    Anyone who had seen the physical wounds suffered by King might
    have been an adverse witness to the official version, since the
    Wound angles did not match the ballistic direction of a shot from
    the rooming house.[257] Her death also closely coincided with the
    reopening of the Tennessee state court review of Ray's conviction
    based on a guilty plea, required by a 6th Circuit decision.[258]
    The judge in that case reportedly refused to allow witnesses from
    beyond a 100-mile radius from the courtroom.[259]

    The man convicted of shooting King's mother was Marcus Wayne
    Chenault. His emotional affect following the murder was unusual.
    Grinning, he asked if he had hit anyone.[260] He had reportedly
    been dropped off at the church by people he knew in Ohio.[261]
    While at Ohio State University, he was part of a group known as
    "the Troop," run by a Black minister and gun collector who used
    the name Rabbi Emmanuel Israel. This man, described in the press
    as a "mentor" for Chenault, left the area immediately after the
    shooting.[262] In the same period, Rabbi Hill traveled from Ohio
    to Guyana and set up Hilltown, using similar aliases, and
    preaching the same message of a "black Hebrew elite."[263]
    Chenault confided to SCLC leaders that he was one of many killers
    who were working to assassinate a long list of Black leadership.
    The names he said were on this list coincided with similar "death
    lists" distributed by the KKK, and linked to the COINTELPRO
    operations in the 60s.[264]

    The real backgrounds and identities of Marcus Wayne Chenault and
    Rabbi Hill may never be discovered. But one thing is certain:
    Martin Luther King Would never had countenanced the preachings of
    Jim Jones, had he lived to hear them.[265]


    In the face of such horror, it may seem little compensation to
    know that a part of the truth has been unearthed. But for the
    families and some of the Survivors, the truth, however painful, is
    the only path to being relieved of the burden of their doubts.
    It's hard to believe that President Carter was calling on us at
    the time not to "overreact." The idea that a large community of
    Black people would not only stand by and be poisoned at the
    suggestion of Jim Jones, but would allow their children to be
    murdered first, is a monstrous lie, and a racist insult.[266] We
    now know that the most direct description of Jonestown is that it
    was a Black genocide plan. One Temple director, Joyce Shaw,
    described the Jonestown massacre as, "some kind of horrible
    government experiments, or some sort of sick racial thing, a plan
    like that of the Germans to exterminate Blacks."[267] If we refuse
    to look further into this nightmarish event, there will be more
    Jonestowns to come. They will move from Guyana to our own back

    The cast of characters is neither dead nor inactive. Key members
    of the armed guard were ordered to be on board the Temple Ship,
    Cudjoe -- at the hour of the massacre they were on a supply run to
    Trinidad. George Phillip Blakey phoned his father-in-law, Dr.
    Lawrence Layton, from Panama after the event.[268] At least ten
    members of the Temple remained on the boat, and set up a new
    community in Trinidad while Nigel Slingger, a Grenada businessman
    and insurance broker for Jonestown, repaired the 400-ton shipping
    vessel. Then Charles Touchette, Paul McCann, Stephan Jones, and
    George Blakey set up an "open house" in Grenada with the others.
    McCann spoke about starting a shipping company to "finance the
    continued work of the original Temple."[269]

    That "work" may have included the mysterious operations of the
    mental hospital in Grenada that eluded government security by
    promising free medical care.[270] The hospital as operated by Sir
    Geoffrey Bourne, Chancellor of the St. George's University Medical
    School, was also staffed by his son Dr. Peter Bourne.[271] His
    son's history includes work with psychological experiments and
    USAID in Vietnam, the methadone clinics in the U.S., and a drug
    scandal in the Carter White House.[272] The mental hospital was
    the only structure bombed during the U.S. invasion of Grenada in
    1983. This was part of a plan to put Sir Eric Gairy back in
    power.[273] Were additional experiments going on at the site?[274]

    In addition, the killers of Leo Ryan and others at Port Kaituma
    were never accounted for fully. The trial of Larry Layton was
    mishandled by the Guyanese courts, and the U.S. system as
    well.[275] No adequate evidentiary hearings have occurred either
    at the trial or in state and congressional reviews. The Jonestown
    killers, trained assassins and mercenaries, are not on trial. They
    might be working in Africa or Central America. Their participation
    in Jonestown can be used as an "explanation" for their involvement
    in later murders here, such as the case of the attack on school
    children in Los Angeles.[276] They should be named and located.

    The money behind Jonestown was never fully examined or recovered.
    The court receivership only collected a fraction. The bulk went to
    pay back military operations and burial costs. Families of the
    dead were awarded only minimal amounts.[277] Some filed suit,
    unsuccessfully, to learn more about the circumstances of the
    deaths, and who was responsible. Joe Holsinger, Leo Ryan's close
    friend and assistant, studied the case for two years and reached
    the same unnerving conclusions: these people were murdered, there
    was evidence of a mass mind-control experiment, and the top levels
    of civilian and military intelligence were involved.[278] He
    worked with Ryan's family members to prove the corruption and
    injustice, but they could barely afford the immense court costs
    and case preparation. Their suit, as well as a similar one brought
    by ex-members and families of the victims, had to be dropped for
    lack of funds.[279]

    The international operations of World Vision and the related
    evangelical groups continue unabashed. World Vision official John
    W. Hinckley, Sr. was on his way to a Guatemalan water project run
    by the organization on the day his son shot at president
    Reagan.[280] A mysterious "double" of Hinckley, Jr., a man named
    Richardson, followed Hinckley's path from Colorado to Connecticut,
    and even wrote love letters to Jody Foster. Richardson was a
    follower of Carl McIntyre's International Council of Christian
    Churches, and attended their Bible School in Florida. He was
    arrested shortly after the assassination attempt in New York's
    Port Authority with a weapon, and claimed he intended to kill

    Another World Vision employee, Mark David Chapman, worked at their
    Haitian refugee camp in Ft. Chaffee, Arkansas. He was later to
    gain infamy as the assassin of John Lennon in New York City.[282]
    World Vision works with refugees worldwide. At the Honduran
    border, they are present in camps used by American CIA to recruit
    mercenaries against Nicaragua. They were at Sabra and Shatilla,
    Camps in Lebanon where fascist Phalange massacred the
    Palestinians.[283] Their representatives in the Cuban refugee
    camps on the east coast included members of the Bay of Pigs
    operation, CIA-financed mercenaries from Omega 7 and Alpha
    66.[284] Are they being used as a worldwide cover for the
    recruitment and training of these killers? They are, as mentioned
    earlier, working to repopulate Jonestown with Laotians who served
    as mercenaries for our CIA.[285]

    Silence in the face of these murders is the worst possible
    response. The telling sign above the Jonestown dead read, "Those
    who do not remember the past are condemned to repeat it."[286] The
    genocide will come home to America. How many spent time studying
    the rash of child murders in Atlanta's Black community or asked
    the necessary questions about the discrepancies in the conviction
    of Wayne Williams?[287] Would we recognize a planned genocide if
    it occurred under similar subterfuge?

    Leo Ryan's daughter, Shannon, lives among the disciples of another
    cult today, at the new city of Rajneeshpuram in Arizona. She was
    quoted in the press, during the recent controversy over a
    nationwide recruiting drive to bring urban homeless people to the
    commune, saying she did not believe it could end like Jonestown,
    since the leader would not ask them to commit suicide. "If he did
    ask me, I would do it," she said.[288] Homeless recruits who had
    left since then are suing in court because of suspicious and
    unnecessary injections given them by the commune's doctor, and a
    liquid they were served daily in unmarked jars that many believe
    was not simply "beer." One man in the suit claims he was drugged
    and disoriented for days after his first injection.[289]

    The ultimate victims of mind control at Jonestown are the American
    people. If we fail to look beyond the constructed images given us
    by the television and the press, then our consciousness is
    manipulated, just as well as the Jonestown victims' was. Facing
    nuclear annihilation, may see the current militarism of the Reagan
    policies, and military training itself, as the real "mass suicide
    cult." If the discrepancy between the truth of Jonestown and the
    official version can be so great, what other lies have we been
    told about major events?[290]

    History is precious. In a democracy, knowledge must be accessible
    for informed consent to function. Hiding or distorting history
    behind "national security" leaves the public as the final enemy of
    the government. Democratic process cannot operate on "need to
    know." Otherwise we live in the 1984 envisioned by Orwell's
    projections and we must heed his warning that those who control
    the past control the future.[291]

    The real tragedy of Jonestown is not only that it occurred, but
    that so few chose to ask themselves why or how, so few sought to
    find out the facts behind the bizarre tale used to explain away
    the death of more than 900 people, and that so many will continue
    to be blind to the grim reality of our intelligence agencies. In
    the long run, the truth will come out. Only our complicity in the
    deception continues to dishonor the dead.


    1. Hold Hands and Die! John Maguire (Dale Books, 1978), p. 235
    (Story of the Century); Raven, Tim Reiterman (Dutton, 1982)
    p. 575 (citing poll result).

    2. The standard version first appeared in two "instant books,"
    so instant (12/10/78) they seemed to have been written before
    the event! The Suicide Cult, Kilduff & Javers (Bantam Books,
    1978); Guyana Massacre, Charles Krause (Berkeley Pub., 1978).

    Other standard research works on the topic include: White
    Night, John Peer Nugent (Wade, 1979); Raven, op cit., and
    Hold Hands and Die!, op cit.; The Cult That Died, George
    Klineman (Putnam 1980); The Children of Jonestown, Kenneth
    Wooden (McGraw-Hill, 1981); The Strongest Poison, Mark Lane
    (Hawthorn Books, 1980); Our Father Who Art In Hell, James
    Reston (Times Books, 1981); Journey to Nowhere, Shiva Naipaul
    (Simon & Schuster, 1981); The Assassination of Representative
    Leo J. Ryan & The Jonestown, Guyana Tragedy, Report, House
    Committee on Foreign Affairs (GPO, May 15, 1979).

    Personal accounts by members of People's Temple and survivors
    of Jonestown: Six Years With God, Jeannie Mills (A&W Publ.,
    1979); People's Temple, People's Tomb, Phil Kerns (Logos,
    Int., 1979); Deceived, Mel White (Spire Books, 1979); The
    Broken God, Bonnie Theilmann (David Cook, 1979); Awake in a
    Nightmare, Feinsod (Norton, 1981); In My Father's House, Yee
    & Layton (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1981).

    3. "The People's Temple," William Pfaff, New Yorker, 12/18/78;
    Hold Hands, p. 241-7 (cults) and Journey to Nowhere, p. 294
    (the period); The Family, Ed Sanders (Avon Press, 1974)
    (Charlie Manson); Snapping, Flo Conway (brainwashing);
    Ecstasy & Holiness, Frank Musgrove (Indiana Univ. Press,

    In case you missed the decade and what happened: The Sixties
    (Rolling Stone Press, 1977); The Sixties Papers, Judith &
    Stew Albert (Praeger, 1984); By Any Means Necessary: Outlaw
    Manifestoes 1965-70, P. Stansill (Penguin, 1971); Protest &
    Discontent, Bernard Crick (Penguin 1970); Fire in the
    Streets, Milton Viorst (Random House, 1982); Blacklisted
    News: Secret Histories from Chicago to 1984 (Yipster Times,
    1984); The Making of a Counter-Culture, Theodor Roszak
    (Doubleday, 1969).

    4. "Inside People's Temple," Marshall Kilduff, New West, 8/1/77;
    Hold Hands, p. 100.

    5. "Rev Jones Became West Coast Power," Washington Post (WP),
    11/20/78. Hold Hands, p. 130 and Journey to Nowhere, p. 47.

    6. "Rev. Jones Accused of Coercion," New York Times (NYT),
    4/12/79; NYT, 11/27/78 (warning letter to Ryan, 6/78).

    7. Assassination of Leo J. Ryan, op cit., pp. 1-3; "Ryan to
    Visit," Kilduff, San Francisco Chronicle (SFC), 11/8/78.

    8. "A Hell of a Story: The Selling of a Massacre," Wash. Jrn.
    Rev., Jan-Feb, 1979. Standard details recounted in books
    cited above in footnote 2. Children of Jonestown, p. 201
    (mass grave); NYT, 12/19 and 12/20/78, and 1/10/79 (28
    cremated), also 1/25 and 5/25/79 (bodies cremated in mass
    grave, 248).

    9. Raven, p. 576 (Layton charges); WP 11/19/84 (Ryan medal).

    10. Hold Hands, p. 216.

    11. Helter Skelter, Vincent Bugliosi (Norton, 1974).

    12. Hold Hands, pp. 215-16.

    13. New York Post, 11/21/78 (headline); WP, 11/21/78, San
    Francisco Examiner (SFE), 11/22/78, Guyana Daily Mirror,
    11/23/78, NYT, 11/22/78 (flee to jungle); NYT, 11/21-23/78
    (estimated 4-500 missing); White Night, pp. 224-226 and NYT,
    11/23/78 (U.S. search with loudspeakers).

    14. Boston Globe, 11/21/78, Baltimore Sun, 11/21/78, NYT,
    11/20/78 (est. 11-1200); White Night, p. 228 (Jones says
    1,200), Guyanese Daily Mirror, 11/23/78 (1,000).

    15. WP, 11/21/78 (passports); White Night, p. 230 (809 visa
    applications), and Hold Hands, p. 146 (800 on busses to
    Florida); Children of Jonestown, p. 202, and NYT, 11/26/78
    (children, 260 dead at site, 276 at Dover).

    16. White Night, p. 223. NYT, 11/21/78 (408 dead, Guyanese "pick
    way" to count), 11/22/78 (409 dead, U.S. Army teams),
    11/23/78 (400 dead, Maj. Helming, U.S.), 11/24/78 (409 dead,

    17. White Night, p. 231 and Hold Hands, pp. 226-34; NYT, 11/25/78
    (775, P. Reid, Guyana), 11/26/78 (over 900, U.S. "final" 910,
    AF or 914, Reuters); 11/29/78 (900, Lloyd Barker, Guyana),
    12/1/78 (911, U.S. Air Force), 12/4/78 (911, Dover AFB,

    18. Guyana Daily Mirror, 11/23/85

    19. White Night, pp. 229-30 (can't count); NYT, 11/25/78 (State
    Dept. Business, "rough"), 11/25/78 (American official
    disagrees, says Guyanese count "firm"); Children of
    Jonestown, p. 196 (poking).

    20. White Night, p. 229 (pavilion story), 230 ("mounds of
    people," Maj. Hickman); SFE 11/25/78 (adults covered
    children); NYT, 11/25/78 ("layered," Ridley, Guyana, but U.S.
    soldier, "only one layer").

    21. Baltimore Sun, 11/21/78 (82 children, 163 women, 138 men
    first count).

    22. Photographs appear in most of the standard reference works,
    see footnote 2. Also, good pictures in the following:
    "Jonestown: the Survivors' Story," NYT Magazine, 11/18/79;
    "Death in the Jungle," 11/27/78 and "Cult of Death," 12/4/78
    in Newsweek; "Cult Massacre," 11/27/78 and "Cult of Death,"
    12/4/78 in Time; "Cult of Madness," 12/4/78 and "Bloody Trail
    Behind Jonestown," 12/25/78 in Macleans; "In the Valley of
    the Shadow of Death," Tim Cahill, Rolling Stone, 1/25/79;
    "Questions Linger about Guyana," Sidney Jones, Oakland Times,
    12/9/78; "Cult Defectors Suspect U.S. of Cover-up," Los
    Angeles Times, 12/18/78.

    23. White Night, p. 229 (quoting State Dept. Bushnell), and Hold
    Hands, p. 233 (doubts); NYT, 11/23/78 (U.S. searching,
    Carter); 11/24/78 ("in vain"), 11/29/78 ("none"), and 12/1/78
    (30-40 in Venezuela).

    24. WP, 11/21/78 ("Cult Head Leads 408 to Death"); NYT,
    11/20-22/78 (searching, pickup Lane & Garry); White Night, p.
    239 (Burnham sends in "his boys").

    25. White Night, p. 224 (over 300 U.S. troops, 11/20); Guyana
    Daily Mirror, 11/23/78 (325 U.S. troops); Hold Hands, p. 200
    (200 for clean-up) and NYT, 11/23/78 (239 to evacuate). What
    was the function of nearly 100 additional U.S. forces? "Jocks
    in the Jungle," London Sunday Times, 11/78 (British Black
    Watch troops).

    26. Photographs, see footnote 22. Strongest Poison, p. 194 (Lou
    Gurvich, "dragged and laid out").

    27. "Mystery Shrouds Jonestown Affair," Guyanese Daily Mirror,
    11/23/78; NYT, 11/24 and 29/78 (missing in jungle disappear,
    Guyanese say "none," Barker).

    28. SFE, 11/20/78 (headline), also WP, 11/21/78 or NYT, 11/28/78.

    29. Children of Jonestown, p. 193; NYT, 12/14/78 (Mootoo
    testifies to coroner's jury), 2/18/79 (Chicago Med. Examiner
    Robt. Stein promised help, none came).

    30. A Guide to Pathological Evidence for Lawyers and Police
    Officers, F. Jaffe (Carswell Press, 1983); Poisons,
    Properties, Chemical Identification, Symptoms and Emergency
    Treatment, V. Brooks (Van Nostrand, 1958).

    31. Photographs, see footnote 22. "Questions Linger," Oakland
    Times, 12/9/78.

    32. "Coroner Says 700 Who Died in Cult were Slain," Miami Herald,
    12/17/78; NYT, 12/12/78 (injections, upper arm), 11/17/78
    (700 were murdered), 12/18/78 (Mootoo shocks American Academy
    of Forensic Scientists meeting).

    33. White Night, pp. 230-1 (shot); WP, 11/221/78 (shot), Guyana
    Daily Mirror, 11/23/78 ("bullets in bodies," Ridley); NYT,
    11/29/78 ("no guns/struggle," Lloyd Barker), 11/20/78 ("no
    violence," Ridley); NYT, 11/18,19,21/78 (Jim Jones, Annie
    Moore, Maria Katsaris shot in head); WP, 11/21/78 ("forced to
    die by guards"), also Washington Star, 11/25/78 (forced).

    34. Children of Jonestown, p. 191 and WP, 11/21/78 (unknown if
    Jones shot himself); Strongest Poison, p. 194 (Gurvich, no
    nitrate test on hands); Hold Hands, p. 260 (gun far from
    body); Miami Herald, 12/17/78 (Mootoo suspects murdered);
    NYT, 11/26/78 (drug o.d., shot after, U.S. Major Groom),
    12/1,7/78 (Guyanese and U.S. pathologists autopsy), 12/10/78
    (ballistics tests), 12/20,21/78 (illegal cremation), 12/23/78
    (not suicide, Mag. Bacchus, Guyana Coroner's Jury).

    35. Raven, p. 576 and Miami Herald, 12/17/78 (grand jury
    decision); Strongest Poison, p. 194 (Gurvich, evidence of
    shooting, over 600 bodies); NYT, 12/13/78 (grand jury set
    up), 12/14,15,17/78 (Mootoo testimony, tour of site),
    12/23/78 (conclusion, "persons unknown," Katsaris, Moore

    36. Hold Hands, cover photo, and see footnote 22.

    37. White Night, p. 231 (Schuler quote), Children of Jonestown,
    p. 197 (unaware); Strongest Poison, pp. 182-89 (autopsy
    problems); NYT, 11/26/78 and 12/5/78 (no autopsies,
    reluctant), 11/26/78 (Mootoo's work unknown).

    38. Hold Hands, p. 260, and see footnotes 17, 28, 33 or Lloyd
    Barker; "Cult Defectors Suspect Cover-up," LAT, 12/18/78;
    "Jonestown & the CIA, Daily World, 6/23/81; NYT, 12/3,8/78
    (Lloyd Barker collusion), 12/7,8,24/78 (Deputy Prime Minister
    Reid's role), 12/25/78 (U.S. attempts to discredit coroner's

    39. Hold Hands, p. 229; SFE, 11/22/78 ($1 million), or see NYT,
    12/8/78 ($2.5 million at site); WP, 11/28/78 (cash, wallets,
    gold); NYT, 12/12/78 (visit to site by Burnham's party

    40. Journey to Nowhere, p. 58,117 (Ptolemy Reid cover-up), see
    also footnote 38; Daily World, 10/23/80 (Cheddi Jagan
    interview); Guyana Daily Mirror, 11/28/78 (1/23/79); NYT,
    1/23/79 ("Templegate"); NYT, 11/20,25/78 (Ridley body counts,
    408 to 708), and see footnote 33; NYT, 11/26, 12/6,11,24/78
    and 2/11,5/16/79 (Guyana's collusion) and 12/3/78 (Burnham).

    41. White Night, p. 225 (C-131s), NYT, 11/24/78 (equipment

    42. White Night, p. 228 (identity strip), and Children of
    Jonestown, p. 196 (medical tags); Hold Hands, p. 59 (tags
    visible in photo).

    43. Hold Hands, p. 200 and White Night, p. 224 (Vietnam "looked
    like Ton San Nhut"); White Night, p. 224 (planes carried 557

    44. Hold Hands, pp. 200-1 (182 arrive last day); White Night, pp.
    226, 231 (Maj. Hickman, "six days," first bodies arrive Dover
    11/28); NYT, 11/24,26/78 (airlift details).

    45. Hold Hands, p. 204; White Night, pp. 228-31 (description,
    "These were the worst").

    46. Hold Hands, p. 201 (182 last day, 17 identified); White
    Night, p. 226 (Dover site), 227 (174 identified by Guyanese),
    231 (183 in 82 caskets); NYT, 11/30/78 (Dover, map), 11/21/78
    (50 U.S. experts sent), 12/1/78 (46 identified).

    47. Hold Hands, p. 204 (Jones cremated), and see footnote 8.

    48. Hold Hands, p. 203 (families not permitted to see remains),
    and personal interviews; Baltimore Sun, 12/28/78 (only 259
    claimed by families); NYT, 12/22/78, 1/8,24/79, 2/17/78,
    3/31/79, 4/18/79 (Dover body counts 675 to 547) and 4/26.

    49. Strongest Poison, pp. 182-9; NYT, 12/21/78, and 1/10/79 (New
    Jersey says cremation illegal, censures six doctors); NYT,
    11/30/79 (Delaware legal problems).

    50. "Medical Examiners Find Failings by Government on Cult
    Bodies," NYT, 12/3/78; Rescue Mission Report, Joint Chiefs of
    Staff, Special Operations Review (GPO, 1980); Delta Force,
    Charles Beckwith (Harcourt Brace & Jovanovich, 1983).

    51. White Night, pp. 228-9 (no autopsies, death certificates in
    Guyana); NYT, 12/12/78 (Dr. Sturmer, National Assoc. of Med.
    Examiners); NYT, 12/3/78 (other medical examiners complain,
    "legally dubious method"); NYT, 12/16/78 (Sturmer again),
    12/4/78 (embalmed) and footnote 8 (cremations).

    52. Hold Hands, p. 203 and American Funeral Director, Jan. 1979;
    NYT, 12/1,2/78 (FBI fingerprint 911, or 700, and identify

    53. Children of Jonestown, p. 197; Hold Hands, p. 204; Strongest
    Poison, pp. 182-89; NYT, 12/3,18/79 (quotes),
    12/13,16,17,19/78 (autopsies, complaints), 12/25/78 ("few
    facts"), and footnote 37 (Mootoo's work unknown).

    54. Raven, p. 527; Hold Hands, pp. 32 (photo), 53-4, and WP,
    11/21/78 (diagram); NYT, 11/21/78 (illus.).

    55. White Night, p. 197; Raven, p. 533; Strongest Poison, p. 131;
    Children of Jonestown, pp. 168-70; NYT, 2/20/79 (not guilty

    56. Ibid. - Raven

    57. White Night, p. 197, Raven, p. 525ff (ambush described); Hold
    Hands, p. 256 (Layton's "dumb stare"), and LAT, 11/28/79
    (Layton as "robot"); Journey to Nowhere, pp. 96-98 (Beikman
    in court "staring"); NYT, 12/15/78 (Layton insanity defense),
    12/21/78 (Layton "responsible").

    58. White Night, p. 197.

    59. WP, 11/21/78 (Laytons' role, Jones' quote); Boston Globe,
    "Killers Hunted," 11/21/78; SFE, 11/22/78 (7 involved); NYT,
    11/20/78 and 12/18/78 (lists of dead), 11/21/78 and 12/21/78
    (Kice named, Joe Wilson gave Ryan gun at ambush), 11/29/78
    and 12/9/78 (claim all dead, 8 warrants dropped), 12/21/78
    (survivors scared to fly with "others"), 11/22 and 12/20/78
    (Stephan Jones, Tim Carter, Michael Prokes arrested or
    charged with murders), 11/22,25/78 and 12/15,17/78 (Cobb,
    Rhodes, Moore, Clayton, named survivors), 12/6/78 (3 escape
    to Caracas & Miami before massacre).

    Who Killed Ryan? NYT, 11/22/78 (FBI investigates
    "conspiracy"), 12/28/78 (Tim Jones takes 5th amendment on
    Ryan shooting).

    60. Raven, p. 573 (elite squad), Hold Hands, p. 145; Newsweek,
    12/4/78; Daily World, 6/23/81 (Holsinger).

    61. "Grim Report," Kilduff, SFC, 6/15/78 (guards, abuse);
    Newsweek, 12/4/78 (different food, treatment); LAT, 11/28/78
    (Debbie Layton Blakey, "upper middle-class whites").

    62. White Night, p. 139; Raven, p. 403 (Cudjoe); and Raven, p.
    241 (obeyed orders).

    63. Chicago Defender, cited in Black Panther News, 12/30/78
    (UNITA recruits for Africa); "Ryan Murder Suspect Resembles
    Robot," Hall, LAT, 11/26/78 (programmed), NYT, 11/30/78
    (survivors had special privileges).

    64. Hold Hands, p. 150; Strongest Poison, p. 85 (% women);
    "Questions Linger," Oakland Times, 12/9/78 (% Blacks); NYT,
    11/20/78, 12/18/78 (death lists).

    65. WP, 12/9/78 (FBI claims killers among dead), see footnotes
    13, 23 (missing people); LAT, 11/25/78 (Stanley Clayton,
    survivor, "hundreds were slain," "forced to die"); NYT,
    12/6/78 (3 escape), 12/4/78 (Pan Am won't fly without armed
    guard), 1/29/74, ("cheers" heard), 12/23/78 ("persons

    66. Assassination of Leo J. Ryan, p. 35; Raven, pp. 572-3; Hold
    Hands, p.254 ("hit squad"); White Night, p. 224 (rumors at
    site); Journey to Nowhere, p. 148 ("basketball team"); LAT,
    12/18/78, NYT, 12/1,4/78 (fears in U.S.), NYT, 12/4/78 (SF
    police guard Temple, "at a loss"), 12/23/78 (radio orders to
    kill relatives, Jonestown to San Francisco day of massacre,

    67. Raven (Prokes & Tim Carter), see footnote 59, and NYT,
    12/12/78 (Carter arrested with pistols).

    68. Hold Hands, p. 30.

    69. NYT, 11/22,23/78 (rumors, "master plan," Lane), 11/29 and
    12/1/78 (FBI says "serious," Secret Service investigates),
    12/11,23/78 (Buford testifies).

    70. AP, May 19, 1979 (wrongly attributed to Cong. staff
    investigator George Berdes).

    71. "Suicide Carnage," Baltimore Sun, 11/21/78 ("write the
    story"); Hold Hands, pp. 127, 221 (Lane, Garry lawyers for
    People's Temple); NYT, 11/23/78 (Garry once called Jonestown
    "paradise," says Jones "lost reason"); NYT, 11/21/78 (picked
    up in jungle by Guyanese troops),

    72. Raven, p. 572 (survivors); Guyana Daily Mirror, 11/23/78 (32
    captured by Guyanese); NYT, 11/30, 12/3,7,30/78 (reports of
    returning groups, totalling 30, more remain).

    73. Raven, p. 575; "Fateful Prophecy is Fulfilled," Newsweek,
    3/10/80; "Mills Family Murders: Could it be Jim Jones' Last
    Revenge?" People, 3/17/78.

    74. Hold Hands, pp. 130-31, 254 (link of Jones to Moscone and
    Milk); The Mayor of Castro Street, Randy Shilts (St.
    Martin's, 1982); NYT, 1/17, 2/19, 4/24, 5/18, 5/22, 7/4/79
    (Dan White arrest, trial, conviction, sentence); NYT, 5/22/79
    (gay riot in response), 5/22/79 (White biography); NYT, 11/27
    (murder), 12/6 ("no link"), 12/18/78 (illegal votes for
    Moscone); "The Milk/Moscone Case Reviewed," Paul Krassner,
    Nation, 1/14/84.

    75. No note provided in original text.

    76. Los Angeles Herald, 2/12/84.

    77. Hold Hands, pp. 61,68 (KKK, Jones's racism); NYT, 11/26/78

    78. Hold Hands, pp. 62-3.

    79. Personal interviews, Richmond, Indiana, 1981. Raven, p. 26
    (Jones' boyhood); Hidden Terrors, A.J. Langguth (Pantheon,
    1978) (Mitrione).

    80. Hold Hands, pp. 63-4 (calling as minister), 66, 70 (ordained
    as minister); NYT, 11/22,29/79, 3/13/79 (Disciples of

    81. Hold Hands, pp. 62, 64.

    82. Hold Hands, pp. 66, 166 (monkey business); White Night, pp.
    9-10 (Indiana U. link).

    83. Hold Hands, p. 65 (faith healer); Hidden Terrors, pp. 17, 41
    (chief of police).

    84. Hold Hands, pp. 68, 102 (cure cancer), 75, 76, 103 (chicken
    livers); Six Years, p. 86ff (photos).

    85. No note supplied in original text.

    86. Suicide Cult, pp. 181-2.

    87. White Night, p.236; Journey to Nowhere, pp. 95, 98 (Burnham's
    people defend him), NYT, 11/21 (murders), 11/26, 12/1,5,14/78
    (charges and trials), 12/19/78 and 2/3/79 (Stephan Jones
    "confesses" and "retracts"), 11/28/78 (charged with

    88. Hidden Terrors, p. 42; Who's Who in the CIA, Julius Mader (E.
    Berlin, 1968).

    89. Suicide Cult, p. 21; WP, 11/22/78.

    90. Hold Hands, p. 65; NYT, 3/25/79 (also recruiting black
    families in Cuba, 1960).

    91. "Jones' Mysterious Brazil Stay," San Jose Mercury, 11/78.

    92. San Jose Mercury, 11/78; "Penthouse Interview: Stephan
    Jones," Penthouse, 4/79.

    93. Hidden Terrors, pp. 63, 117, 249 (Mitrione in Brazil

    94. Ibid., pp. 139-40 (reference to Who's Who in CIA); NYT,
    6/11,29/79 (Uruguay).

    95. See it!

    96. Journey to Nowhere, p. 247; Hold Hands, p. 171 (paid "pile of
    money," "$5,000 to have sex with Ambassador's wife" -- cover
    story for payoff); Suicide Cult, p. 42 (money to travel
    around U.S. on return).

    97. "Bishop's Report Names CIA," WP, 2/16/85; "Private Groups . .
    . Millions Raised," WP, 12/10/84; "Americares Foundation --
    Central America Gets Private Aid," WP, 2/27/85 (Knights of
    Malta, CIA's Casey, Brezezinsky, Haig, funnel donations for
    "medicine" through Sterling Drugs, linked to I.G. Farben.).

    98. Journey to Nowhere, p. 251.

    99. "Guyana Tragedy Points to a Need for Better Care and
    Protection of Guardianship Children," Comptroller General
    Report (GPO, 1980); NYT, 1/25/79 (150 "foster children" in
    Ukiah), 2/14/79 (Mendocino agency says "none placed"),
    2/17/79 (Sen. Cranston says 17 Ukiah children among dead).

    100. "World Vision, Go Home," L. Lee, Christian Century, 5/16/79;
    "In the Spirit of Jimmy Jones," J. Fogarty, Akwesasne Notes,
    Winter, 1982; NYT, 2/26,4/4,11/16/75 and 12/25/79 (W.V.
    Cambodia), 4/2-5/75 and 6/30/79 (Vietnam work).

    101. Journey to Nowhere, p. 220; "Jim Jones a Republican," LAT,
    12/17/78 (John Birch); Daily World, 6/23/81 (Holsinger
    comments), and NYT, 11/24/78 ("helpful" reputation).

    102. "Jim Jones was a Republican for 6 Years," LAT, 12/17/78; Hold
    Hands, p. 70 (Jones held 15% vote Mendocino County).

    103. Hold Hands, p. 93.

    104. Hold Hands, p. 84; NYT, 11/21/78 (Tim Stoen joins, legal

    105. Hold Hands, p. 95 (Debbie Layton Blakey); In My Father's
    House (Layton's stories); Strongest Poison (Terry Buford),
    NYT, 12/4/78 (Layton family, 6 join).

    106. Six Years, p. 86ff (photos); NYT, 11/22-24/78 (biography),
    11/29/78 (college $).

    107. Strongest Poison, p. 85; Philadelphia Inquirer, 11/19/78.

    108. Hold Hands, p. 138 (family joins); "Cult Got Assets from
    Layton," LAT, 11/26/78; "Family Tragedy," NYT, 12/4/78

    109. Washington Post, 1/22/78 (27,000 acres leased, 1974); Daily
    World, 6/23/81 ($600,000).

    110. In My Father's House, pp. 18-19.

    111. Hold Hands, pp. 94, 127-8; NYT, 12/16-17/79 (Swiss bank

    112. Hold Hands, p. 96; Baltimore Sun, 11/21/78; NYT, 11/21/78
    (list), 12/5/78 (Stoen close to D.A. Hunter, later
    investigated Temple).

    113. "Statement by Joe Holsinger," 5/23/80, citing Strongest
    Poison (Chapter 5), (Jones as "patriotic American"); LAT,
    12/17/78; NYT, 12/1/78 (Reagan says Jones "close to

    114. Hold Hands, pp. 73-75, 79, 176.

    115. Hold Hands, pp. 182-3; Journey to Nowhere, pp. 223-4, WP,
    11/22/78 (Housing Commission); "DA Accuses Deputy Stoen,"
    SFE, 1/21/79; WP, 11/22/78; Baltimore Sun, 11/21/78 (election
    and voter fraud); NYT, 12/18,20/78 (illegal Moscone votes).

    116. Journey to Nowhere, p. 279 (welfare appointments); NYT,
    12/18/79 (half of dead on Calif. Welfare sometime, 10%
    active, 51 fraud).

    117. Hold Hands, p. 132 (Angela Davis), 213 and NYT, 11/23/78
    (Roslyn Carter), NYT, 11/21/78 (list), also WP, 11/20/78 and
    Baltimore Sun, 11/21/78.

    118. Age of Surveillance, Frank Donner (Random House, 1980);
    Spying on Americans, Athan Theoharis (Temple University
    Press, 1978; "Garden Plot and SWAT: U.S. Police as New Action
    Army," Counterspy, Winter, 1976.

    119. Secret Agenda, Jim Hougan (Random House, 1984), pp. 99, 102;
    Final Report, Senate Select Committee on Presidential
    Campaign Activities (GPO, 1974), pp. 3-7 and Hearings, Vol.
    3, pp. 1319-37 and-Vol. 4, pp. 1453-64 (describes Houston
    plan); The Whole Truth: The Watergate Conspiracy, Sam Ervin
    (Random House, 1980); "A New Watergate Revelation: The White
    House Death Squads," Johnathan Marshall, Inquiry, 3/5/79.

    120. COINTELPRO, Nelson Blackstock (Vintage, 1976); The FBI and
    Martin Luther King: From SOLO to Memphis, David Garrow
    (Norton, 1981); Assassination of Malcolm X, George Breiterman
    (Pathfinder Press, 1976); also see on King harassment:
    Nation, 6/17/78, Newsweek, 9/28/81, and NYT, 3/17/75. Also
    browse NYT, 11/19-23/75 and 12/3-24/75.

    121. "Remembering Ed Meese: From the Free Speech Movement to
    Operation Garden Plot," Johan Carlisle, S.F. Bay Guardian,
    4/4/84; "Officer Ed Meese," Jeff Stein, New Republic,
    10/7/81; "Ed Meese," Rebel, 12/13/84, Alex Dubro; "Bringing
    the War Home," Ron Ridenhour, New Times, 11/28/75.

    122. "Garden Plot & SWAT," Counterspy, Winter, 1976.

    123. "Why Civil Libertarians are Leery of Ed Meese," Oakland
    Tribune, 2/13/84.

    124. "Jim Jones: The Seduction of San Francisco," J. Kasindorf,
    New West, 12/18/78; "Churchmen Hunt Clues on Cult's Lure for
    Blacks," H. Soles, Christianity Today, 3/23/79; "An
    Interpretation of People's Temple and Jim Jones," Journal
    Interdenom. Theol. Ctr., Fall 1979; "Cuname, Curare & Cool
    Aid: The Politics that Spawned and Nurtured Jonestown,"
    George Jackson (self-published, 1984).

    125. Hold Hands, p. 87.

    126. Hold Hands, pp. 88, 182-3.

    127. Hold Hands, pp. 84, 100-1; "Jones Linked to Extortion," LAT,
    11/25/78; NYT, 12/3/78.

    128. Hold Hands, pp. 96, 172, 210-11.

    129. "Seven Mysterious Deaths," Kathy Hunter, Ukiah

    130. LAT, 11/25/78; NYT, 11/21/78 (Jones threatens to kill

    131. Journey to Nowhere, pp. 49-50, 67, 102.

    132. Assassination of Leo J. Ryan, p. 316 (Debbie Layton
    affidavit); LAT, 11/18/78; NYT, 11/20; 12/5/78 (White

    133. Hold Hands, pp. 71-2, 180; NYT, 11/21,28/78 and 12/7/78
    (abuse complaints, ignored).

    134. "Inside People's Temple," Kilduff, New West, 8/1/77; "Jim
    Jones: The Making of a Madman," Phil Tracy, New West,
    12/18/78; LAT, 12/8/78.

    135. Hold Hands, pp. 16, 130, 136-7; "Scared Too Long," SFE,
    11/13/77 (Houston death); NYT, 11/21/78.

    136. Hold Hands, p. 127, 133.

    137. Hold Hands, p. 136 (against advice); NYT, 11/21/78 (Speiers
    makes out will).

    138. Personal interviews with Joe Holsinger, Ryan's aide, 1980;
    NYT, 11/21/78, 12/16/78 (panic).

    139. Hold Hands, pp. 87-8, 100.

    140. White Night, p. 226; Hold Hands, p. 232, SFC, 11/23/78

    141. The Second Oswald, Popkin (Berkeley, 1968).

    142. See footnote 34.

    143. White Night, p. 227 (autopsy, identification); Hold Hands, p.
    262 (photo); "New Mystery: Is Jones Dead?" NY Daily News,

    144. NYT, 11/24/78 (fingerprints).

    145. Hold Hands, pp. 77, 83; In My Father's House, pp. 115-6.

    146. "Jungle Geopolitics in Guyana: How a Communist Utopia that
    Ended in a Massacre Came to be Sited," American Journal of
    Economics & Sociology, 4/81.

    147. Guyana Massacre (photo of Garry at Temple).

    148. SFE, 1/9/79. Also see my "Jonestown Banks" piece.

    149. Journey to Nowhere, p. 126.

    150. "James G. McDonald: High Commissioner for Refugees, 1933-35,"
    Werner Lib. Bull. #43-44; "Refugee Immigration: Truman
    Directive," Prologue, Spring 1981; Caribbean Review, Fall

    151. Journey to Nowhere, pp. 117-18 (interior development);
    "Guyana's National Service Program," Journal of
    Administration Overseas, 1/76; Caribbean Review, Fall 1981,

    152. "Mineral Resources Map," Area Handbook for Guyana, State
    Department (GPO, 1969); White Night, p. 238 (Burnham); Hold
    Hands, p. 149.

    153. White Night, p. 238 (Burnham on importing labor, "exploit the

    154. Hold Hands, p. 144 (Embassy visits since 1973); "Consulate
    Officers: Babysitters," NYT, 11/29/78 and NYT, 12/6,11,24/78
    (Guyana denies links), but see 5/16/79 (House Report charges
    collusion), and 12/5/78; 5/4,16/79 (House report critical of
    role of U.S. Embassy).

    155. Hold Hands, p. 146.

    156. "Brother Forced To Go To Jonestown," LAT, 11/27/78 (kill
    whole family threat); Personal interview with Guyanese
    present, 1980 (bound and gagged).

    157. Journey to Nowhere, p. 107, (guards, "state within a state");
    Hold Hands, p. 127 (coercion by armed guards, Yolanda
    Crawford), personal interview with Guyanese living within 5
    miles of site, 1981.

    158. Journey to Nowhere, pp. 73-4 (adoption, 7 Guyanese children
    among dead); Guyana Daily Mirror, 11/23/78.

    159. Hold Hands, p. 39 (Gerry Parks), 156 (Blakey); "Life in
    Jonestown," Newsweek, 12/4/78; "Jonestown," Michael Novak,
    AEI Reprint #94, 3/79 (work and food).

    160. Holsinger Statement, 5/23/80, NYT, 11/23/78 ("preoccupied

    161. Hold Hands, pp. 50-51 (Tim Bogue), 157-63, 170-1 (public
    rape); "People's Temple in Guyana is a Prison," Santa Rosa
    Press Democrat, 4/12/78; Newsweek, 12/4/78 (special
    treatment); SFC, 6/15/78; Baltimore Sun, 11/21/78; NYT,
    11/20/78 (slaves, torture), 12/4/78 (denials).

    162. No entry supplied in original manuscript.

    163. Trading with the Enemy, Charles Higham (Dell, 1983), p. 23
    (Schacht role in war); NYT, 10/11/79 (Auschwitz plan).

    164. Miami Herald, 3/27/79 (set up accounts); LAT 11/18/79, and
    see my "Jonestown Banks"); NYT, 11/21,23,28,29/78;
    12/2,3,8,16,20/78 (millions described in various places);
    NYT, 1/13/79 (IRS says back taxes would be millions), 12/3/78
    ($2 million real estate).

    165. LAT, 1/5/78; SFC, 1/9/79, and see my "Jonestown Banks" again;
    NYT, 8/3/79 (puts Panama and Venezuela accounts at $15
    million plus), NYT, 1/24/79 (receivership), 12/19/78 and
    2/11; 10/11/79 (U.S. and Guyanese government and relatives
    claim it).

    166. In My Father's House, pp. 18, 19.

    167. Assassination, pp. 775-6, (199 SSA beneficiaries at site),
    Hold Hands, pp. 78, 139; NYT, 11/22/78 (200 get
    $40,000/month), and 2/14/79 (Senate investigation). If the
    average check is $200 a month, how do 199 people equal

    168. NYT, 11/21/78 and 12/10/78 (guns on site don't match
    cartridges); NYT, 12/3178 (smuggling operations).

    169. Area Handbook, op cit., see footnote 152.

    170. Operation Mind Control, Walter Bowart (Dell, 1978); The
    Search for the Manchurian Candidate, John Marks (Times Books,
    1978); "Project MK-ULTRA: CIA Program of Research in Behavior
    Modification," Senate Select Committee on Intelligence,
    Hearings, 8/3/77 (GPO, 1977); WP, "MK-ULTRA" (series),
    summer/fall 1977; NYT, 1/30/79 (overview of MK-ULTRA).

    171. Individual Rights and the Federal Role in Behavior
    Modification, Senate Subcommittee on Constitutional Rights
    (GPO, 1974); NYT, 1/25/79 (children), 2/7,10/79 (blacks),
    Philadelphia Inquirer, 11/26/79 (prison).

    172. The Mind Manipulators, Scheflin & Opton (Grosset & Dunlap,
    1978); The Mind Stealers: Psychosurgery and Mind Control, S.
    Chavkin (Houghton-Mifflin, 1978); "Proposal for the Center
    for Reduction of Life-Threatening Behavior," J. West, 9/l/78;
    Correspondence, Dr J. Stubblebine, Calif. Director of Health
    to Dr. Louis J. West, 1/22/73 (reprinted in Individual
    Rights, above); "Nike Nonsense: Army Offers Unused Nike Bases
    to UCLA Violence Center," Madness Network News, 2/19/74; Mind
    Stealers, p. 91 (Drs. Mark, Ervin), and NYT, 2/7,10/79
    (electrodes); LAT, 11/26/78 (Dr. West writes "psycho-autopsy"
    of Jonestown.)

    173. NYT, 11/28/78 (criminal rehab program at Jonestown), and
    1/25/79 (children); see also footnotes 21, 59, 64 (race, sex,
    age composition of dead).

    174. Raven, p. 347. Holdinger Statement, 5,23/80; NYT, 11/23/78
    (medical records).

    175. Control of Candy Jones, Donald Bain (Playboy Press, 1979);
    "The CIA's Electric Kool Aid Acid Test," Tad Szulc,
    Psychology Today, 11/77. See also footnotes 170, 172 (books).

    176. Physical Control of the Mind: Toward a Psychocivilized
    Society, Jos M. Delgado (Harper & Row, 1969);
    Psychotechnology: Electronic Control of Mind & Behavior,
    Robert L. Schwitzgebel (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1972).

    177. Hold Hands, p. 17; Children of Jonestown, p. 16 (population
    of Georgetown, drugs); "Jones Community Found Stocked with
    Drugs to Control the Mind," NYT, 12/29/78.

    178. Children of Jonestown, p. 16; NYT, 12/29/78 ("used to

    179. Children of Jonestown, p. 16 (thorazine); NYT, 12/29/78
    (drugs found); Daily World, 6/23/81 (Holsinger).

    180. Hold Hands, p. 12.

    181. Hold Hands, p. 190-3 (brainwash methods); Daily World,
    6/23/81 (Holsinger).

    182. Hold Hands, p. 257 (Luckhoo, lawyer for Temple); White Night,
    pp. 257-8 (Burnham "conversion"), Sir Lionel, Fred Archer
    (Gift Publications, 1980) (Luckhoo biography); NYT, 12/15/79
    (Luckhoo has gotten 299 murder acquittals).

    183. "In the Spirit of Jimmy Jones," Akwesasne Notes, Winter,

    184. "Full Gospel Businessmen Dine with Kings," L.A. Herald,
    1/29/85; "Annual White House Prayer Breakfast," National
    Public Radio, 2/1/85 (mysterious fellowship).

    185. "Hundreds Were Slain Survivor Says," LAT, 11/25/78; NYT,
    12/6/78 (suicide plans); NYT, 11/21/78 and 12/10/78 (secrecy,
    panic, reaction to press coming).

    186. Journey to Nowhere, pp. 56-7, 141; NYT, 11/23/78 (Freed calls
    Jones "Devil").

    187. Newsweek, 12/4/79; WP, 11/19/78 and ff, NYT, 11/20, 12/3/78,
    10/11/79; Time, 12/4/78; "Nightmare in Jonestown" (maps).

    188. Journey to Nowhere, pp. 63-4; "Hill Rules Cult with Iron
    Fist," Cleveland Plain Dealer, 12/4/78; NYT, 12/4,5/78.

    189. Daily World, 6/23/81, 10/23/80 (Holsinger and Cheddi Jagan);
    "Hill Rules," CPD, 12/4/78 (Hill admits); NYT, 12/19/78 (guns
    missing at site); Personal interview with Jagan, 1981 (guns,

    190. "Hill Rules," CPD, 12/4/78; CBS, "60 Minutes," 11/18/80 (Hill

    191. "West German Concentration Camp in Chile," Konrad Ege,
    Counterspy, 12/78.

    192. Death in Washington, Don Freed (Lawrence Hill, 1980) (Townley
    Welch); Aftermath, Lasislas Farago (Avon Press, 1974)
    (Bormann, Mengele); NYT, 11/7/84 (Pisagua camp).

    193. Six Years, p. 122.

    194. The Politics of Heroin in Southeast Asia, Alfred McCoy
    (Harper & Row, 1974); "Jonestown Resettlement Plan," SFE,

    195. Correspondence, EPICA, 4/2/80 (Dominca plan); NYT, 4/11, 5/6,
    6/12/79 (complicated intermesh of Sam Brown, Director of
    Peace Corps who invented Jamaica Plan, Dr. Peter Bourne and
    his lover Mary King, appointed Deputy Director of Action
    programs, the scandal of White House Drug Abuse advisor
    Bourne writing fake prescriptions for Carter aide Ellen
    Metesky, later Peace Corps director herself, and the
    resignation of the first Black Peace Corps administrator, Dr.
    Carolyn Payton (formerly Caribbean Desk there) over
    disagreements with Brown on the Jamaican plans); "The
    Jamaican Experiment," Atlantic Monthly, 9/83 (Reagan's
    current plans).

    196. American Labor & U.S. Foreign Policy, Ron Radosh, p. 393
    (cites other sources); Journey to Nowhere, p. 21 (Burnham,
    CIA role, "right wing"); White Night, ($1 million
    destabilization plan); "How the CIA Got Rid of Jagan," Neal
    Sheehy, London Sunday Times, 2/23/67.

    197. White Night, p. 257; "CIA Agent Witnessed Jonestown Mass
    Suicide," San Mateo Times, 12/14/79.

    198. White Night, p. 256; Who's Who in the CIA, Julius Mader (E.
    Berlin, 1968); Dirty Work: CIA in Europe, Lou Wolff (Lyle
    Stuart, 1978); Raven, p. 590, note 66 (for Dwyer's

    199. Hold Hands, p. 29, 53; Raven, p. 534; Holsinger Statement,
    5/23/80 (quote); "Don't Be Afraid to Die," Newsweek, 3/26/79;
    NYT, 3/15/79 (transcripts censor it); NYT, 11/19/79 (Dwyer at
    ambush); NYT, 12/7,9/78 (curious "discovery," delay).

    200. Daily World, 6/23/81 (Holsinger); NYT, 11/25/78 (biography).

    201. "Ryan's Ready," and "People's Temple," Reiterman, SFE,
    11/17/78; "Angry Meeting in Guyana," Javers, SFC, 11/17/78.

    202. Assassination of Leo J. Ryan, p. 9 (quote); Daily World,
    6/23/81; NYT, 12/5,6,13/78 (role), 12/1/78 (cover-up with
    Blakey), 12/8/78 (biography).

    203. Information Services Company, 7/80 (quote); Daily World,
    6/23/81 ("sensitive Caribbean listening post," citing White

    204. Daily World, 6/23/81 (Holsinger).

    205. "Performance of Department of State and American Embassy in
    Guyana in the People's Temple Case," Dept. of State (GPO,
    1979); Daily World, 6/23/78 (Holsinger blames McCoy);
    Assassination of Leo Ryan, pp. 699-704 (role); NYT, 11/30/78,
    12/5/78, 5/4,16/79 (Embassy criticisms); NYT, 11/20-22/78
    (gave Ryan no warning); 12/2,4-6/78 (hostile to Ryan, sent
    FOIA to Jones).

    206. Personal interview with Holsinger, 1980.

    207. CIA: A Bibliography, R. Goehlert (Vance, 1980); Gehlen: Spy
    of the Century, Edward Spiro (Random House, 197 1); The
    Pledge Betrayed, Tom Bower (Doubleday, 1982); The Belarus
    Secret, John Loftus (Knopf, 1982); Klaus Barbie: Butcher of
    Lyons, Tom Bower (Pantheon, 1984); Quiet Neighbors, Allan
    Ryan (Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1984); The Fourth Reich,
    Magnus Linklater (Hodder & Stroughton, 1984); Nazi Legacy,
    Magnus Linklater (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1985); Secrets of
    the SS, Glenn Infield (Stein & Day, 1982); Skorzeny: Hitler's
    Commando, Glenn Infield (St. Martin's, 1981); "The Nazi
    Connection to the John F. Kennedy Assassination," Mae
    Brussell, Rebel, 1982.

    208. In My Father's House, (Dugway chapter); "Family Tragedy,"
    NYT, 12/4/78; Holsinger Statement, 5/23/80; Who's Who
    (Marquis, 1980) (Dr. Layton).

    209. In My Father's House, pp. 18, 19; The Crime and Punishment of
    I.G. Farben, Joseph Borkin (Free Press, 1978); The Sanctity
    of I.G. Farben's Spy Nests, Howard Armbruster
    (self-published, 1956); Treason's Peace, Howard Armbruster
    (1947); Trading with the Enemy, op cit., footnote 163.

    210. "Family Tragedy: Hitler's Germany to Jones Cult," Lindsey,
    NYT, 12/4/78.

    211. NYT, 12/4/78 (met in England), see footnote 209 (Farben
    link); "Solvay et Cie Reorganizes U.S. Interests," Houston
    Post, 11/29/74.

    212. Holsinger Statement, 5/23/80.

    213. Philadelphia Inquirer, 11/22/78.

    214. White Night, p. 256 (cites report), see footnote 63.

    215. White Night, p. 252 (minister); Baltimore Sun, 11/21/78
    (Maria says CIA).

    216. Assassination of Leo Ryan, p. 777 (lawyer role), see footnote
    195 also, NYT, 12/4/78.

    217. Public Eye, Vol. 1, #1, 1975. Proceedings, First Conference,
    WACL, 9125-9167 (Taipei, R.O.C., 1967).

    218. "Jones Disciple Goes to Court Tuesday," Santa Cruz Sentinel,
    6/19/81 (CIA link alleged at Layton trial).

    219. White Night, pp. 2 10-11 (note), SFE, 2/8/79 ($ to USSR),
    NYT, 11/28/78 (suitcase); NYT, 11/28, 12/1,23/78 (details on
    her strange "suicide-murder"), NYT, 12/18/78 (letter), and
    11/28, 12/18/78 (Prokes & Carter identified).

    220. Nation, 3/26/79; "Jones Aide Dies After Shooting Himself,"
    Baltimore Sun, 3/15/79,12/8/78 ($2.5 million), NYT, 3/14/78
    and Strongest Poison (FBI link).

    221. Hold Hands, p. 165 (move to USSR), SFC, 1/21/79 (details of
    rumor), NYT, 11/27,28/78, 12/10/78, 1/1/79 (more details,
    quotes, tapes).

    222. White Night, p. 229 (Guyana recovers $); NYT, 12/8 ($2.5
    mil); NYT, 11/18, 12/19/78 (Soviets, $39,000, refusal), and
    see NYT, 11/28; 12/3,10,18-20/78; and 1/1,2,9/79 (for all the
    smarmy details).

    223. SFE, 1/9/79, and my "Jonestown Banks".

    224. God's Banker, DiFonzi (Calvi), NYT, 6/31/82 (Panama story);
    NYT, 12/5/78 (Lane and Buford knew names on accounts), and
    see "Jonestown Banks" (disappears).

    225. Time, 7/26/82.

    226. Children of Jonestown, pp. 196-7 (orders from above).

    227. "Close Look at Carter's Radical Fringe," Human Events,
    11/11/78 (right wing view); Migration & Development in the
    Caribbean, Robert Pastor (Westview Press, 1985).

    228. Hold Hands, p. 256; NYT, 11/21/78 (biography); also Strongest
    Poison (interviews).

    229. White Night, p. 224 ("fearless"), NYT, 11/21/78 (biography).

    230. "The Case Against Mark Lane," Brill, Esquire, 2/13/79; "Mark
    Lane: The Left's Leading Hearse Chaser," Katz, Mother Jones,
    8/79; "People's Temple Colony Harassed," SFE, 10/4/78 (Lane
    charges CIA attack); NYT, 11/30/78 (Anthony Lewis critique);
    12/5,7,16,29/78 (rumors and denials that Lane and Buford
    drained Swiss bank accounts), 2/4/79 (contradictory remarks),
    2/4, 4/4, 9/21/79 (more charges, fake identity, theft), see
    Strongest Poison for comparison.

    231. Code Name Zorro, Lane & Gregory (Prentice-Hall, 1977).

    232. Hold Hands, p. 222; NYT, 6/14/78 (Lane as Ray's attorney);
    Investigation of the Assassination of Martin Luther King,
    Jr., House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA),
    Hearings, Vols. 1-9 (GPO, 1979); NYT, 8/8,16/78 (Lane's view
    of HSCA, conspiracy against him), and Strongest Poison.

    233. "Ray's Breakout," Time, 6/23/77.

    234. "Tennessee Clemency Selling Scheme," Corrections, 6/79; "A
    Federal-State Confrontation," National Law Journal, 5/11/81.

    235. NYT, 1/6,20/79 (Swearingen, documents), see also
    1/16-18,27/79 Swearingen); Code Name Zorro, op cit.; NYT,
    1/20/79 (Swearingen, Chicago FBI to 1971); "Investigating the
    FBI," Policy Review, #18, Fall, 1981; David Martin "Breitel
    Report: New Light on FBI Use of Informants," First
    Principles, 10/80; "Prying Informants Files Loose from the
    Hands of Attorney General -- SWP v. Atty. General of U.S.,"
    Howard Law Journal, Vol. 22, #4, 1979.

    236. Personal call, 1978.

    237. Strongest Poison, p. 402.

    238. Code Name Zorro, pp. 165, 204-5.

    239. Ibid., p. 165.

    240. Ibid., Let the Trumpet Sound: The Life of Martin Luther King,
    Oates (Mentor, 1982), p. 473.

    241. Code Name Zorro, p. 168.

    242. Ibid., pp. 161-4; Let the Trumpet Sound, p. 476.

    243. Code Name Zorro, pp. 165-70.

    244. Ibid., pp. 165-8, 205.

    245. Ibid., pp. 168-70.

    246. NYT, 12/22/78; 1/1/79 (Buford at Lane's home); Strongest
    Poison, p. 402 (unconvincing denial), and see p. 1114 ("our
    house in Memphis").

    247. "Memo Discusses Smuggling Witness to Guyana," Horrock, NYT,
    12/8/78; Strongest Poison, p. 144 (testimony to HSCA).

    248. "Memo Discussing Smuggling," op. cit., footnote 247.

    249. "Seven Mysterious Deaths," op cit., footnote 129.

    250. Hold Hands, pp. 18, 223; Assassination of Leo Ryan, pp. 3,
    52-3 (text); Journey to Nowhere, p. 163 (Lane quote); NYT,
    12/8/78 (discouraging Ryan).

    251. Hold Hands, p. 222; "Ryan's Ready," Reiterman, SFE, 11/17/78.

    252. Hold Hands, pp. 212-3, 223 (sandwiches); NYT, 12/8178;
    1/12/79 (no warning).

    253. Hold Hands, pp. 43, 44; Strongest Poison, p. 175 (underwear);
    WP, 11/21/78.

    254. WP, 11/21/78.

    255. Hold Hands, pp. 212-3, 222, citing Anthony Lewis in NYT.

    256. No note is given in the original manuscript.

    257. Let the Trumpet Sound, p. 470 (brother, A.D. King with MLK
    day of death); NYT, 7/1/74 ("accidental drowning" death of
    A.D. King); Trumpet, pp. 472-3 (wound described), also Robert
    Cutler analysis, Grassy Knoll Gazette, 1983; NYT, 10/25/74
    (Dr. Herbert MacDonnell, "no way" from window), 8/18/78 (Dr.
    Michael Baden to HSCA, "shot from below").

    258. NYT, 2/14/74 (Ray gets rehearing); NYT, 7/1/74 (Alberta King
    murdered 6/30/74); "Ray's Day in Court," Newsweek, 11/4/74;
    NYT, 10/18/74 (Ray v. Rose reheard); "Did James Earl Ray Slay
    the Dreamer Alone?" Writer's Digest, 9/74.

    259. NYT, 10/30/74, "Tennessee Effort to Block Testimony

    260. "Another King Killed," NYT Magazine, 6/8/74; "Third King
    Tragedy," Time, 7/15/74; "Murder in a Church," Nation,
    6/20/74; NYT, 6/30, 7/1,9,12/74 (Chenault biog., trial);
    "That Certain Smile," Newsweek, 6/15/74; NYT, 7/1,10/74
    (psychiatric exam); NYT, 9/13/74 (blows kisses, points finger
    "like a gun" at judge, prosecutor).

    261. NYT, 7/1-5/74 (Ohio "visitors" in Atlanta, Dayton link to
    ministers, legal fees paid anonymously, FBI suspicious,
    Justice says "no conspiracy").

    262. Dayton Journal Herald, 7/2/74ff; NYT, 7/9/74 ("The Troop" --
    Steven Holinan, Walter Brooks, Ronald & Robert Scott, Ramona
    Catlin, Almeda Water, Harvey Cox, Jr., Marcus Wayne
    Chenault); NYT, 7/4,8/74 (biography of Rev. Hananiah Emmanuel
    Israel, or Rabbi Israel, AKA Rabbi Albert Emmanuel
    Washington, personal interview, Journal Herald reporters,

    263. Journey to Nowhere, pp. 63-4; "Hill Rules," CPD, 12/4/78,
    footnote 188 (Hill); NYT, 12/4174 ("Black Hebrew" Chenault).

    264. NYT, 7/1,3,7,8/74 (Chenault tells Abernathy of Troop plan "to
    kill all Black civil rights leaders," "religious mission
    partly accomplished," and death list found in Chenault
    apartment: Jesse Jackson, Hosea, Cecil Williams, Martin
    Luther King, Sr., Ralph Abernathy, Rev. Washington (a
    cousin), and Fr. Divine(!), already deceased).

    265. Let the Trumpet Sound, op cit., footnote 240.

    266. "Psyching Out the Cult's Collective Mania," Drs. Delgado & J
    West, LAT, 11/26/78; "The Appeal of the Death Trip," Robert
    J. Lifton, NYT Magazine, 1/7/79; NYT, 11/22/78, Robert Lifton
    ("explains"), 12/1/78 (Carter quote); 12/3/78 ("never know,"
    Reston); 12/5/78 (Billy Graham, "Satan").

    267. "Jonestown & the CIA: Black Genocide Operation," Jonestown
    Research Project, 1981; "The Expendable People," Committee on
    Racial Justice Reporter, Spring 1979; LAT, 12/18/78.

    268. Raven, p. 403; White Night, p. 39; In My Father's House, p.
    320, see "Jonestown Banks".

    269. Raven, p. 578 (ship in Caribbean); "Jonestown Banks," p. 4,
    (citing McCann quote on KGO, San Francisco); NYT, 11/23/78
    ("continue Temple work").

    270. Personal interview, relative of Grenadan family, 1984.

    271. "Medical Students Were in No Danger," Peter G. Bourne,
    Oakland Tribune, 11/8/83.

    272. "Nomination of Director of Drug Abuse Policy Office,"
    Hearings, 5/13/77 (GPO, 1977); "Pipe Dreams," P. Anderson,
    Washington Post Magazine, 2/14/80; NYT, 4/26/79 (White House
    Drug Scandal, U.N. post), see footnote 195.

    273. SFC, 12/10/84 (Gairy plan), see footnote 147 (Gairy/Jones
    link); "Blue Christmas Coming Up," Air Force Magazine, 1/84
    (precision bombing).

    274. "Bombed Grenada Hospital Gets Bedding," WP, 9/27/84 (USAID,
    $1.2 million rebuild plan).

    275. Hold Hands, p. 257 (Luckhoo approached to defend); Raven, p.
    576 (Layton trial); Raven, p. 571 (claims Ryan's killers
    dead, names Kice, Wilson, Breidenbach, Touchette; what of
    others?), see footnotes 59, 65.

    276. NYT, 12/5/78 (Ryan's mother wanted full investigation), see
    footnote 63; NYT, 12/8,14,15,21/78; 1/4/79 (S.F. Grand Jury,
    delays, stonewalling, Stoen/Hunter).

    277. White Night, p. 232; Raven, p. 576 ($12 mil. hidden in
    accounts, airlift cots); "Eerie Shoes: Missing Money," Time,
    11/18/78; "Assets Liquidated," Christian Century, 10/21/81;
    "Payoff for a Massacre," Macleans, 9/6/72; NYT,
    11/21,23,28,29, 12/3,21/78 (estimates of wealth), NYT,
    11/25/78 and 5/19/79 (cost of airlift, $2 to $4.4 mil.); NYT,
    12/3,5,7,14/78 (Pentagon, Charles Garry, Justice Department,
    families claim it), 12/19/78 and 1/3,24/79 and 2/11/79 (State
    Department, IRS, Guyanese, court receiver claim it).

    278. Hold Hands, p. 134; Raven, p. 590, note 66; Daily World,
    6/23/81 (Holsinger suit); Personal interview with Holsinger,
    1982 (suspects military intelligence).

    279. NYT, 1/23/79 (Ryan's children sue Temple for $1 million);
    Raven, p. 579; Personal interview with Holsinger, 1983; NYT,
    10/11/79 (695 claims for "wrongful death," total $1.78

    280. Philadelphia Inquirer, 4/1/81, "Hinckley Profile," Sid
    Bernstein, WNET, NY, 1981; Breaking Points, Jack & Jo Ann
    Hinckley (Chosen Books, 1985).

    281. "Who Shot RR," Lenny Lapon, Continuing Inquiry, 5/22/81; "The
    Day the President Was Shot," Investigative Reporter, 1/82.

    282. Lennon, What Happened? Beckley (Sunshine Pubs., 1981); "John
    Lennon's Killer, the Nowhere Man," C. Ungier, New York,

    283. World Vision Magazine, 1983; "Final Report of Israeli
    Commission of Inquiry," Journal Palestinian Studies, Spring,
    1983; "Kahan Commission," Midstream, 6-7/83; Guardian,

    284. "Terrorism in Miami: Suppressing Free Speech," Counterspy,
    3-5/84; Guardian, 11/17/81.

    285. SFE, 12/18/80, op cit., footnote 194.

    286. Hold Hands, pp. 40, 165, 187 (photo).

    287. Journey to Nowhere, pp. 234-5, Hold Hands, pp. 211-2 (FBI
    predict more); The Evidence of Things Not Seen, James Baldwin
    (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1985) (Wayne Williams, Atlanta
    child murders).

    288. "Jonestown Massacre Recalled," WP, 11/19/84; 10/10/84
    (homeless controversy); "Political Storm Swirls Around
    Newcomers," NYT, 11/3/84; WP, 10/4/84 (quote).

    289. "Oregon City an Experiment in Medical Care," L. Busch, Amer.
    Med. News, 10/26/84; Eugene, Oregon Register-Guard, 11/6/84

    290. Politics of Lying, David Wise (Random House, 1973); see Tom
    Davis Books catalog for many sources.

    291. 1984, George Orwell (New American Library, 1961) (The book
    was originally entitled 1948, not 1984.) (hypertext) (text-only) (print-ready)

    Last edited by Jan Klimkowski; 12-29-2009 at 03:37 PM.
    "It means this War was never political at all, the politics was all theatre, all just to keep the people distracted...."
    "Proverbs for Paranoids 4: You hide, They seek."
    "They are in Love. Fuck the War."

    Gravity's Rainbow, Thomas Pynchon

    "Ccollanan Pachacamac ricuy auccacunac yahuarniy hichascancuta."
    The last words of the last Inka, Tupac Amaru, led to the gallows by men of god & dogs of war

  3. #13


    Haven't read that one in many a year....just re-read it again and was as impressed as the first time. Makes one so very proud to be an Amerikan! So much dirty underwear worn right on the heads of our 'leaders', 'movers and shakers', 'intelligence' apparatus etc. that goes unseen by the vast majority of TV and MSM 'blind'. A must read for all on this Forum. Bravo to J. Judge. :congrats:
    If there is no struggle there is no progress. Power concedes nothing without a demand. It never did and it never will.” - Frederick Douglass
    "Let me issue and control a nation's money and I care not who writes the laws. - Mayer Rothschild
    "Civil disobedience is not our problem. Our problem is civil obedience! People are obedient in the face of poverty, starvation, stupidity, war, and cruelty. Our problem is that grand thieves are running the country. That's our problem!" - Howard Zinn

  4. #14


    I am constantly amazed at how the same names keep coming up in various apparently disparate, unconnected events and places. It is a small world. :burnout:
    "I think it would be a good idea." Mahatma Gandhi, when asked what he thought of Western civilization.

    The philosophers have only interpreted the world, in various ways; the point is to change it.
    Karl Marx.

    "Well, he would, wouldn't he?" Mandy Rice-Davies, 1963, replied Ms Rice Davies when the prosecuting counsel pointed out that Lord Astor denied an affair or having even met her.

  5. #15


    Quote Originally Posted by Magda Hassan View Post
    I am constantly amazed at how the same names keep coming up in various apparently disparate, unconnected events and places. It is a small world. :burnout:
    Just a coincidence, Magda :shot:
    If there is no struggle there is no progress. Power concedes nothing without a demand. It never did and it never will.” - Frederick Douglass
    "Let me issue and control a nation's money and I care not who writes the laws. - Mayer Rothschild
    "Civil disobedience is not our problem. Our problem is civil obedience! People are obedient in the face of poverty, starvation, stupidity, war, and cruelty. Our problem is that grand thieves are running the country. That's our problem!" - Howard Zinn

  6. #16

    Default Hougan

    I met Jim Hougan in person once and have a bit of a 'feel' for who he is. I listened carefully to his talk on BlackOp Radio and find one will get a lot more if you simply take his well-researched evidence and information and hold-back a 'bit' on his 'conclusions'. He errs on the conservative side on the conclusions, but has some dynamite or Semtex information re:Jonestown, if one listens carefully. I found the Dan Mitrione connection to Jim Jones very interesting and disturbing, ditto the destruction by flames of all files in Guyana on Jones; ditto the first news of what had happened at Jonestown coming from the CIA...ditto who was CIA station chief in Guyana at the time.....and on and on....take a close listen for yourself. If one pieces Hougan's info with that of J. Judge one has truely taken in a talk/walk with the Cheshire Cat and Mad Hatter in Alice's Wonderland. :smokin:
    Last edited by Peter Lemkin; 06-23-2010 at 07:35 PM.
    If there is no struggle there is no progress. Power concedes nothing without a demand. It never did and it never will.” - Frederick Douglass
    "Let me issue and control a nation's money and I care not who writes the laws. - Mayer Rothschild
    "Civil disobedience is not our problem. Our problem is civil obedience! People are obedient in the face of poverty, starvation, stupidity, war, and cruelty. Our problem is that grand thieves are running the country. That's our problem!" - Howard Zinn

  7. Default

    Recent interview with Hougan on BlackOpRadio. This show has other great interviews also see the one about Dulles and the one about McCone under the archives. ( I think these are around shows 470?) also see show 419, an incredible interview with Jim Douglass on the MLK assassination) This show with Hougan is on Jonestown. NOTE THAT HOUGAN WILL BE ON BLACKOP RADIO AGAIN ON JULY 1, THIS TIME SPEAKING ABOUT HIS FAMOUS BOOK SECRET AGENDA. Also, if one likes these shows post them around. They are great ways for people to learn a lot of things, even if they don't have enough time to read.

  8. #18


    You're right Nathaniel. I'd like to do more to publicise Black Op radio as they have such good programmes. Well worth listening to. I'll pin a link to them in the Research Tools and Framing the Discourse threads.
    "I think it would be a good idea." Mahatma Gandhi, when asked what he thought of Western civilization.

    The philosophers have only interpreted the world, in various ways; the point is to change it.
    Karl Marx.

    "Well, he would, wouldn't he?" Mandy Rice-Davies, 1963, replied Ms Rice Davies when the prosecuting counsel pointed out that Lord Astor denied an affair or having even met her.

  9. Default

    An Amazing piece by John Judge. I had not ever read it til now. Supposed to be working...but too many interesting things to read here. Lane is one interesting fellow. Wish John Armstrong was on here, I'd be most curious to hear his opinion of Lane in light of this article.

    I once sponsered a child via World Vision for about eight months but the information I was receiving was giving me the creep. (This was in 1985). Pictures and info that looked so phony.

    The connections...Chapman, Lane, Ray, King's mother...on and on...

    It would make total sense that the fake Mrs. Oswald would hire someone with a certain background to defend the memory of her non-son, Harvery.

    Last edited by Dawn Meredith; 08-14-2016 at 04:20 PM.

  10. #20


    Quote Originally Posted by Dawn Meredith View Post
    An Anazing piece by John Judge. I had not ever read it til now. Supposed to be working...but too many interesting things to read here. Lane is one interesting fellow. Wish John Armstrong was on here, I'd be most curious to hear his opinion of Lane in light of this article.

    I once sponsered a child via World Vision for about eight months but the information I was receiving was giving me the creep. (This was in 1985). Pictures and info that looked so phony.

    The connections...Chapman, Lane, Ray, King's mother...on and on...

    It would make total sense that the fake Mrs. Oswald would hire someone with a certain background to defend the memory of her non-son, Harvery.

    Dawn - indeed.

    But John Judge's ground breaking article has been followed by excellent research from Jim Hougan in particular.

    The official history of Jonestown as a mass cult suicide is as blown and busted as the Oswald-shot-JFK cover story.

    As discussed in this thread and others, Jim Jones was a manufactured and controlled controller.

    He also had a double, a doppelgnger.
    "It means this War was never political at all, the politics was all theatre, all just to keep the people distracted...."
    "Proverbs for Paranoids 4: You hide, They seek."
    "They are in Love. Fuck the War."

    Gravity's Rainbow, Thomas Pynchon

    "Ccollanan Pachacamac ricuy auccacunac yahuarniy hichascancuta."
    The last words of the last Inka, Tupac Amaru, led to the gallows by men of god & dogs of war

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