Thread Rating:
  • 0 Vote(s) - 0 Average
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
Roots of Rendition (Albarelli & Kaye)
#1
Hi-

This article is important enough to motivate me to come out of lurk mode in order to post it. Thanks to all concerned. Excellent work!

Austin


http://www.truthout.org/the-real-roots-c...ogram56956

The Real Roots of the CIA's Rendition and Black Sites Program


Wednesday 17 February 2010
by: H.P. Albarelli Jr. and Jeffrey Kaye, t r u t h o u t | Op-Ed

On Tuesday, February 10, the British High Court finally released a "seven-paragraph court document showing that MI5 officers were involved in the ill-treatment of a British resident, Binyam Mohamed." The document is itself a summary of 42 classified CIA documents given to the British in 2002. The US government has threatened the British government that the US-British intelligence relationship could be damaged if this material were released. The revelations regarding Mohamed's torture, which include documentation of the fact the US conducted "continuous sleep deprivation" under threats of harm, rendition, or being "disappeared," were criticized by the British court as being "at the very least cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment by the United States authorities," and in violation of the United Nations Convention Against Torture.

The Mohamed case is the most prominent of a number of cases that have come to public attention. While the timeline of Mohamed's torture places the implementation of the Bush administration's so-called "enhanced interrogation techniques" many months prior to their questionable legal justification in the August 1, 2002, Jay Bybee memo to the CIA, the use of torture and rendition has a much earlier provenance. Over the past decade, many Americans have been shocked and disturbed about the CIA's secret program of rendition and torture carried out in numerous secret sites (dubbed "black sites" by the CIA) around the globe. The dimensions of this program for the most part are still classified "Eyes Only" in the intelligence community, but the program's roots can be clearly discovered in the early 1950's with the CIA's Artichoke Project. Perhaps the best and strangest case illustrating this can be found in the agency's own files. This is the so-called "Lyle O. Kelly case." The facts of this case are drawn from declassified government documents.

An Early Example of Torture and Rendition: "The Kelly Case"

In late January 1952, Morse Allen, a CIA Security Office official, was summoned to the office of his superior, security deputy chief Robert L. Bannerman, where he met with another agency official to discuss what Bannerman initially introduced as "the Kelly case." Wrote Allen, in a subsequent memorandum for his files, the official "explained in substance the Kelly case as follows: "Kelly, (whose real name is Dimitrov), is a 29-year-old Bulgarian and was the head of a small political party based in Greece and ostentively [sic] working for Bulgarian independence." The official described Dimitrov [whose first name was Dimitre] to Allen as "being young, ambitious, bright ... a sort of a 'man-on-a-horse' type but a typical Balkan politician."

The official continued explaining to Allen that months earlier CIA field operatives discovered that Dimitrov was seriously considering becoming a double agent for the French Intelligence Service. "Accordingly," states the memo, "a plot was rigged in which [Dimitrov] was told he was going to be assassinated and as a protective he was placed in custody of the Greek Police." Successfully duped, Dimitrov was then thrown into prison. There he was subjected to interrogation and torture, and he witnessed the brutal torture of other persons the CIA had induced authorities to imprison. Greek intelligence and law enforcement agencies were especially barbaric in their methods. Highly respected Operation Gladio historian Daniele Ganser describes the treatment of prisoners: "Their toes and fingernails were torn out. Their feet were beaten with sticks, until the skin came off and their bones were broken. Sharp objects were shoved into their vaginas. Filthy rags, often soaked in urine, and sometimes excrement, were pushed down their throats to throttle them, tubes were inserted into their anus and water driven in under very high pressure, and electro shocks were applied to their heads."

According to Allen's memo, after holding Dimitrov for six months the Greek authorities decided he was no more than "a nuisance" and they told the CIA "to take him back." Because the agency was unable to dispose of Dimitrov in Greece, the memo states, the CIA flew him to a secret interrogation center at Fort Clayton in Panama. In the 1950's, Fort Clayton, along with nearby sister installations Forts Amador and Gulick, the initial homes of the Army's notorious School of the Americas, served as a secret prison and interrogation centers for double agents and others kidnapped and spirited out of Europe and other locations. Beginning in 1951, Fort Amador, and reportedly Fort Gulick, were extensively used by the Army and the CIA as a secret experimental site for developing behavior modification techniques and a wide range of drugs, including "truth drugs," mescaline, LSD and heroin. Former CIA officials have also long claimed that Forts Clayton and Amador in the 1950's hosted a number of secret Army assassination teams that operated throughout North and South America, Europe and Southeast Asia.

There in Panama, Dimitrov was again aggressively interrogated, and then confined as "a psychopathic patient" to a high-security hospital ward at Fort Clayton. Allen's memo makes a point of stating: "[Dimitrov] is not a psychopathic personality."

The Artichoke Treatment

This remarkable summary brought the official to the purpose of his meeting with CIA security official Morse Allen. After months of confinement in Panama, Dimitrov had become a serious problem for the agency and the military officials holding him in the hospital. Dimitrov had become increasingly angry and bitter about his treatment and he was insisting that he be released immediately. Dimitrov, through his strong intellect and observation powers, was also witnessing a great deal of Project Artichoke activity and on occasion would engage military and agency officials in unauthorized conversations. The official explained to Allen that the CIA could release Dimitrov to the custody of a friend of his in Venezuela, but was prone not to because Dimitrov was now judged to have become extremely hostile toward the CIA. "Hence," explained the official, "[CIA] is considering an 'Artichoke' approach to [Dimitrov] to see if it would be possible to re-orient [Dimitrov] favorably toward us."

Wrote Allen in his subsequent summary memorandum: "This [Artichoke] operation, which will necessarily involve the use of drugs is being considered by OPC with a possibility that Dr. Ecke and Mike Gladych will carry out the operation presumably at the military hospital in Panama. Also involved in this would be a Bulgarian interpreter who is a consultant to this Agency since neither Ecke nor Gladych speak Bulgarian." Allen noted in his memo that security chief Bannerman "pointed out" that this type of operation could "only be carried out" with his or his superior's (security chief Sheffield Edwards) authorization, and "that under no circumstances whatsoever, could anyone but an authorized M.D. administer drugs to any subject of this Agency of any type." (The "Dr. Ecke" mentioned above was Dr. Robert S. Ecke of Brooklyn, New York, and Eliot, Maine, where he died in 2001. "Mike Gladych," according to former CIA officials, was a decorated wartime pilot who after the war became "deeply involved in black market trafficking in Europe and the US," and then in the early 1950's was recruited to join a "newly composed Artichoke Team operating out of Washington, DC.")

Allen also wrote that Bannerman was concerned that the military hospital at Fort Clayton may not approve of or permit an Artichoke operation to be conducted on the ward within which Dimitrov was being held, thus necessitating the movement of Dimitrov to another location in Panama. Lastly, Bannerman stated to the official and Allen that "[the CIA's Office of] Security [through its Artichoke Committee] would have to be cognizant" of the operation, and may even want to "run the operation themselves since this type of work is one which Security handles for the Agency. Here it is interesting to note that among the many members of the agency's Artichoke Committee in 1952 was Dr. Frank Olson, who would about a year later be murdered in New York City.

Morse Allen concluded his memo: "While the [Artichoke] technique that Ecke and Gladych are considering for use in this case is not known to the writer [Allen], the writer believes the approach will be made through the standard narco-hypnosis technique. Re-conditioning and re-orientating an individual in such a matter, in the opinion of the writer, cannot be accomplished easily and will require a great deal of time.... It is also believed that with our present knowledge, we would have no absolute guarantee that the subject in this case would maintain a positive friendly attitude toward us even though there is apparently a successful response to the treatment. The writer did not suggest to [Bannerman and the CIA official] that perhaps a total amnesia could be created by a series of electro shocks, but merely indicated that amnesia under drug treatments was not certain." Interesting also is that Allen noted in his memo, about thirty days prior to his meeting, an official in the CIA's Technical Services Division, Walter Driscoll, discussed "the Kelly case" with him. No details of that discussion were provided.

About a month later, according to former CIA officials, after Artichoke Committee approval to subject Dimitrov to Artichoke techniques, a high-ranking CIA official objected to treating Dimitrov in such a manner. That objection delayed application of the techniques for about "three weeks." In March 1952, according to the same former officials, Dimitrov was "successfully given the Artichoke treatment in Panama for a period of about five weeks."

In late 1956, the CIA brought Dimitrov, at his request, to the United States. Apparently, the Agency felt comfortable enough with Dimitrov's diminished hostility and anger to agree to bring him to America from Athens, where he had returned for undetermined reasons. CIA files state, "The Agency made no further operation use of Dimitrov after he came to the United States, however, former CIA officials dispute this and relate that Dimitrov was "used on occasion for sensitive jobs."

This, however, was not the end of Dimitre Dimitrov's story.

After being relocated to the United States, Dimitrov either remained bitter or resumed his bitterness toward the CIA. In June 1960, he contacted the CIA's Domestic Contact Division and requested financial assistance for himself and additional covert support and assistance for activities against Bulgaria. In 1961, he contacted an editor at Parade, a Sunday newspaper magazine then with reported strong ties to the CIA, with the intention of telling his story. A Parade editor contacted the CIA and was informed, according to CIA documents, that Dimitrov was "an imposter" who was "disreputable, unreliable, and full of wild stories about the CIA."

About ten years after the JFK assassination, Dimitrov, operating sometimes under the aliases Lyle Kelly, James Adams, General Dimitre Dimitrov and Donald A. Donaldson, informed a number of people that he had information about who ordered the murder of JFK and who had committed the act. Reportedly, he had encountered the assassins while he had been imprisoned in Panama. He also told several people that he knew about military snipers who had murdered Martin Luther King. In 1977, Dimitrov actually met with US Sen. Frank Church, head of a Senate Committee investigating the CIA, and President Gerald Ford to share his information. Dimitrov said after the meeting that Ford had asked him to keep the information confidential until he could verify a number of facts. Immediately following the March 29, 1977, death of Lee Harvey Oswald's friend George de Mohrenschildt, Dimitrov became extremely frightened and contacted a reporter with a foreign television station who either mistakenly, or intentionally, revealed Dimitrov's name publicly on American television. Not long after this, Dimitrov disappeared in Europe where he had fled. He has never been seen or heard from since. Former CIA officials say privately, "Dimitrov was murdered" and "His body will never be found."

A 1977 memorandum written, before Dimitrov's disappearance, by an attorney in the CIA's General Counsel's Office, A. R. Cinquegrana, states: "[It appears] to me that the nature of the Agency's treatment of Dimitrov might be something which should be brought to the attention of appropriate officials both within and outside the Agency. The fact that he is still active and is making allegations connected with the Kennedy assassination may add yet another dimension to this story."

Binyam Mohamed's Torture

Dimtrov's story takes on added significance when one considers the latest stories of the unraveling torture conspiracy and operations conducted by the American CIA and Department of Defense, in conjunction with their British allied organizations, and a host of other governments, including Israel, Jordan, Morocco, Pakistan, Poland and numerous others. After a series of exposures during the 1970's, many assumed the worst excesses of the Cold War torture research program, and its implementation in programs such as the CIA's Operation Phoenix in Vietnam were a fixture of the past. However, subsequent revelations, e.g. the appearance of a US-sponsored torture manual for use in Latin America in the 1980's, including documentation of torture by US forces in the immediate aftermath of 9/11 and the invasion of Afghanistan, demonstrate that a direct line exists between the torture and rendition programs of the past and the practices of the present day. Recently, articles have detailed how the 2006 rewrite of the Army Field Manual allowed for use of ongoing isolation, sleep deprivation, sensory deprivation, induction of fear and the use of drugs that cause temporary derangement of the senses.

The Binyam Mohamed story is unfortunately not unique, but it does demonstrate that the implementation of a SERE-derived experimental torture program began months before it was given legal cover by the memos written by John Yoo and Jay Bybee. Other stories, for instance of "War on Terror" captives being drugged and tortured, have been related by the prisoners themselves, by their attorneys, and by US and international rights agencies, including the International Committee of the Red Cross, whose report on the torture of CIA "high-value detainees" was leaked to Mark Danner of the New York Review of Books.

While Binyam in many ways had a very different personal background than Dimitrov, like the Bulgarian political leader, he was rendered to a US foreign ally for torture. He was drugged. He was considered unreliable and a "disposal" problem for US leaders, who kept secret the actual treatment they endured. Both were victims of a torture program run by the CIA. Both were sent from their foreign torturer back to US custody, where they endured intense psychological torture.

Binyam Mohamed was arrested in Pakistan in April 2002, where his torture, as evidenced by the latest UK court release, was supervised by US agents. This torture was akin to the treatment meted out to Abu Zubaydah. Binyam was subsequently sent to Morocco in July 2002, where he was hideously tortured for 18 months, including a period where multiple scalpel cuts were made to his penis, and a hot stinging fluid poured on the wounds in an attempt to get him to confess to a false "dirty bomb" plot. (The US only dropped the bombing claims in October 2008.) At one point, a British informer was used to try to "turn" Mohamed into an informant for the US or Britain, just as the Artichoke treatment was used to "re-orient" Dimitrov in a pro-US direction. Mohamed also indicated that he had been drugged repeatedly.

In January 2004, Binyam Mohamed was flown to a CIA "black" site in Afghanistan, the infamous "Dark Prison." Mohamed is one of five plaintiffs in an ACLU suit against Boeing subsidiary Jeppesen DataPlan Inc., which ran the aircraft for the CIA's "extraordinary rendition" program. According to an ACLU account:

In US custody, Mohamed was fed meals of raw rice, beans and bread sparingly and irregularly. He was kept in almost complete darkness for 23 hours a day and made to stay awake for days at a time by loud music and other frightening and irritating recordings, including the sounds of "ghost laughter," thunder, aircraft taking off and the screams of women and children.

Interrogations took place on almost a daily basis. As part of the interrogation process, he was shown pictures of Afghanis and Pakistanis and was interrogated about the story behind each picture. Although Mohamed knew none of the persons pictured, he would invent stories about them so as to avoid further torture. In May 2004, Mohamed was allowed outside for five minutes. It was the first time he had seen the sun in two years.

Amazingly, this was not the end of Mohamed's ordeal. From the Dark Prison he was sent to Bagram prison, and then later to Guantanamo. In August 2007, the British government petitioned the US for release of their subject. Eighteen months later, and after being subjected to more abuse at Guantanamo, he was finally able to leave US custody and return to Britain.

The Use of Drugs in Torture by the United States

The allegations of drugging by Mohamed and other prisoners are redolent of the use of hallucinogenic and other powerful mind-altering drugs by the US in its Artichoke, MK-ULTRA and other programs. A recent account, by Joby Warrick of The Washington Post, described some of these allegations of drugging of "detainees." The Post article subsequently led to an ongoing DoD Inspector General investigation into Possible Use of Mind Altering Substances by DoD Personnel during Interrogations of Detainees and/or Prisoners Captured during the War on Terror (D2007-DINT01-0092.005) "to determine if DoD personnel conducted, facilitated, or otherwise supported interrogations of detainees and /or prisoners using the threat or administration of mind altering drugs." According to his attorney's filings in the Jose Padilla case, Padilla, who was also originally implicated in the "dirty bomb" so-called plot with Binyam Mohamed, was forced to take LSD or other powerful drugs while held in solitary confinement in the Navy brig in South Carolina.

Another former Guantanamo prisoner, Mamdouh Habib, an Egyptian-born Australian Muslim released in 2005, has consistently told his tale of being subjected to electroshock, beatings and drugging while in US custody.

The CIA has been accused of involvement in continuing interrogation experimentation upon prisoners. The recent release of the previously censored summary of Mohamed's treatment in Pakistan notes that "The effects of the sleep deprivation were carefully observed." As Stephen Soldz notes in an article on the British court revelations, "Why were these effects being 'carefully observed' unless to determine their effectiveness in order to see whether they should be inflicted upon others? That is, the observations were designed to generate knowledge that could be generalized to other prisoners. The seeking of "generalizable knowledge" is the official definition of "research," raising the question of whether the CIA conducted illegal research upon Binyan Mohamed." The role of doctors, psychologists and other medical professionals in the CIA/DoD torture program has been condemned by a number of individuals in their respective fields, and by organizations such as Center for Constitutional Rights and Physicians for Human Rights.

Most recently, in an important article by Scott Horton at Harpers, the reexamination of the evidence in the supposed 2006 suicides of three prisoners at Guantanamo pointed to the possibility that the prisoners were killed in a previously unknown black site prison on the Guantanamo base - "Camp No" - run by the CIA or Joint Special Operations Command. This raises the question of why they were taken off site at all. One prisoner, 22-year-old Yasser Talal Al-Zahrani, had needle marks on both of his arms. The marks were notably not documented in the US military's autopsy report.

Where Do We Go From Here?

The tale of Dmitri Dimitrov documents the existence of a US-run torture and rendition program decades before the post-9/11 scandals of the Bush administration. Both the CIA and the Department of Defense have been implicated in both the research and implementation of torture for much of post-World War II US history. And yet, aside from the famous Church and Pike Congressional investigations of the 1970's, and the hearings and report from the Senate Armed Services Committee in 2008-09 on detainee abuse, the perpetrators of these crimes have gone unpunished. The current administration of President Barack Obama has clearly stated that it had little appetite to "look backwards" and seek accountability for the abuses of the past. Yet these abuses are never really "past," as the suffering of the victims and their families continues into the present. Additionally, the practice of torture, or use of "cruel, inhumane and degrading treatment" of prisoners has not ended, and the same generals, colonels, admirals and intelligence agency bureaucrats and politicians who have been linked to past programs are free to research or implement ongoing abuse of prisoners and experimentation.

This country needs a clear and definite accounting of its past and present use of torture. Like a universal acid, torture breaks down the sinews of its victims, and in the process, the links between people and their government are transformed into the naked exercise of pure sadistic power of rulers over the ruled. The very purpose of civilization is atomized in the process. We need a full, open and thorough public investigation into the entire history of the torture program, with full power to subpoena, and to refer those who shall be held accountable for prosecution under the due process of law.
Reply
#2
Austin - welcome to DPF, and thank you for posting that article.

Below is an obituary I found of Dr Ecke when I was researching the Dimitrov case a few years ago. The obituary acknowledges Ecke's CIA work:


Quote:ROBERT SKIDMORE ECKE

http://www.zoominfo.com/Search/PersonDet...D=76467548



1. Portsmouth Herald Obituaries from May 26, 2001
http://www.seacoastonline.com/news/5_ - [Cached]

Published on: 5/26/2001 Last Visited: 8/12/2001

Dr. Robert S. Ecke

ELIOT , Maine - Dr. Robert Skidmore Ecke , of Eliot , passed away Saturday , May 19 , 2001 , at Portsmouth Regional Hospital after a short illness.

Born in Brooklyn , N.Y. , Nov. 22 , 1909 , he was the son of the late Albert D. and Grace ( Dekker ) Ecke.

He was educated in New York City public schools and in 1931 graduated from Bowdoin College , receiving an A.B. degree cum laude in German , chemistry and biology. At college he also was a member of the varsity football team and president of Alpha Delta Phi fraternity.

In 1935 , he received his M.D. degree from Johns Hopkins University and following that was a surgical intern with the Baltimore City Hospitals in 1936 and a research fellow with Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in 1937. Prior to World War II , he was on the staff of Notre Dame Memorial Hospital in Twillingate , Newfoundland , Canada. His experiences there are recounted in his recent book , Snowshoe & Lancet..

During World War II , he served in the United States Army in the Medical Corps. Most of his service was in the European Theatre where he was decorated for meritorious service in connection with his work for the Typhus Commission. The work with the Typhus Commission took him to a number of countries in southern Europe and Africa during the latter stages of the war. During the last six months of the war , he served with the partisan forces in Yugoslavia and he pioneered typhus control in that country.

Immediately after World War II , while still in the Army , he served as a consultant to SHAEF and subsequently was honorably discharged as a lieutenant colonel. Following the war , he briefly served as medical director for Notre Dame Memorial Hospital. He left after a short term there and took on special projects with the CIA. He continued to work for the CIA until 1964. His official comment on this portion of his career was always No comment..

He then engaged himself in medical research until 1969. From 1969 through 1979 , he was in the private practice of medicine in Hartsdale , N.Y. In 1979 , he retired and moved to Eliot.
"It means this War was never political at all, the politics was all theatre, all just to keep the people distracted...."
"Proverbs for Paranoids 4: You hide, They seek."
"They are in Love. Fuck the War."

Gravity's Rainbow, Thomas Pynchon

"Ccollanan Pachacamac ricuy auccacunac yahuarniy hichascancuta."
The last words of the last Inka, Tupac Amaru, led to the gallows by men of god & dogs of war
Reply
#3
Quote:“While the technique that Ecke and Gladych are considering for use in this case is not known to the writer, the writer believes the approach will be made through the standard narco-hypnosis technique. Re-conditioning and re-orienting an individual in such a matter, in the opinion of the writer, cannot be accomplished easily and will require a great deal of time and the fact that an interpreter is required in this case complicates it considerably more. It is also believed that with our present knowledge, we would have no absolute guarantee that the subject in this case would maintain a positive friendly attitude toward us even though there is apparently a positive response to the treatment. The writer did not suggest to [ 06 ] that perhaps a total amnesia could be created by a series of electro shocks, but merely indicated that amnesia under drug treatments were not certain.
MORSE ALLEN"

http://www.maryferrell.org/mffweb/archiv...elPageId=8

This excerpt from the Artichoke documentation is further confirmation that narco-hypnosis and electro-shock techniques both to "re-condition" and "re-orient" the attitudes of individuals, and to attempt to wipe out memory, "total amnesia", were fairly advanced and operational by 1952.

The officially approved history of MK-ULTRA suggests that the CIA "discovered" Ewen Cameron's use of electroshock and "psychic driving" in a civilian programme in Canada in 1957. I contend that this is a cover story, or a limited hangout.

The official story suggests this aspect of mind control research travelled from the Civilian sphere (Cameron in Canada) to the Intelligence/Military sphere (MK-ULTRA funding) in the late 1950s. The opposite is almost certainly the case.

This conditioning/memory programming research was developed in the Intelligence/Military sphere (Bluebird/Artichoke) and was sufficiently successful for it to be tried in the Civilian sphere (Cameron's post-partum depression victims).

As usual, the official history is rubbish.

------------------------------------

On the specific issue of Dimitrov/Dmetroff/Donaldson/Kelly - the fact that he was linked to extreme anti-communist circles and was a Bulgarian working on "secret missions" in the Balkans in the immediate post-WW2 years (perhaps even
with US Presidential authorization), is reminiscent of DeMohrenschildt's White Russian background. I smell the likes of Gehlen & Gladio...

http://www.maryferrell.org/mffweb/archiv...lPageId=11
"It means this War was never political at all, the politics was all theatre, all just to keep the people distracted...."
"Proverbs for Paranoids 4: You hide, They seek."
"They are in Love. Fuck the War."

Gravity's Rainbow, Thomas Pynchon

"Ccollanan Pachacamac ricuy auccacunac yahuarniy hichascancuta."
The last words of the last Inka, Tupac Amaru, led to the gallows by men of god & dogs of war
Reply
#4
I do agree that the official history is rubbish, but I would daresay that some of the alternative histories (e.g. Acid Dreams) don't get to the roots of the problem either.

Assuming that these sorts of techniques were indeed rather well-developed by 1952, I'd venture a guess that their history had to have gone back further, including for example Cameron's activities with Rudolf Hess in the mid-'40's, Camp King in Germany in the period immediately after WW2, not to mention the Nazi endeavor during the War which somehow blessed the American program with its technique and knowledge. I'd also wonder what sort of activities like this might have preceded WW2...

I have a question also concerning the Panama allegations: Does anybody know the original source of these sorts of claims? Certainly there was something about black sites in the Canal Zone back in the '50's in Tim Weiner's Legacy of Ashes, and there were also claims made about Dan Mitrione's involvement with terminal experiments/teaching demonstrations of interrogation technique using homeless people from the streets of Panama City, but anything anyone knows concerning corroborating evidence would be greatly appreciated...
Reply
#5
Re Panama, here's some material:

Jan Klimkowski Wrote:Panama is a luverly place to mix up some potions:

Quote:US Army Tropic Test Site
As providers of equipment for use around the globe, it is frequently necessary for military materiel developers to meet the challenges posed by the world’s harsh climatic extremes. To ensure that humid tropic challenges are met, Army systems began to be tested systematically in the Panama Canal Zone in 1962, with the establishment of the Tropic Test Center (TTC) under the U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command. However, TTC history goes back much farther.

Several "crash" testing programs were instituted in Panama during World War II to ensure that military equipment deployed to tropical locations remained effective. Many years after the war, in 1962, the surviving activities were consolidated into one agency – the Tropic Test Center. Numbering well over 300 people during the Vietnam War days of the 1960’s, the organization has since been downsized and placed under the management of U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground.

The Tropic Test Center mission is to plan and conduct tropic environmental development tests on a wide variety of military systems, materials, weapons, and equipment of all conceivable types, sizes, configurations, and uses. The center’s laboratory facilities provide detailed information on tropic-induced failures and other environmental effects. All testing in Panama is conducted to the same stringent environmental protection standards as similar activities in the United States.

http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/f...layton.htm

It all started with some covert Nazi business in the jungle:

Quote:The 5th Infantry left after WWI and returned to stay in Camp Paraiso from 1939 to 1943. The 2nd FA is the only other major US Army unit to be stationed at Clayton in those Pre WWII years. But we can claim the 33rd as our Canal Zone Reg. since it was born in the Zone.

The 33rd Infantry stayed in Clayton until December 7,1941 when virtually within hours they shipped out to Trinidad to set up the protection for the newly acquired Lend Lease Bases in Trinidad.

With German occupation of Holland the Dutch Queen had fled to Dutch Guiana and soon units of the 33rd Inf. came over to render protection for the queen and to thwart any attempt by Germany to move in more than was already happening. For secret Nazi bases had been set up in the jungles to supply U-Boats that would come up the river for provisions.

The troops of the 33rd Inf. battled hostile indians, the German camps and waylaid the U-Boats in ambush on the river. They were also there to insure the safe passage out of Bauxite ore which was so vital to our aircraft industry. These activities were kept a secret during the war and the 33rd Inf. returned home to Ft. Clayton in Feb.1946.

When the 33rd Inf. departed for war in 1941 they had at 25 years the longest record of continuous CZ service for any unit of the U.S. Army and were rightly considered the premier jungle trained unit in the Army. They were truly Zonians for no other unit like that had been born on the Zone.

http://www.czimages.com/CZMemories/Fort_..._index.htm

Quote:More than 130 tests were conducted on San Jose Island between May 1944 and the end of 1947.36 Many of the tests were "drop tests" involving aircraft that dropped chemical munitions into target areas. Others required troops to fire chemical mortars into the test areas, and still others involved more controlled use of munitions. In a very few cases, project reports indicate the use of chemical simulants, but in most live agent was employed.

The project divided the island into eleven areas, six of which were laid in grids for target areas. The three largest target areas, made up of overlapping squares, were about one square mile each in size. The chemical agents tested (and their military codes) included: mustard gas and distilled mustard (H, HD), phosgene (CG), cyanogen chloride (CK), hydrogen cyanide (AC), and Butane.37 One participant remembers that Lewisite was also tested.38

From available documents, the number of munitions tested are known for 18 of the 130 tests conducted on San Jose Island. Some 4,397 chemical munitions were fired in these 18 tests, for an average of 244 munitions fired in each test. Most of the munitions fired - 3,816 - were 4.2" mortars charged with Cyanogen Chloride, mustard, or phosgene, but the chemical munitions also included bombs from 100 pounds to 1,000 pounds in weight and 105mm Howitzer shells.

The San Jose Project also tested chemical munitions on the sea off of Panama in order to determine whether chemical warfare could be effective against enemy ships.39 In addition, according to a military map drawn up in 1946, tests included chemical spray on Iguana Island, which was also used as a conventional bombing range.40

A later military summary stated that "no nerve agents were tested" in San Jose.41 One participant in the project, however, tentatively asserted that nerve agent was tested there. Eugene Reid, a professional chemist by training, was drafted into the Chemical Warfare Service and served in Florida, Dugway Proving Ground and Edgewood Arsenal, as well as on San Jose. "Besides mustard, they were also testing newer things. Nerve gases, that was the hot thing then," Reid said in 1997. When subsequently asked for confirmation, he was less certain whether nerve agents were tested on San Jose. "I suspect very much that they were, but I can't say for sure they were used," he said.42

While neither the United States nor Great Britain had developed nerve agents of its own by 1945, the Allies had captured significant quantities of nerve agent from the Nazis as Germany receded before advancing Allied troops in the Spring of 1945, which is when Reid arrived in San Jose. The British felt that some of the stocks of captured German nerve agent should be "retained for possible use in the Far East" should the Allies invade Japan, an eventuality for which the San Jose Project was preparing.43

[...................................]

One of the San Jose tests, carried out between August 9 and August 15, 1944, sought "to determine if any difference existed in the sensitivity of Puerto Rican and Continental U.S. Troops to H gas [mustard]." A preliminary test involved ten Puerto Rican troops and ten "continental" (i.e., Anglo-Saxon) troops, which was followed by a fuller test involving 45 Puerto Rican soldiers and 44 "continental" soldiers. The men, who were "unfamiliar with the use of chemical agents," were "given a stiff course in gas discipline and the significance of H [mustard] lesions to casualty production." The tests involved applying liquid mustard to the under-surface of the forearms of each subject, then observed for three days. A summary of the test produced by Defense Secretary William Cohen in April 1998 implied that some men were hospitalized after they "sustain[ed] severe body burns or eye lesions." Men with less severe burns were simply returned to their barracks and expected to meet company formations.

http://www.forusa.org/programs/panama/ar.../part9.htm

During World War II, the military developed an increased interest in biological warfare, both defensive and offensive. The first action of the War Research Service, which was established in 1942 to investigate a variety of unconventional weapons, was to set up antibiological warfare programs in the United States and abroad -- including the Canal Zone and Puerto Rico -- under the auspices of the Surgeon General's office. These programs instructed medical and military officers in defensive measures against biological weapons.99 (This and all subsequent endnotes can be found here.)

In late 1947, the British Navy proposed to use U.S. facilities on San Jose Island to support biological warfare trials at sea, beginning in October 1948. Under the plan, the United States would provide 20 technicians, care for animals used in the experiments, and "shore base facilities" for recreation and ship maintenance. The military's Joint Strategic Plans Committee favored the experiments because they would "facilitate the obtaining of essential basic research data in the BW [biological warfare] field." But with the evacuation of San Jose Island in January 1948, the plan for using that island was scuttled. The experiments may have been carried out instead on Parham Sound in Antigua, which was considered as an alternate site.100

Since plans for the military use of biological agents focused on their transmission through aerial spray techniques, studies of aerosol spray patterns in Panama may have been designed to explore how biological agents could be used there. Dugway Proving Ground's technical library lists a number of such studies.101 However, chemical sprays and smoke devices also rely on aerial and meteorological data.

The National Institutes of Health's Middle America Research Unit (MARU) actively used biological agents in Panama. MARU was established in the 1950s, and worked closely with the Gorgas Memorial Laboratory. Located in a building in Ancon Heights, MARU "handled some of the deadliest and most infectious diseases known to medicine at the time," according to Carl J. Peters, a scientist who worked there in the 1960s. Peters emphasized the measures taken to contain the agents that the MARU technicians were working on, but noted that one lab technician accidentally contracted Bolivian hemorrhagic fever at the lab and died within a few days.

One disease in particular that MARU worked with was Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE), a naturally-occurring virus which incapacitates but generally does not kill its human victims. Instead, VEE begins abruptly with high fever, chills and aches and an intense aversion to light, then typically is gone within a week or two. In Central America in the 1960s, VEE attacked horses and mules, leaving many dead, and MARU sought to stem the disease's migration toward the United States through development of a vaccine. But Peters writes:

Quote:Nobler designs aside, however, the U.S. government had other reasons to be interested in VEE. The symptoms in humans are so incapacitating that VEE had been seen as a potential biological weapon. The army wanted to develop different categories of biological warfare agents: incapacitators as well as killers. With a relatively short incubation period of two to three days, VEE could be an ideal incapacitator: neutralizing an enemy population right before a battle without risk of killing innocent civilians or committing wartime atrocities. With that as a plan, the army had developed a vaccine to protect our troops in case an enemy tried to use it on them, or presumably in case the wind blew the wrong way the day they tried to use it on someone else.102

The army authorized MARU to test a live-attenuated vaccine on horses in the field, and Peters describes such tests on Costa Rica's Pacific coast. The Gorgas Memorial Laboratory also studied VEE among humans in Almirante from 1960 to 1962 and in Darién and the urban communities of Patoistown and Zegla in 1968, as well as in laboratory animals during the same periods. The studies included testing live vaccines of VEE on animal subjects.103

Exercises to test the military usefulness of VEE were carried out in Vietnam in the 1960s and on deserted islands in the Pacific, according to one account, but were put aside because allied troops could not be protected.104

VEE has persisted for long periods in Panama. Troops training at Fort Sherman in 1981 contracted it, an exposure that was linked to VEE in 1970, when the military was actively experimenting with VEE. The Walter Reed Army Institute of Research reported:

Quote:An outbreak of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE) occurred in a unit of military personnel who had gone to Panama for jungle training in 1981. Exposure was linked to training in October in an area of Fort Sherman that was previously implicated over ten years ago. An intensive serological survey identified five cases presenting with fever, chills and headaches. VEE remains a threat to U.S. forces deployed to specific areas of Central America.105

In addition, 1977 news accounts cited intelligence sources who claimed that in 1971 U.S. intelligence agents brought Swine flu from Fort Gulick (Espinar) in Panama to Cuba, where the flu apparently contaminated a large number of pigs. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization called the epidemic of swine flu that hit Cuba in 1971 the "most alarming event" of that year. According to the accounts, an intelligence agent was given a sealed unmarked container and instructed to deliver it to an anti-Castro group in Panama. Cuban exiles interviewed for the report said they received the container off Bocas del Toro in Panama and brought it to contacts to the small island of Navassa, whence it was shipped to Cuba in late March 1971. The first Cuban pigs contracted the flu on about May 6.106 Cuban authorities slaughtered half a million pigs in order to contain the epidemic.107

Apart from the above information, however, we have not located documentation of current contamination by military biological agents in Panama. We also have not found documents indicating the testing or use of Agent Orange or other defoliants in Panama, though we do not discount the possibility that defoliants may have been tested there.

In November 1969, President Nixon issued an executive order renouncing the use of all biological warfare agents, effectively ending any lawful development of the agents. The declaration led to the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention, which outlawed efforts to "develop, produce, stockpile, or otherwise acquire or retain" any biological weapons. The United States became one of the first parties to the convention. The U.S. military subsequently converted stockpiled biological agents into harmless fertilizer.

http://www.forusa.org/programs/panama/ar.../part4.htm

http://www.deeppoliticsforum.com/forums/...php?t=1359
"It means this War was never political at all, the politics was all theatre, all just to keep the people distracted...."
"Proverbs for Paranoids 4: You hide, They seek."
"They are in Love. Fuck the War."

Gravity's Rainbow, Thomas Pynchon

"Ccollanan Pachacamac ricuy auccacunac yahuarniy hichascancuta."
The last words of the last Inka, Tupac Amaru, led to the gallows by men of god & dogs of war
Reply
#6
In terms of trying to understand MK-ULTRA from the surviving record, this 1953 (partially declassified) memorandum on "Two Extremely Sensitive Research Programs" is crucial.

One of the "Extremely Sensitive Research Programs" is identified as "Covert studies of biological and chemical warfare", further defined as:


Quote:Research to develop a capability in the covert use of biological and chemical materials. This area involves the production of various physiological conditions which could support present or future clandestine operational. Aside from offensive potential, the development of a comprehensive capability in this field of covert chemical and biological warfare gives us a thorough knowledge of the enemy's theoretical potential, thus enabling us to defend ourselves against a foe who might not be as restrained in the use of these techniques as we are. For example: we intend to investigate the development of a chemical material which causes a reversible non-toxic aberrant mental state, the specific nature of which can be reasonably well predicted for each individual. this material could potentially aid in discrediting individuals, eliciting information, implanting suggestion and other forms of mental control.

The other "Extremely Sensitive Research Program" is totally redacted. However, it is possible to make educated guesses as to the redacted research area from examining the subject matter of MK-ULTRA sub-projects. It should be noted that it was considered acceptable for "Covert studies of biological and chemical warfare" to be visible (un-redacted) as part of the declassification process, but it was not considered acceptable for the other research area to be identified.

Quote:TAB A

xxxxxxx 87624
Copy # 1 of 5 copies

3 April 1953

MEMORANDUM FOR: Director, Central Intelligence

SUBJECT: Two Extremely Sensitive Research Programs

1. Approximately 6% of the TSS research and development effort lies in two highly sensitive fields in which it is not possible to conduct the work through the customary contracts for security reason and other considerations.

2. These two sensitive fields are:

a) Covert studies of biological and chemical warfare

B ) xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

3. Permission of the DCI is requested to handle work in these two fields in the manner outlined in Tab A without contracts and with reimbursement to be made against invoices properly certified by TSS.

4. All controls established in the PRC approval of the original Research Program (other than signing a contract) would remain unchanged. Periodic financial and progress reports will be made. All documents will be retained by TSS.

5. No new funds are involved. This procedure would apply to funds xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx previously approved for research.

6. Tab B is a memorandum to the Deputy Director (Administration) for your signature authorizing this procedure.



[Signature]
Richard Helms
Acting Deputy Director (Plans)

Attachments: (2)

Tab A - Description of Project MKULTRA and the controls which will be exercised over its execution

Tab B - Suggested Memorandum from DCI to DD/A authorizing payment of invoices under Project MKULTRA

Distribution:

Addressee - Orig & 1 w/attachments
DD/P - 1 w/attachments
TSS/OC - 1 w/attachments
Exec. REg. - 1 w/attachments

xxxxxxx 87624
Copy # 1 of 5 copies

TAB A

PROJECT MKULTRA

Extremely Sensitive Research and Development Programs

1. On 5 June 1952, the Project Review Committee approved the TSS Research Program for Fiscal Year 1953. [Three lines redacted]

2. The PRC approval authorized the Director of Research, at his discretion and with the approval of the Research Chairman, to apportion and obligate the research funds among individual projects, such projects to be subject to the usual Agency procedures and administrative controls.

3. This Research Program has been actively underway since the middle of 1952 and has gathered considerable momentum during the past few months. It is now evident on the basis of work currently underway that approximately 94% of the projects contemplated can be handled through regular procurement channels by means of customary contracts signed jointly by the Agency and the organization undertaking to carry out the work. It has also become apparent that approximately 6% of the projects are of such ultra-sensitive nature that they cannot and should not be handled by means of contracts which would associate CIA or the Government with the work in question. This 6% of the current research effort now lies entirely within two well-defined fields of endeavor, namely:

(a) Research to develop a capability in the covert use of biological and chemical materials. This area involves the production of various physiological conditions which could support present or future clandestine operational. Aside from offensive potential, the development of a comprehensive capability in this field of covert chemical and biological warfare gives us a thorough knowledge of the enemy's theoretical potential, thus enabling us to defend ourselves against a foe who might not be as restrained in the use of these techniques as we are. For example: we intend to investigate the development of a chemical material which causes a reversible non-toxic aberrant mental state, the specific nature of which can be reasonably well predicted for each individual. this material could potentially aid in discrediting individuals, eliciting information, implanting suggestion and other forms of mental control.

B ) [10 lines redacted]

4. It is highly undesirable from a policy and security point of view that contracts should be signed indicating Agency or government interest in either of these two fields. In a great many instances the work in field (a) must be conducted by individuals who are not and should not be aware of our interest. In all cases dealing with field (B ), it is mandatory that any connection with the Agency should be known only to an absolute minimum number of people who have been specifically cleared for this purpose. In no case should any manufacturer or supplier be aware of Government interest.

5. In many cases in field (a) where the researcher can be cleared and may be aware of our interest in the program, he is unwilling to have his name on a contract which remains out of his control in his files. Experience has shown that qualified, competent individuals in the field of pharmacological, physiological, psychiatric and other biological sciences are most reluctant to enter into signed agreements of any sort which connect them with this activity since such a connection would jeopardize their professional reputations.

6. Even internally in CIA, as few individuals as possible should be aware of our interest in these fields and of the identity of those who are working for us. At present this results in ridiculous contracts, often with cut-outs, which do not spell out the scope or intent of the work and which contain terms which the cut-out cannot incorporate in his contract with the researcher without revealing Government interest. Complete Government audits of such contracts are impossible for the same reason.

7. It is, therefore, requested that the DCI authorize TSS to handle 6% xxxxxxxx of the previously approved research budget for FY '53 without the establishment of formal contractual relations. This program will be known as Project MKULTRA.

8. It is suggested that payment of invoices under Project MKULTRA forwarded by TSS be authorized, provided that:

(a) the total of such invoices does not exceed 6% for Fiscal Year 1953;

(B ) the invoices carry a certification by the TSS Research Director that payment of funds is authorized and that the invoices represent work accomplished within the program approved by the DCI under Project MKULTRA as outlined in this memorandum;

c ) the invoices carry the certification of the Executive Secretary of the Research Board that the scope of the program has been approved;

(d) the invoices carry the certification of the cognizant TSS Division Chief that the work has been satisfactory from a technical point of view.

9. It should be emphasized that this authorization does not involve any new allocation of funds, but merely applies to a portion of a previously approved budget. The TSS certifications mentioned above will mean that:

(a) the project is being handled under the conditions set forth in this description and specifically falls within one of the two ultra-sensitive field mentioned above;

(B ) the project has been approved in the manner provided for in the PRC document which originally set up and approved the over-all TSS Research Program. Each project will thus have been presented by the Chief of the Division monitoring the work to the Research Director and to the Research Chairman and will have, as in the past, to be approved by both before any expenditures are made;

c ) technical control over the project will be exercised by the TSS Division Chief and Project Engineers to the same extent now applying to projects handled in the normal fashion. Technical reports will be rendered when necessary and advisable and will be available for inspection in TSS files at any time;


(d) in the case of each project, TSS will reach an understanding with the individuals who will perform the work as to the conditions under which the work will be performed and reimbursement arranged. No standard contract will be signed. In some cases when possible, a memorandum of agreement will be signed and retained in the TSS files. Under no circumstances would copies of such agreements leave TSS files where they will be kept available for inspection;

(e) the manner in which the work will be handled and methods of maintaining Agency and Government sterility will be worked out with the Inspection & Security Office as in the past, and clearance of individuals to the extent deemed necessary by TSS and I & SO will be obtained;

(f) invoices, when received by TSS, will be forwarded to Finance Division for payment and will be certified as outlined in Paragraph 8 above. Whenever documents are available supporting a portion or all of a given invoice, such as cancelled checks, receipted bills, etc., these will be requested by TSS and retained in TSS files in support of the invoice, where they will at all times be available for inspection. They will not be forwarded with the invoices. Such documents at best will cover only a portion of the total expenditures, and regular audit procedures will not be followed;

(g) other provisions and controls over the Research Program specified in the original PRC approval will remain unaltered. Technical progress under the separate projects handled under Project MKULTRA will be included whenever necessary in the regular progress reports now submitted by the Director of Research. The monthly budget and financial report being submitted by TSS to DD/A will include full financial information on these projects, including how much of the 6% has been committed, how much has been spent and how much remains.

20. The establishment and approval of Project MKULTRA will allow TSS to undertake highly desirable and necessary research in these two sensitive fields which would not be possible unless the work can be handled in this manner.

Distribution:

Address - Orig. & 1
DD/P - 1
TSS/OC - 1
Exec. Registry - 1

http://cryptome.org/mkultra-0003.htm
"It means this War was never political at all, the politics was all theatre, all just to keep the people distracted...."
"Proverbs for Paranoids 4: You hide, They seek."
"They are in Love. Fuck the War."

Gravity's Rainbow, Thomas Pynchon

"Ccollanan Pachacamac ricuy auccacunac yahuarniy hichascancuta."
The last words of the last Inka, Tupac Amaru, led to the gallows by men of god & dogs of war
Reply
#7
Thank you, Jan- all great stuff.

I'm wondering where specifically this can lead us in deciphering the various techniques of MKULTRA, in particular the reprogramming methodology described in the original post.

Certainly CHATTER, BLUEBIRD, MKULTRA and MKSEARCH explored a wide variety of psychoactive substances that have potential applications for such activity. If I were guessing from what I have seen in the public record, I would wonder what role is played by anticholinergics such as Scopolamine, dissociatives such as PCP and Ketamine, hypnotics such as Benzodiazepines and Opioids, depressants such as Barbituates, stimulants such as Amphetamines, as well as the most commonly mentioned hallucinogens such as LSD and Mescaline.

I should emphasize that the above is mostly educated guesses, based on the little that is really known to me, so if anyone has a more informed opinion on this feel free to share it here.
Reply
#8
Austin Kelley Wrote:Thank you, Jan- all great stuff.

I'm wondering where specifically this can lead us in deciphering the various techniques of MKULTRA, in particular the reprogramming methodology described in the original post.

Certainly CHATTER, BLUEBIRD, MKULTRA and MKSEARCH explored a wide variety of psychoactive substances that have potential applications for such activity. If I were guessing from what I have seen in the public record, I would wonder what role is played by anticholinergics such as Scopolamine, dissociatives such as PCP and Ketamine, hypnotics such as Benzodiazepines and Opioids, depressants such as Barbituates, stimulants such as Amphetamines, as well as the most commonly mentioned hallucinogens such as LSD and Mescaline.

I should emphasize that the above is mostly educated guesses, based on the little that is really known to me, so if anyone has a more informed opinion on this feel free to share it here.

Somewhere on this site, Magda {I think} had posted a link to a book written by someone who worked on all this. While the book is clearly trying to partly whitewash the worst of the events/crimes etc. [modified-limited hangout], he does seem to mention many important people and places used to testing....can't find the link...can anyone help point to it? Might be helpful to get and apply the negative template, with what we do already know......
"Let me issue and control a nation's money and I care not who writes the laws. - Mayer Rothschild
"Civil disobedience is not our problem. Our problem is civil obedience! People are obedient in the face of poverty, starvation, stupidity, war, and cruelty. Our problem is that grand thieves are running the country. That's our problem!" - Howard Zinn
"If there is no struggle there is no progress. Power concedes nothing without a demand. It never did and never will" - Frederick Douglass
Reply
#9
Peter Lemkin Wrote:...
Somewhere on this site, Magda {I think} had posted a link to a book written by someone who worked on all this. While the book is clearly trying to partly whitewash the worst of the events/crimes etc. [modified-limited hangout], he does seem to mention many important people and places used to testing....can't find the link...can anyone help point to it? Might be helpful to get and apply the negative template, with what we do already know......

Is it this book Peter?
Walter Bowart's book "Operation Mind Control - The Cryptocracy's Plan to Psychocivlise You"
http://www.deeppoliticsforum.com/forums/....php?t=313
Reply
#10
Austin Kelley Wrote:Hi-

This article is important enough to motivate me to come out of lurk mode in order to post it. Thanks to all concerned. Excellent work!

Austin


http://www.truthout.org/the-real-roots-c...ogram56956

The Real Roots of the CIA's Rendition and Black Sites Program


Wednesday 17 February 2010
by: H.P. Albarelli Jr. and Jeffrey Kaye, t r u t h o u t | Op-Ed

On Tuesday, February 10, the British High Court finally released a "seven-paragraph court document showing that MI5 officers were involved in the ill-treatment of a British resident, Binyam Mohamed." The document is itself a summary of 42 classified CIA documents given to the British in 2002. .....

Thanks so much for posting this Austin (and welcome to the forum btw!) Hank Albarelli sent me this link this morning by email but when I checked it it was a 404 error. Don't know what happened over at Truth Out. Yes! important article so it was great to read it here.
"The philosophers have only interpreted the world, in various ways. The point, however, is to change it." Karl Marx

"He would, wouldn't he?" Mandy Rice-Davies. When asked in court whether she knew that Lord Astor had denied having sex with her.

“I think it would be a good idea” Ghandi, when asked about Western Civilisation.
Reply


Possibly Related Threads…
Thread Author Replies Views Last Post
  “UFOs” are Not “Alien” but Advanced Tech with Nazi Roots! Peter Lemkin 1 3,808 29-04-2011, 06:37 PM
Last Post: Charles Drago

Forum Jump:


Users browsing this thread: 1 Guest(s)