Thread Rating:
  • 0 Vote(s) - 0 Average
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
Mk ultra
Project MK ULTRA

[Image: 200px-DeclassifiedMKULTRA.jpg] [Image: magnify-clip.png]
Declassified MKULTRA documents

Project MK-ULTRA, or MKULTRA, was the code name for a covert CIA mind-control and chemical interrogation research program, run by the Office of Scientific Intelligence. The program began in the early 1950s, continuing at least through the late 1960s, and it used United States citizens as its test subjects.[1][2][3] The published evidence indicates that Project MK-ULTRA involved the surreptitious use of many types of drugs, as well as other methods, to manipulate individual mental states and to alter brain function.[4]
Project MK-ULTRA was first brought to wide public attention in 1975 by the U.S. Congress, through investigations by the Church Committee, and by a presidential commission known as the Rockefeller Commission. Investigative efforts were hampered by the fact that CIA Director Richard Helms ordered all MK-ULTRA files destroyed in 1973; the Church Committee and Rockefeller Commission investigations relied on the sworn testimony of direct participants and on the relatively small number of documents that survived Helms' destruction order. [5]
Although the CIA insists that MK-ULTRA-type experiments have been abandoned, 14-year CIA veteran Victor Marchetti has stated in various interviews that the CIA routinely conducts disinformation campaigns and that CIA mind control research continued. In a 1977 interview, Marchetti specifically called the CIA claim that MK-ULTRA was abandoned a "cover story."[6][7]
On the Senate floor in 1977, Senator Ted Kennedy said:
The Deputy Director of the CIA revealed that over thirty universities and institutions were involved in an "extensive testing and experimentation" program which included covert drug tests on unwitting citizens "at all social levels, high and low, native Americans and foreign." Several of these tests involved the administration of LSD to "unwitting subjects in social situations." At least one death, that of Dr. [Frank] Olson, resulted from these activities. The Agency itself acknowledged that these tests made little scientific sense. The agents doing the monitoring were not qualified scientific observers.[8]
To this day most specific information regarding Project MKULTRA remains highly classified.

Title and origins

[Image: 180px-Mkultra-lsd-doc.jpg] [Image: magnify-clip.png]
Dr. Sidney Gottlieb approved of an MKULTRA subproject on LSD in this June 9, 1953 letter.

The project's intentionally oblique CIA cryptonym is made up of the digraph MK, meaning that the project was sponsored by the agency's Technical Services Division, followed by the word ULTRA (which had previously been used to designate the most secret classification of World War II intelligence). Other related cryptonyms include MK-NAOMI and MK-DELTA.
A precursor of the MK-ULTRA program began in 1945 when the Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency was established and given direct responsibility for Operation Paperclip. Operation Paperclip was a program to recruit former Nazi spies, scientists and experts in torture and brainwashing, some of whom had just been identified and prosecuted as war criminals during the Nuremberg Trials.
Several secret U.S. government projects grew out of Operation Paperclip. These projects included Project CHATTER (established 1947), and Project BLUEBIRD (established 1950), which was later renamed to Project ARTICHOKE in 1951. Their purpose was to study mind-control, interrogation, behavior modification and related topics.
Headed by Dr. Sidney Gottlieb, the MK-ULTRA project was started on the order of CIA director Allen Dulles on April 13, 1953,[9] largely in response to Soviet, Chinese, and North Korean use of mind-control techniques on U.S. prisoners of war in Korea.[10] The CIA wanted to use similar methods on their own captives. The CIA was also interested in being able to manipulate foreign leaders with such techniques,[11] and would later invent several schemes to drug Fidel Castro.
Experiments were often conducted without the subjects' knowledge or consent.[12] In some cases, academic researchers being funded through grants from CIA front organizations were unaware that their work was being used for these purposes.[13]
In 1964, the project was renamed MK-SEARCH. The project attempted to produce a perfect truth drug for use in interrogating suspected Soviet spies during the Cold War, and generally to explore any other possibilities of mind control.
Another MK-ULTRA effort, Subproject 54, was the Navy's top secret "Perfect Concussion" program, which used sub-aural frequency blasts to erase memory.[14]
Because most MK-ULTRA records were deliberately destroyed in 1973 by order of then CIA Director Richard Helms, it has been difficult, if not impossible, for investigators to gain a complete understanding of the more than 150 individually funded research sub-projects sponsored by MK-ULTRA and related CIA programs.[15]

Aims and goals

The Agency poured millions of dollars into studies probing dozens of methods of influencing and controlling the mind. One 1955 MK-ULTRA document gives an indication of the size and range of the effort; this document refers to the study of an assortment of mind-altering substances described as follows:[16]
  1. Substances which will promote illogical thinking and impulsiveness to the point where the recipient would be discredited in public.
  2. Substances which increase the efficiency of mentation and perception.
  3. Materials which will prevent or counteract the intoxicating effect of alcohol.
  4. Materials which will promote the intoxicating effect of alcohol.
  5. Materials which will produce the signs and symptoms of recognized diseases in a reversible way so that they may be used for malingering, etc.
  6. Materials which will render the induction of hypnosis easier or otherwise enhance its usefulness.
  7. Substances which will enhance the ability of individuals to withstand privation, torture and coercion during interrogation and so-called "brain-washing".
  8. Materials and physical methods which will produce amnesia for events preceding and during their use.
  9. Physical methods of producing shock and confusion over extended periods of time and capable of surreptitious use.
  10. Substances which produce physical disablement such as paralysis of the legs, acute anemia, etc.
  11. Substances which will produce "pure" euphoria with no subsequent let-down.
  12. Substances which alter personality structure in such a way that the tendency of the recipient to become dependent upon another person is enhanced.
  13. A material which will cause mental confusion of such a type that the individual under its influence will find it difficult to maintain a fabrication under questioning.
  14. Substances which will lower the ambition and general working efficiency of men when administered in undetectable amounts.
  15. Substances which promote weakness or distortion of the eyesight or hearing faculties, preferably without permanent effects.
  16. A knockout pill which can surreptitiously be administered in drinks, food, cigarettes, as an aerosol, etc., which will be safe to use, provide a maximum of amnesia, and be suitable for use by agent types on an ad hoc basis.
  17. A material which can be surreptitiously administered by the above routes and which in very small amounts will make it impossible for a man to perform any physical activity whatsoever.

Historians have learned that creating a "Manchurian Candidate" subject through "mind control" techniques was undoubtedly a goal of MK-ULTRA and related CIA projects.[17]


A secretive arrangement granted a percentage of the CIA budget. The MK-ULTRA director was granted six percent of the CIA operating budget in 1953, without oversight or accounting.[18] An estimated US$10m or more was spent[19].


CIA documents suggest that "chemical, biological and radiological" means were investigated for the purpose of mind control as part of MK-ULTRA.[20]



Early efforts focused on LSD, which later came to dominate many of MK-ULTRA's programs.
Experiments included administering LSD to CIA employees, military personnel, doctors, other government agents, prostitutes, mentally ill patients, and members of the general public in order to study their reactions. LSD and other drugs were usually administered without the subject's knowledge and informed consent, a violation of the Nuremberg Code that the U.S. agreed to follow after World War II.
Efforts to "recruit" subjects were often illegal, even discounting the fact that drugs were being administered (though actual use of LSD, for example, was legal in the United States until October 6, 1966). In Operation Midnight Climax, the CIA set up several brothels to obtain a selection of men who would be too embarrassed to talk about the events. The men were dosed with LSD, and the brothels were equipped with one-way mirrors and the "sessions" were filmed for later viewing and study.[21]
Some subjects' participation was consensual, and in many of these cases, the subjects appeared to be singled out for even more extreme experiments. In one case, volunteers were given LSD for 77 consecutive days.[22]
LSD was eventually dismissed by MK-ULTRA's researchers as too unpredictable in its results.[1] Although useful information was sometimes obtained through questioning subjects on LSD, not uncommonly the most marked effect would be the subject's absolute and utter certainty that they were able to withstand any form of interrogation attempt, even physical torture.

Other drugs

Another technique investigated was connecting a barbiturate IV into one arm and an amphetamine IV into the other.[23] The barbiturates were released into the subject first, and as soon as the subject began to fall asleep, the amphetamines were released. The subject would begin babbling incoherently at this point, and it was sometimes possible to ask questions and get useful answers.
Other experiments involved heroin, morphine, temazepam (used under code name MK-SEARCH), mescaline, psilocybin, scopolamine, marijuana, alcohol, and sodium pentothal.[24]


Declassified MK-ULTRA documents indicate hypnosis was studied in the early 1950s. Experimental goals included: the creation of "hypnotically induced anxieties," "hypnotically increasing ability to learn and recall complex written matter," studying hypnosis and polygraph examinations, "hypnotically increasing ability to observe and recall complex arrangements of physical objects," and studying "relationship of personality to susceptibility to hypnosis."[25]

Canadian experiments

The experiments were exported to Canada when the CIA recruited Scottish physician Donald Ewen Cameron, creator of the "psychic driving" concept, which the CIA found particularly interesting. Cameron had been hoping to correct schizophrenia by erasing existing memories and reprogramming the psyche. He commuted from Albany, New York to Montreal every week to work at the Allan Memorial Institute of McGill University and was paid $69,000 from 1957 to 1964 to carry out MKULTRA experiments there. In addition to LSD, Cameron also experimented with various paralytic drugs as well as electroconvulsive therapy at thirty to forty times the normal power. His "driving" experiments consisted of putting subjects into drug-induced coma for weeks at a time (up to three months in one case) while playing tape loops of noise or simple repetitive statements. His experiments were typically carried out on patients who had entered the institute for minor problems such as anxiety disorders and postpartum depression, many of whom suffered permanently from his actions.[26] His treatments resulted in victims' incontinence, amnesia, forgetting how to talk, forgetting their parents, and thinking their interrogators were their parents.[27] His work was inspired and paralleled by the British psychiatrist Dr William Sargant at St Thomas' Hospital, London, and Belmont Hospital, Surrey, who also experimented extensively and very damagingly on his patients without their consent and was similarly involved with the Intelligence Services.[28] Dr. Cameron and Dr. Sargant are the only two identified Canadian experimenters, but the MKULTRA file makes reference to many other unnamed physicians who were recruited by the CIA.[citation needed]
It was during this era that Cameron became known worldwide as the first chairman of the World Psychiatric Association as well as president of the American and Canadian psychiatric associations. Cameron had also been a member of the Nuremberg medical tribunal in 1946-47.[29]


In 1973, CIA Director Richard Helms ordered all MK-ULTRA files destroyed. Pursuant to this order, most CIA documents regarding the project were destroyed, making a full investigation of MK-ULTRA all but impossible.
In December 1974, The New York Times reported that the CIA had conducted illegal domestic activities, including experiments on U.S. citizens, during the 1960s. That report prompted investigations by the U.S. Congress, in the form of the Church Committee, and by a presidential commission known as the Rockefeller Commission that looked into domestic activities of the CIA, the FBI, and intelligence-related agencies of the military.
In the summer of 1975, congressional Church Committee reports and the presidential Rockefeller Commission report revealed to the public for the first time that the CIA and the Department of Defense had conducted experiments on both unwitting and cognizant human subjects as part of an extensive program to influence and control human behavior through the use of psychoactive drugs such as LSD and mescaline and other chemical, biological, and psychological means. They also revealed that at least one subject had died after administration of LSD.
The congressional committee investigating the CIA research, chaired by Senator Frank Church, concluded that "[p]rior consent was obviously not obtained from any of the subjects". The committee noted that the "experiments sponsored by these researchers ... call into question the decision by the agencies not to fix guidelines for experiments."
Following the recommendations of the Church Committee, President Gerald Ford in 1976 issued the first Executive Order on Intelligence Activities which, among other things, prohibited "experimentation with drugs on human subjects, except with the informed consent, in writing and witnessed by a disinterested party, of each such human subject" and in accordance with the guidelines issued by the National Commission. Subsequent orders by Presidents Carter and Reagan expanded the directive to apply to any human experimentation.
On the heels of the revelations about CIA experiments, similar stories surfaced regarding U.S. Army experiments. In 1975 the Secretary of the Army instructed the Army Inspector General to conduct an investigation. Among the findings of the Inspector General was the existence of a 1953 memorandum penned by then Secretary of Defense Charles Erwin Wilson. Documents show that the CIA participated in at least two of Department of Defense committees during 1952. These committee findings led to the issuance of the "Wilson Memo," which mandated--in accord with Nuremberg Code protocols--that only volunteers be used for experimental operations conducted in the U.S. armed forces. In response to the Inspector General's investigation, the Wilson Memo was declassified in August 1975.
With regard to drug testing within the Army, the Inspector General found that "the evidence clearly reflected that every possible medical consideration was observed by the professional investigators at the Medical Research Laboratories." However the Inspector General also found that the mandated requirements of Wilson's 1953 memorandum had been only partially adhered to; he concluded that the "volunteers were not fully informed, as required, prior to their participation; and the methods of procuring their services, in many cases, appeared not to have been in accord with the intent of Department of the Army policies governing use of volunteers in research."
Other branches of the U.S. armed forces, the Air Force for example, were found not to have adhered to Wilson Memo stipulations regarding voluntary drug testing.
In Canada, the issue took much longer to surface, becoming widely known in 1984 on a CBC news show, The Fifth Estate. It was learned that not only had the CIA funded Dr. Cameron's efforts, but perhaps even more shockingly, the Canadian government was fully aware of this, and had later provided another $500,000 in funding to continue the experiments. This revelation largely derailed efforts by the victims to sue the CIA as their U.S. counterparts had, and the Canadian government eventually settled out of court for $100,000 to each of the 127 victims.

U.S. General Accounting Office Report

The U.S. General Accounting Office issued a report on September 28, 1994, which stated that between 1940 and 1974, DOD and other national security agencies studied thousands of human subjects in tests and experiments involving hazardous substances.
The quote from the study:
... Working with the CIA, the Department of Defense gave hallucinogenic drugs to thousands of "volunteer" soldiers in the 1950's and 1960's. In addition to LSD, the Army also tested quinuclidinyl benzilate, a hallucinogen code-named BZ. (Note 37) Many of these tests were conducted under the so-called MKULTRA program, established to counter perceived Soviet and Chinese advances in brainwashing techniques. Between 1953 and 1964, the program consisted of 149 projects involving drug testing and other studies on unwitting human subjects...[30]

Harold Blauer, a professional tennis player in New York City, died as a result of a secret Army experiment involving MDA.[31]
Frank Olson, a United States Army biochemist and biological weapons researcher, was given LSD without his knowledge or consent in 1953 as part of a CIA experiment, and died under suspicious circumstances (initially labeled suicide) a week later following a severe psychotic episode. A CIA doctor assigned to monitor Olson's recovery claimed to be asleep in another bed in a New York City hotel room when Olson jumped through the window to fall ten stories to his death.[32]
Olson's son disputes this version of events, and maintains that his father was murdered due to the belief that he was going to divulge his knowledge of the top-secret interrogation program code-named Project ARTICHOKE.[33] Frank Olson's body was exhumed in 1994, and cranial injuries indicated Olson had been knocked unconscious before exiting the window.[34]
The CIA's own internal investigation, by contrast, claimed Gottlieb had conducted the experiment with Olson's prior knowledge, although neither Olson nor the other men taking part in the experiment were informed as to the exact nature of the drug until some 20 minutes after its ingestion. The report further suggested that Gottlieb was nonetheless due a reprimand, as he had failed to take into account Olsen's already-diagnosed suicidal tendencies, which might well have been exacerbated by the LSD.[32]

Legal issues involving informed consent

The revelations about the CIA and the Army prompted a number of subjects or their survivors to file lawsuits against the federal government for conducting illegal experiments. Although the government aggressively, and sometimes successfully, sought to avoid legal liability, several plaintiffs did receive compensation through court order, out-of-court settlement, or acts of Congress. Frank Olson's family received $750,000 by a special act of Congress, and both President Ford and CIA director William Colby met with Olson's family to publicly apologize.
Previously, the CIA and the Army had actively and successfully sought to withhold incriminating information, even as they secretly provided compensation to the families. One subject of Army drug experimentation, James Stanley, an Army sergeant, brought an important, albeit unsuccessful, suit. The government argued that Stanley was barred from suing under a legal doctrine—known as the Feres doctrine, after a 1950 Supreme Court case, Feres v. United States—that prohibits members of the Armed Forces from suing the government for any harms that were inflicted "incident to service."
In 1987, the Supreme Court affirmed this defense in a 5–4 decision that dismissed Stanley's case (483 U.S. 669). The majority argued that "a test for liability that depends on the extent to which particular suits would call into question military discipline and decision making would itself require judicial inquiry into, and hence intrusion upon, military matters." In dissent, Justice William Brennan argued that the need to preserve military discipline should not protect the government from liability and punishment for serious violations of constitutional rights:
The medical trials at Nuremberg in 1947 deeply impressed upon the world that experimentation with unknowing human subjects is morally and legally unacceptable. The United States Military Tribunal established the Nuremberg Code as a standard against which to judge German scientists who experimented with human subjects... . [i]n defiance of this principle, military intelligence officials ... began surreptitiously testing chemical and biological materials, including LSD.
Justice Sandra Day O'Connor, writing a separate dissent, stated:
No judicially crafted rule should insulate from liability the involuntary and unknowing human experimentation alleged to have occurred in this case. Indeed, as Justice Brennan observes, the United States played an instrumental role in the criminal prosecution of Nazi officials who experimented with human subjects during the Second World War, and the standards that the Nuremberg Military Tribunals developed to judge the behavior of the defendants stated that the 'voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential ... to satisfy moral, ethical, and legal concepts.' If this principle is violated, the very least that society can do is to see that the victims are compensated, as best they can be, by the perpetrators.
This is the only Supreme Court case to address the application of the Nuremberg Code to experimentation sponsored by the U.S. government. And while the suit was unsuccessful, dissenting opinions put the Army—and by association the entire government—on notice that use of individuals without their consent is unacceptable. The limited application of the Nuremberg Code in U.S. courts does not detract from the power of the principles it espouses, especially in light of stories of failure to follow these principles that appeared in the media and professional literature during the 1960s and 1970s and the policies eventually adopted in the mid-1970s.
In another law suit, Wayne Ritchie, a former United States Marshall, alleged the CIA laced his food or drink with LSD at a 1957 Christmas party. While the government admitted it was, at that time, drugging people without their consent, U.S. District Judge Marilyn Hall Patel found Ritchie could not prove he was one of the victims of MKULTRA and dismissed the case in 2007.[35]

Extent of participation

Forty-four American colleges or universities, 15 research foundations or chemical or pharmaceutical companies and the like including Sandoz (currently Novartis) and Eli Lilly & Co., 12 hospitals or clinics (in addition to those associated with universities), and 3 prisons are known to have participated in MKULTRA.[36][37]

Notable subjects

A considerable amount of credible circumstantial evidence suggests that Theodore Kaczynski, also known as the Unabomber, participated in CIA-sponsored MK-ULTRA experiments conducted at Harvard University from the fall of 1959 through the spring of 1962. During World War II, Henry Murray, the lead researcher in the Harvard experiments, served with the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), which was a forerunner of the CIA. Murray applied for a grant funded by the United States Navy, and his Harvard stress experiments strongly resembled those run by the OSS.[38] Beginning at the age of sixteen, Kaczynski participated along with twenty-one other undergraduate students in the Harvard experiments, which have been described as "disturbing" and "ethically indefensible."[38][39]
Merry Prankster Ken Kesey, author of One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, volunteered for MK-ULTRA experiments while he was a student at Stanford University. Kesey's ingestion of LSD during these experiments led directly to his widespread promotion of the drug and the subsequent development of hippie culture.[40]
Candy Jones, American fashion model and radio host, claimed to have been a victim of mind control in the '60s.[41]
Infamous Irish mob boss James "Whitey" Bulger volunteered for testing while in prison.[42]

Conspiracy theories

MK-ULTRA plays a part in many conspiracy theories given its nature and the destruction of most records.
Lawrence Teeter, attorney for convicted assassin Sirhan Sirhan, believed Sirhan was under the influence of hypnosis when he fired his weapon at Robert F. Kennedy in 1968. Teeter linked the CIA's MKULTRA program to mind control techniques that he claimed were used to control Sirhan.[43] Teeter's assertions are generally dismissed due to lack of supporting evidence.[citation needed]
Jonestown, the Guyana location of the Jim Jones cult and Peoples Temple mass suicide, was thought to be a test site for MKULTRA medical and mind control experiments after the official end of the program. Congressman Leo Ryan, a known critic of the CIA, was assassinated after he personally visited Jonestown to investigate various reported irregularities.[44]

Popular culture

See also


  1. ^ Science, Technology and the CIA
  2. ^ "Chapter 3, part 4: Supreme Court Dissents Invoke the Nuremberg Code: CIA and DOD Human Subjects Research Scandals". Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments Final Report. Retrieved on August 24 2005. "The CIA program, known principally by the codename MKULTRA, began in 1950"
  3. ^ U.S. Congress: The Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, Foreign and Military Intelligence (Church Committee report), report no. 94-755, 94th Cong., 2d Sess. (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1976); p. 392] "According to the CIA, the project [MKULTRA] was decreased significantly each budget year until its complete termination in the late 1960s."
  4. ^ The referenced sentence was originally sourced from here; it is not obvious what the context of this reference was.
  5. ^ "An Interview with Richard Helms". CIA. Retrieved on 2008-03-16.
  6. ^, retrieved 22 August 2007
  7. ^ John Marks interview with Victor Marchetti, quoted in Martin Cannon, "Mind Control and the American Government", Lobster Magazine 23, 1992
  8. ^ This quote is from the Opening Remarks by Senator Ted Kennedy during the August 3, 1977 meeting of the U.S. Senate Select Committee On Intelligence, and Subcommittee On Health And Scientific Research of the Committee On Human Resources; online version from the Schaffer Library of Drug Policy, a unofficial website.
  9. ^ Church Committee; p. 390 "MKULTRA was approved by the DCI[Director of Central Intelligence] on April 13, 1953"
  10. ^ "Chapter 3, part 4: Supreme Court Dissents Invoke the Nuremberg Code: CIA and DOD Human Subjects Research Scandals". Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments Final Report. Retrieved on August 24 2005. "MKULTRA, began in 1950 and was motivated largely in response to alleged Soviet, Chinese, and North Korean uses of mind-control techniques on U.S. prisoners of war in Korea."
  11. ^ Church Committee; p. 391 "A special procedure, designated MKDELTA, was established to govern the use of MKULTRA materials abroad. Such materials were used on a number of occasions."
  12. ^ Church Committee; "The congressional committee investigating the CIA research, chaired by Senator Frank Church, concluded that '[p]rior consent was obviously not obtained from any of the subjects.'"
  13. ^ Price, David (June 2007). "Buying a Piece of Anthropology: Human Ecology and unwitting anthropological research for the CIA" (PDF). Anthropology Today 23 (3): 3–13. Retrieved on 2008-04-13.
  14. ^, retrieved 25 April 2008
  15. ^ "Chapter 3, part 4: Supreme Court Dissents Invoke the Nuremberg Code: CIA and DOD Human Subjects Research Scandals". Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments Final Report. Retrieved on August 24 2005. (identical sentence) "Because most of the MK-ULTRA records were deliberately destroyed in 1973 ... MK-ULTRA and the related CIA programs."
  16. ^ "Senate MKULTRA Hearing: Appendix C--Documents Referring to Subprojects, [page 167, in PDF document page numbering."] (pdf). Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and Committee on Human Resources. August 3, 1977. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
  17. ^ Ranelagh, John (March 1988). The Agency: The Rise and Decline of the CIA. Sceptre. pp. 208–210. ISBN 0-340-41230-5.
  18. ^ Declassified
  19. ^ Mind Control and the Secret State
  20. ^ Declassified
  21. ^ Marks, John (1979). The Search for the Manchurian Candidate. New York: Times Books. pp. 106–7. ISBN 0-8129-0773-6.
  22. ^ NPR Fresh Air. June 28, 2007 and Tim Weiner, The Legacy of Ashes: The History of the CIA.
  23. ^ Marks 1979: pp 40-42.
  24. ^ Marks 1979: chapters 3 and 7.
  25. ^ Declassified
  26. ^ Marks 1979: pp 140-150.
  27. ^ Turbide, Diane (1997-04-21). "Dr. Cameron’s Casualties". Retrieved on 2007-09-09.
  28. ^ Collins, Anne ([1988] 1998). In the Sleep Room: The Story of CIA Brainwashing Experiments in Canada. Toronto: Key Porter Books. pp. 39, 42–3, 133. ISBN 1550139320.
  29. ^ Marks 1979: p 141.
  30. ^ Quote from "Is Military Research Hazardous to Veterans Health? Lessons Spanning Half A Century", part F. HALLUCINOGENS 103rd Congress, 2nd Session-S. Prt. 103-97; Staff Report prepared for the committee on veterans' affairs December 8, 1994 John D. Rockefeller IV, West Virginia, Chairman. Online copy provided by, which describes itself as "Serving the Gulf War Veteran Community Worldwide Since 1994". (The same document is available from many other (unofficial) sites, which may or may not be independent.)
  31. ^ Marks 1979: p 72n.
  32. ^ a b Marks 1979: chapter 5.
  33. ^ Olson, E (2002-08-22). "Family Statement on the Murder of Frank Olson". Retrieved on 2008-10-16.
  34. ^ Ronson, Jon (2004). The Men Who Stare at Goats. Picador. ISBN 0-330-37548-2.
  35. ^ "Ritchie v. United States of America: United States District Court, Northern District of California No. C 00-3940 MHP. Findings of Fact and Conclusion of Law Re: Motion for Judgment on Partial Findings" (pdf). Retrieved on 2008-10-16.
  36. ^ Book Review: Search for the Manchurian Candidate by John Marks
  37. ^ CIA Off Campus: Building the Movement Against Agency Recruitment and Research
  38. ^ a b Chase, A (2000-06-01). "Harvard and the Making of the Unabomber". The Atlantic Monthly. pp. 41-65. Retrieved on 2008-10-16.
  39. ^ Cockburn, A; St Clair J (1999-10-18). "CIA Shrinks and LSD". CounterPunch. Retrieved on 2008-10-16.
  40. ^ Baker, Jeff (November 11, 2001). "All times a great artist, Ken Kesey is dead at age 66". The Oregonian: pp. A1.
  41. ^ Bennett, C (2001-07-01). "Candy Jones: How a leading American fashion model came to be experimented upon by the CIA mind control team". Fortean Times. Retrieved on 2008-10-16.
  42. ^ Bruno, A. "JAMES "WHITEY" BULGER". Retrieved on 2008-10-16.
  43. ^ Teeter, Lawrence. "Interview with Sirhan's attorney Lawrence Teeter". KPFA 94.1/Guns & Butter show.
  44. ^ Meier, M (1989). Was Jonestown a CIA Medical Experiment?: A Review of the Evidence. New York: Edwin Mellen. ISBN 0-8894-6013-2.

Further reading

External links

"The philosophers have only interpreted the world, in various ways. The point, however, is to change it." Karl Marx

"He would, wouldn't he?" Mandy Rice-Davies. When asked in court whether she knew that Lord Astor had denied having sex with her.

“I think it would be a good idea” Ghandi, when asked about Western Civilisation.
Declassified MK-Ultra Project Documents:
page 001: Proposal for stimulus response experiments on biological systems page 002: Memo, Destruction of drug and toxin related files page 003: Destruction of MK-Ultra Project files page 004:Covert testing of materials on unwitting subjects page 004: Human testing issues, U.S. citizens and foreign nationals page 006: Covert Action Operations, chemicals and biologicals page 007: Inspector General & Agency controls over MK-Ultra Projects page 008: MK-NAOMI, destruction of toxin records, etc. page 009: Explanation of exemptions page 010: Behavioural control with chemical, biological and radiological materials page 011: Scope of MK-Ultra, testing on animals and humans page 012: Technical Services Division, biochemicals in covert operations page 013: Adminstration, Legalities, Disclosure, Exemptions from audits page 014: Administration, Inspector General, biochemical behavioural controls page 015: Human behavioural control; radiation, electroshock, graphics page 016: Record keeping; disabling and lethal substances. page 017: Record keeping, capabilities and limitations of operational substances page 018: Materials-behavioural and physiological changes in humans page 019: Mk-Ultra specialists, management design & funding page 020: Future evolution of the system, pharmaceutical products, links page 021: Testing, development, environmental testing on unwitting subjects. page 022: Working relationships with the Bureau of Narcotics for testing. page 023: Contingent effects of covert testing, economic loss, sickness, etc. page 024: Risk of physicians making correct diagnosis of covert testing. page 025: Covert testing of substances and devices on unwitting subjects. page 026: Risk of future release of information by unwitting test subjects. page 027: Current estimates of Mk-Ultra capabilities. page 028: Harrassment and disabling materials, Mk-Delta. page 029: Logistics of covert testing page 030: Mk-Delta organization, field testing, interrogations. page 031: Espionage operations, foreign developments in the field. page 032: Recognition and countering of hostile intelligence activities. Human behavioural controls. page 033: Basic research, procurement, testing, development of delivery systems. page 034: Administration, filing, and record keeping issues. page 035: Salaries, overhead, fees, related issues. page 036: Admnistrative organization, research and development plans. page 037: Admnistrative organization, research and development plans. page 038: Section cover sheet, blank, Tab A. page 039: Sensitive research areas: covert biological and chemical warfare. page 040: Section cover sheet, blank page 041: Percentage limits on invoices, certification, etc. page 042: Chemical materials causing reversible, non-toxic aberrant mental states. Potential for discrediting individuals, eliciting information, implanting suggestions, etc. page 043: Percentage limits on invoices, certification, etc. page 044: Organization, technical control of projects, etc page 045: Progress reports. page 046: Section cover sheet, blank. page 047: Administration, Director's Office, Percentage limits on invoices. page 048: Certification of Invoices. page 049: Administrative organization of subprojects page 050: Research memoranda, Progress reports. page 051: Certification of Invoices. page 052: Hypnotic Experimentation Research page 053: Hypnotic Experimentation Research: page 054: Working committees, Administrative Plans, Field Demonstrations. page 055: University Psychology Department, letter. page 056: Report, letter. page 057: University expenditures page 058: Subprojects 5, 25, 29,and 49 page 059: Subprojects 5, 25, 29,and 49; equipment purchases page 060: University psychology department memo. page 061: Subproject 5, invoice page 062: Subproject 5, invoice page 063: Subproject 5, invoice page 064: Transfer of research project to new University page 065: Correspondce-University Psychology Department page 066:Correspondce-University Psychology Department page 067: University Expense Sheet page 068: University Expense Sheet- Receipt page 069: Check Receipt page 070:Receipt Certification page 071: Receipt - Mk-Ultra Subproject 5 page 072: Receipt - Mk-Ultra Subproject 5 page 073:Invoice - Mk-Ultra Subproject 5 page 074:Invoice - Mk-Ultra Subproject 5 page 075: Certification - Mk-Ultra Subproject 5 page 076:Finance Document - Mk-Ultra Subproject 5 page 077: Authorization & Time Schedule -Mk-Ultra Subproject 5 page 078: Mk-Ultra Hypnosis - 100 Subjects, 6 experiments. page 079: Recall of hypnotically acquired information by signal page 080: Expense Report - Mk-Ultra Subproject 5 page 081: Expense Report - Mk-Ultra Subproject 5 page 082 Covert Security Clearance authorization page 083: Hypnotic experiment- technical details page 084: Hypnotic experiment- technical details page 085: Hypnotic experimen t- technical details page 086: Hypnotic experiment - technical details page 087: Handwritten notes on experiments page 088: Handwritten notes on experiments page 089: Handwritten notes on experiments page 090: Handwritten notes on experiments page 091: Handwritten notes on experiments page 092: Hand drawn room diagram, non-hypnotic recall page 093: List, Hypnotic recall page 094:Handwritten notes, Hypnotic recall page 095: Handwritten notes page 096: Hand drawn room diagram page 097: Photo of experimental hotel room page 098: Photo of experimental hotel room page 099: Photo of experimental hotel room page100: Photo of experimental hotel room page101: Expense Sheet page102: Mk-Ultra Subproject 25,Expense Sheet page103: Mk-Ultra Subproject 25,Administrative Addendum: page104: Mk-Ultra Subproject 25, Administrative Addendum, continued: page105: Mk-Ultra Subproject 25,Funding & Extension page106: Mk-Ultra Subproject 25,Handwritten Receipt page107: Receipt for Cashier's Check page108: Mk-Ultra Subproject 25, Receipt for Cash Payment page109: Mk-Ultra Subproject 25, Expense Sheet page110: Mk-Ultra Subproject 25, Invoice page111: Mk-Ultra Subproject 25, Invoice Certification page112: Mk-Ultra Subproject 25, Extension of Project page113: Mk-Ultra Subproject 25, Financing page114: Mk-Ultra Subproject 25, Hypnotic Techniques, Expenses page115: Mk-Ultra Subproject 25, Hypnotic Techniques: University Research Projects page116: Mk-Ultra Subproject 25, Hypnotic Techniques, Expense Sheet page117: Mk-Ultra Subproject 29, Receipt page118: Addendum to Mk-Ultra Subprojects 5, 25, 29, & 49 page119: Addendum to Mk-Ultra Subprojects 5, 25, 29, & 49 page120: Declaration of Trust Form page121: Letter of Duplicate Receipt page122: Receipt page123: Mk-Ultra Subproject 29, Receipt page124: Mk-Ultra Subproject 29, Invoice Certification page125: Mk-Ultra Subproject 29, Invoice page126: Mk-Ultra Subproject 29, Finance page127: Mk-Ultra Subproject 29, Cost Increase page128: Mk-Ultra Subproject 29, Receipt page129: Mk-Ultra Subproject 29, Receipt page130: Mk-Ultra Subproject 29, Invoice #3 page131: Mk-Ultra Subproject 29, Certification of Invoice page132: Mk-Ultra Subproject 29, Certification of Receipt page133: Mk-Ultra Subproject 29, Certification of Receipt page134: Mk-Ultra Subproject 29, Invoice page135: Mk-Ultra Subproject 29, Invoice page136: Mk-Ultra Subproject 29, Invoice page137: Mk-Ultra Subproject 29, Finance page138: Mk-Ultra Subproject 29, Hypnosis page139: Mk-Ultra Subproject 29, University Research Budget page140:Mk-Ultra Subproject 29, Use of Hypnotic Techniques in Education page141: Mk-Ultra Subproject 29, Finance page142:Mk-Ultra Subproject 29, Secrecy Agreement page143: Mk-Ultra Subproject 29, Covert Security Approval page144: Mk-Ultra Subproject 29, Covert Security Approval page145 :Mk-Ultra Subproject 29, Receipt for Keys to Safehouse page146: Mk-Ultra Subproject 29, Request for Safehouse Procurement Officer, Chemical Division page147: Mk-Ultra Subproject 29, Procurement of Safe Site & Requirements page148: Mk-Ultra Subproject 29, Expense Sheet page149: Mk-Ultra Subproject 49, Additional Authorization page150: Mk-Ultra Subproject 49, Expense Sheet page151: Mk-Ultra Subproject 49, Expense Sheet page152: Mk-Ultra Subproject 49 & 59, Certification page153: Letter With Check for Expenses page154: Financial Statement page155: Progress Report on Research Project page156: Progress Report on Research Project page157: Progress Report on Research Project page159: Letter of Thanks for Gift to University Psychology Department page160: Letter With Financial Statement page161: Letter With Financial Statement page162: Financial Statement page163: Financial Statement page164: Hypnotic Techniques in Education: Audio & Misc. Equipment List page165: Copy of Envelope With Postmark page166: Receipt page167: Receipts page168: Receipts page169: Letter With Bank Statements & Inventory Lists page170: Letter With Financial Statement & Equipment Lists page171: Equipment List page172: Equipment List, Continued page173: Equipment List, Continued page174: Receipt page175: Letter With Expense Report page176: Expense Report page177: Expense Report page178: Expense Report, Equipment List: Instructograph, Voice Compressor, Electric Voice Relay, Polygraph, Electric Shock Stimulator, Etc. page179: Equipment List, Oscilloscope, Electrical Small Parts, Microphones, etc. page180: Equipment List, Studio Couches, Psychogalvanoscope, Color Wheel Rotators, 1 Used Ice Box, Etc. page181: Equipment List, Voice Compressor, Polygraph, EEG, Color Rotator, Studio Couch, Shock Stimulator, page182: Letter of Termination of Research Project & Expense Report page183: Financial Statement page184: Letter With Statement of Receipts & Expenditures page185: University Expense Report page186: Procurement of Safehouse for TSS/Chemical Division page187: Receipt for Checks page188: Mk-Ultra Subproject 49, Invoice page189: Chemical Division Invoice & Certifications page190: University Financial Statement page191: Receipt for Checks page192:Mk-Ultra Subproject 49, Invoice page193: Mk-Ultra Subproject 49, Invoice page194:Expense Report page195: Mk-Ultra Subproject 49, Additional Authorization page196: Mk-Ultra Subproject 49, Definitions of Research and Financial Proposal page197: Mk-Ultra Subproject 49, Proposal for Research in Hypnosis page198: Mk-Ultra Subproject 49, Biochemical & Physiological Measurements of Hypnosis, Variations in Techniques of Induction, Auditory Techniques page199: Mk-Ultra Subproject 49, Non-Verbal & Visual Techniques of Hypnotic Induction, Duration & Durability of Hypnotic Block page200: Mk-Ultra Subproject 49, Financial Proposal

page 201: Subproject Budget Sheet page 202: Addendum to Proposal for University Research Budget page 203: Subproject Budget Sheet page 204: Subproject Budget Report page 205: Addendum to Subprojects 5, 25, 29, & 49, Finance page 206: Addendum to Subprojects 5, 25, 29, & 49, Finance, cont. page 207: Memorandum Of Agreement, Administrative page 208: Proposal for University based Research in Hypnosis page 209: Criteria for Hypnosis, Research Proposal page 210: Hypnotic Induciton Methods page 211: Other Fields of Investigation: Hypnosis, Efficiency Under Strong Audio Stress, etc. page 212: Budget & Personnel page 213: Research Proposal Summary page 214: Letter, Funding Related page 215: Letter page 216: Memo: Return of Unused Research Funds, TSS/Chemical Division page 217: Letter with Receipts page 218: Expense Sheet page 219: Expense Sheet page 220: Handwritten Expense Calculations page 221: Handwritten Expense Calculations page 222: Handwritten Expense Calculations page 223: Handwritten Expense Calculations page 224: Declaration of Trust: Form page 225: Memorandum: Meeting Notes on University Experiment page 226: Memorandum: Meeting Notes on University Experiment page 227: Receipt page 228: Receipt page 229: Expense Statement page 230: Handwritten Expense Calculations page 231: Handwritten Expense Calculations page 232: Handwritten Expense Calculations page 233: Mk-Ultra Hypnosis Subproject 49, Financial Proposal page 234: Mk-Ultra Hypnosis Subproject 49, University Budget Proposal page 235: Mk-Ultra Hypnosis Subproject 49, University Budget Proposal page 236: Research Proposal: Stimulus Response Relations in Biological Systems Using Electrodes, Comparisons with Russian Research page 237: Mk-Ultra Subproject 106: Funding page 238: Mk-Ultra Subproject 106: Invoice Checklist page 239: Mk-Ultra Subproject 106: Invoice page 240: Mk-Ultra Subproject 106: Invoice Certification page 241: Mk-Ultra Subproject 106: Proposed Budget page 242: Mk-Ultra Subproject 106: Proposed Budget: Financial Statement page 243: Mk-Ultra Subproject 106: Proposed Budget: Financial Statement page 244: Letter Regarding Renewal of Research Grant page 245: Mk-Ultra Subproject 106: Differences in Excitability & Response to Stimulus in Animal Populations: Proposal page 246: Mk-Ultra Subproject 106: Funding, Personnel page 247: Mk-Ultra Subproject 106: Expense Sheet page 248: Mk-Ultra Subproject 106: Approval Form page 249: Mk-Ultra Subproject 106: Financial page 250: Mk-Ultra Subproject 106: Funds Voucher page 251: Mk-Ultra Subproject 106: Financial page 252: Mk-Ultra Subproject 106: Funding Approval Form page 253: Mk-Ultra Subproject 106: Letter, Transmittal of Funds page 254: Mk-Ultra Subproject 106: Invoice page 255: Mk-Ultra Subproject 106: Stimulus Response Research Proposal, With Study of Foreign Literature page 256: Mk-Ultra Subproject 106: Funding Approval page 257: Mk-Ultra Subproject 106: Proposed Budget page 259: Mk-Ultra Subproject 106: Expense Sheet page 260: Mk-Ultra Subproject 106: Invoice Letter page 261: Mk-Ultra Subproject 106: Invoice Certification page 262: Mk-Ultra Subproject 106: Funding Obligation Approval page 263: Mk-Ultra Subproject 106: Expense Sheet page 264: Mk-Ultra Subproject 106: Funding Obligation Approval page 265: Mk-Ultra Subproject 106: Funds Voucher page 266: Mk-Ultra Subproject 106:Invoice & Certification page 267: Mk-Ultra Subproject 106: Form: Studies of Neurophysiological Mechanisms page 268: Mk-Ultra Subproject 106: Letter of Funding page 269: Mk-Ultra Subproject 106: Financial Addendum page 270: Mk-Ultra Subproject 106: Stimulus & Response in Biological Systems: Mathematical & Physical Models page 271: Mk-Ultra Subproject 106: Stimulus & Response in Biological Systems: Shift from Pavlovian Model page 272: Mk-Ultra Subproject 106: Stimulus & Response in Biological Systems: Research Plan page 273: Mk-Ultra Subproject 128: Test of Rapid Hypnotic Induction in Real Operational Setting, Budget page 274: Mk-Ultra Subproject 128: Expense Sheet page 275: Mk-Ultra Subproject 128: Funding Addendum page 276: Mk-Ultra Subproject 128: Invoice page 277: Mk-Ultra Subproject 128: Invoice page 278: Mk-Ultra Subproject 128: Invoice page 279: Mk-Ultra Subproject 128: Invoice page 280: Mk-Ultra Subproject 128: Funding Voucher page 281: Mk-Ultra Subproject 128: Invoice page 282: Mk-Ultra Subproject 128: Funding Voucher page 283: Mk-Ultra Subproject 128: Receipt page 284: Mk-Ultra Subproject 128:Receipt page 285: Mk-Ultra Subproject 128: Funding Voucher page 286: Mk-Ultra Subproject 128: Invoice page 287: Mk-Ultra Subproject 142: Invoice List Form page 288: Mk-Ultra Subproject 142: Invoice page 289: Mk-Ultra Subproject 142: Finance page 290: Mk-Ultra Subproject 142: Funding Voucher page 291: Mk-Ultra Subproject 142: Budget & Invoices page 292: Mk-Ultra Subproject 142: Accounting Request page 293: Mk-Ultra Subproject 142: Letter with Final Report page 294: Mk-Ultra Subproject 142: Final Report, Morphological & Behavioral Techniques page 295: Mk-Ultra Subproject 142: Final Report, Expenses page 296: Mk-Ultra Subproject 142: Funding Voucher page 297: Mk-Ultra Subproject 142: Final Report, Expenses page 298: Mk-Ultra Subproject 142: Expenses page 299:Mk-Ultra Subproject 142: Comparative Neurological Study, Development of Electronic Gear page 300: Mk-Ultra Subproject 142: Project Expenses, Labor, Equipment, etc. page 301: Mk-Ultra Subproject 142: Expenses page 302: Mk-Ultra Subproject 142: Invoice page 303: Mk-Ultra Subproject 142: Invoice page 304: Mk-Ultra Subproject 142: Receipt page 305: Mk-Ultra Subproject 142: Electrical Brain Stimulation of Animal Species for Use in Delivery of Biolgical & Chemical Weapons as Opposed to Eavesdropping Activities page 306: Mk-Ultra Subproject 142: Funding Approval page 307: Mk-Ultra Subproject 142: Electrical Brain Stimulation of Cold Blooded Species, Guidance Systems page 308: Mk-Ultra Subproject 142: Budget [URL=""]page 309: Mk-Ultra Subproject 142: Budget
"The philosophers have only interpreted the world, in various ways. The point, however, is to change it." Karl Marx

"He would, wouldn't he?" Mandy Rice-Davies. When asked in court whether she knew that Lord Astor had denied having sex with her.

“I think it would be a good idea” Ghandi, when asked about Western Civilisation.

Forum Jump:

Users browsing this thread: 1 Guest(s)