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Luis Posada Carriles
#1
Luis Posada Carriles

[Image: Posada_mugshot.jpg] [Image: magnify-clip.png]
Arrest photograph of Luis Posada


Luis Clemente Faustino Posada Carriles (born February 15, 1928) (nicknamed Bambi by some Cuban exiles[1]) is a Cuban-born Venezuelan anti-Castro militant.[2] A former CIA operative, Posada has been convicted in absentia of involvement in various terrorist attacks and plots in the Western hemisphere, including involvement in the 1976 bombing of a Cuban airliner that killed seventy-three people[3][4] and has admitted to his involvement in other terrorist plots including a string of bombings in 1997 targeting fashionable Cuban hotels and nightspots.[5][6][7] In addition, he was jailed under accusations related to an assassination attempt on Fidel Castro in Panama in 2000, although he was later pardoned by Panamanian President Mireya Moscoso in the final days of her term.[8][9]
In 2005, Posada was held by U.S. authorities in Texas on the charge of illegal presence on national territory before the charges were dismissed on May 8, 2007. His release on bail on April 19, 2007 had elicited angry reactions from the Cuban and Venezuelan governments.[10] The U.S. Justice Department had urged the court to keep him in jail because he was "an admitted mastermind of terrorist plots and attacks", a flight risk and a danger to the community.[7]
On September 28, 2005 a U.S. immigration judge ruled that Posada cannot be deported because he faced the threat of torture in Venezuela.[11]

Early years

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Luis Posada at Fort Benning, Georgia, U.S., 1962


Posada was born in Cienfuegos, Cuba. He studied medicine and chemistry at the University of Havana, and worked as a supervisor for the Firestone Tire and Rubber Company.[12][13] As a student he had come in contact with Fidel Castro, who had become a figure of some significance in the violent student politics of the time. Misgivings about the Cuban revolution of 1959 led Posada to become an activist in open opposition to the new government. After a spell in military prison Posada sought political asylum in Mexico. By 1961 Posada had relocated to the United States where he was trained by CIA in sabotage and explosives at U.S. army's Fort Benning, before the failed invasion of Cuba at the Bay of Pigs.[14] Though his squadron failed to see action, Posada made a number of contacts and lifelong friends, including future president of the Cuban American National Foundation, Jorge Mas Canosa, who was stationed in the same platoon.[15]
After the failed invasion, Posada worked closely with the CIA in Miami and was active in the CIA's Operation 40. He later described his role as that of the agency's "principal agent", informing the organisation about political movements within the exile community and operating anti-Castro activities.[15] In Florida, Posada also trained members of the JURE, Junta Revolucionaria Cubana, a group which aimed to infiltrate Cuba.[16] CIA files indicate that Posada was involved in a 1965 attempt to overthrow the Guatemalan government. The same year, the CIA reported that Posada was involved in various bombing plans in association with Jorge Mas Canosa. In 1968, relations frayed with the CIA when Posada was questioned about his "unreported association with gangster elements". Posada relocated to Venezuela, taking with him various CIA supplied weapons including grenades and fuses.[16] He became a naturalized citizen of that country where he began his association with fellow Cuban exile and accused terrorist Orlando Bosch.[15]

South America

In Venezuela, Posada became chief of operations of the Venezuelan intelligence, the DISIP.[17] The role involved countering various guerrilla movements supported by Cuba, but by 1974 he was dismissed after internal differences with Venezuelan authorities. Prior to his dismissal, the CIA had begun to believe that Posada was involved in cocaine trafficking, but did not break formal ties until February 13, 1976. The agency also believe that Posada was involved in a plot to assassinate Henry Kissinger, who at that time was advocating a more cooperative approach to Cuba-United States relations.[16] The Church Committee hearings of 1975, which had been triggered by fears that the CIA were running too many rogue operations, had a significant impact on the agency, and Posada's association was seen to be "not in good odour".[15] Posada went on to found a private detective agency in Caracas.[1]
With Guillermo Novo Sampoll, Orlando Bosch and Gaspar Jiménez Escobedo, he founded the Coordination of United Revolutionary Organizations (CORU).[18] The FBI has described CORU as "an anti-Castro terrorist umbrella organization."[19]

Cubana Flight 455, 1976

Main article: Cubana Flight 455
Cubana Flight 455 was a Cubana de Aviación flight departing from Barbados, via Trinidad, to Cuba. On 6 October 1976 two timebombs variously described as dynamite or C-4 planted on the Douglas DC-8 aircraft exploded, killing all 73 people on board.
[Image: 250px-Cubana_flight_455_document.jpg] [Image: magnify-clip.png]
Declassified FBI report that reads "[a confidential source] all but admitted that Posada and [Orlando] Bosch had engineered the bombing of the airline."[20]


Investigators from Cuba, Venezuela and the United States traced the planting of the bombs to two Venezuelan passengers, Freddy Lugo and Hernán Ricardo Lozano. Both men were employed by Posada at his private detective agency based in Venezuela, and they both subsequently admitted to the crime.
A week after the men's confessions, Luis Posada and Orlando Bosch were arrested on charges of masterminding the attack, and were jailed in Venezuela.[21] Declassified FBI and CIA reports show that the agencies suspected his involvement in the airline bombing within days of its occurrence.[22][23]
Several Miami residents and Bosch met in the Dominican Republic shortly before the bombing and issued a statement declaring their intention of waging a terrorist campaign against Cuba.[1]
Posada, who denied involvement in the Cubana 455 bombing, insisted his "only objective was to fight for Cuba's freedom",[24] affirmation supported by Pepe Hernandez, president of the Cuban American National Foundation, who stated that "he's been fighting one of the worst tyrannies this continent has experienced."[citation needed]
Posada was found not guilty by a military court; however, this ruling was overturned and he was held for trial in a civilian court. Posada escaped from prison with Freddie Lugo in 1977, turning themselves in to the less-than-sympathetic Chilean authorities. He was immediately extradited, and was held without conviction for eight years before escaping while awaiting a prosecutor's appeal of his second acquittal in the bombing. His escape is said to involve a hefty bribe and his dressing as a priest.[25][15]
According to Posada, the escape was planned and financed by Jorge Mas Canosa, by then head of the Cuban American National Foundation, a group with close ties to the Reagan administration.[26] Mas then helped Posada settle in El Salvador, where he joined the White House-directed operations in the region.[26]

Passengers

The passenger list included representatives from a number of different countries. All 48 passengers and 25 crew aboard the plane died: 57 Cubans, 11 Guyanese, and five North Koreans.
Among the dead were all 24 members of the 1975 national Cuban Fencing team that had just won all the gold medals in the Central American and Caribbean Championship; many were teenagers.
Several officials of the Cuban government were also aboard the plane: Manuel Permuy Hernández, communist party director of the National Institute of Sports (INDER); Jorge de la Nuez Suárez, communist party secretary for the shrimp fleet; Alfonso González, National Commissioner of firearm sports; and Domingo Chacón Coello, an agent from the Interior Ministry.
The 11 Guyanese passengers included 18 and 19-year-old medical students, and the young wife of a Guyanese diplomat.
The five Koreans were government officials and a cameraman.

Contras and Central America

In Central America, Posada was assigned as deputy to Félix Rodríguez, a CIA operative who had overseen the capture and execution of Ernesto "Che" Guevara in 1967. The pair were to coordinate drops of military supplies to the Contras, a paramilitary collective opposed to the leftist Sandinistas in Nicaragua. Posada was paid $3000 per month plus expenses from U.S. Major General Richard Secord, who was directing operations for Oliver North.[15] The subsequent Iran-Contra investigations cast light over U.S. operations in the region, and several of Posada's connections, including Félix Rodríguez were asked to testify.
Posada remained in El Salvador during the hearings before signing up as a security advisor to the Guatemalan government. He also remained in contact with Cuban exile groups during this period.[15] In February 1990 Posada was shot whilst sitting in his car in Guatemala city by unknown assailants that Posada believed were Cuban assassins. In his memoir, Posada said that his recovery and medical bills were paid by the Cuban American National Foundation, with additional payments from Richard Secord.[26] Though recuperating in Honduras, the FBI believed that Posada was responsible for 41 bombings in the country, Posada himself admitted to planning numerous attacks against Cuba and seeking assistance from the Honduran military to aid his cause, which was not forthcoming.[15]

Tourist bombings of 1997

In 1997, Posada was again implicated in a series of terrorist bombings in Cuba intended to deter the growing tourism trade on the island. An Italian-Canadian, Fabio di Celmo, was killed and 11 people wounded as a result.
In a taped interview with The New York Times, Posada said: "It is sad that someone is dead, but we can't stop."[25] Posada was reportedly disappointed with the reluctance of American news organisations to report the bombing attacks, saying "If there is no publicity, the job is useless.[15] Raúl Ernesto Cruz León, who Posada admitted was a mercenary under his employment, was sentenced to death by the Cuban authorities after admitting to the attacks.[15]
[URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cuba.Habana.Malecon.01.jpg"]
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Posada also claimed that Jorge Mas Canosa, the head of the Cuban American National Foundation, was well aware of the attacks, but the two men agreed never to discuss the operations. The Foundation has denied these claims.[15] In 1998, The New York Times indicated that, even after the U.S. government no longer sponsored Posada's violent activities, Posada Carriles may have benefited from a tolerant attitude on the part of U.S. law enforcement. As bombs were being placed in tourist hotels and restaurants in Havana, the New York Times reported, a Cuban-American business-partner of Posada's tried to inform first Guatemalan, then U.S. law enforcement of Posada's involvement and possible links to Cuban exiles in Union City, New Jersey.[27]
On May 3, 2007 it was revealed that FBI agents traveled to Cuba in 2006 as part of an investigation into Posada's possible role in the 1997 bombings in Havana. New FBI documents were also released revealing new details about Posada's many terrorist plots, including concealing high explosives in shoes and shampoo bottles. [1] [2]

Panama : Arrest, conviction and release

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Fidel Castro, the target of a failed assassination attempt in 2000


On November 17, 2000, Posada was discovered with 200 pounds of explosives in Panama City and arrested for plotting the assassination of Fidel Castro, who was visiting the country for the first time since 1959. Three other Cuban exiles were also arrested alongside Posada: Gaspar Jiménez who worked at the Cuban American National Foundation in Miami, Pedro Remón Rodríguez and Carlos Muñiz Varela.[15]
Castro himself announced the discovery of the plot on international television, describing Posada as "a cowardly man totally without scruples". Castro also blamed the CANF for orchestrating the plot. Shortly after, Justino di Celmo, the father of an Italian killed by a bomb in Havana, appeared on Cuban television to urge the Panamanian authorities to extradite Posada to Cuba. Posada was subsequently convicted and jailed in Panama for the assassination attempt.[15]
In August 2004, Posada and the three other convicted plotters were pardoned by outgoing Panamanian president Mireya Moscoso. Moscoso, who had been close to the Bush administration in the U.S., denied that she had been pressured by U.S. officials to engineer a release of the men, though the U.S. government declined to condemn the actions of the plotters.[28] Moscoso's decision was heavily criticized by incoming president Martin Torrijos,[29] and speculation was rife that the pardon was politically motivated.[28] Cuba expert Julia E. Sweig said the decision "reeks of political and diplomatic cronyism". Sweig cited business and personal connections between Panama and the Cuban American exile community in Florida, and implied that Florida governor Jeb Bush may have had a role in the release.[28][30] Immediately after news of the pardon broke, Venezuela and Cuba withdrew diplomatic ties with Panama.[29]
In June 2008 Panama's supreme court declared the pardon to be null and void. The officials who procured the release on August 26 before the pardon was made public were subsequently charged with abuse of authority.[31]

Seeking asylum in the U.S.

In 2005 Posada requested political asylum in the United States through his attorney, and on May 3, 2005, the Venezuelan Supreme Court approved an extradition request for him.[2]
[Image: Roger_Noriega.jpg] Roger Noriega, former U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs and supporter of the long running United States embargo against Cuba. At the time of Posada's arrest in the U.S., Noriega stated that the charges against Mr Posada "may be a completely manufactured issue", and that Posada "might not have been in the United States".[32]


Speaking the same day in Washington, D.C., State Department Assistant Secretary, Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs Roger Noriega stated that Posada might not have been in the United States. Noriega added that charges against him "may be a completely manufactured issue."
On September 28, 2005 a U.S. immigration judge ruled that Posada cannot be deported because he faced the threat of torture in Venezuela. The Venezuelan government reacted angrily to the ruling, accusing the US of having a "double standard in its so-called war on terrorism".[11]
The Venezuelan Government wants Posada to face outstanding charges in Venezuela for his role in the 1976 airline bombing. This is an issue that has aroused some confusion, since many stories explain that Venezuela wants to "retry" Posada. In fact, he was never acquitted, and escaped jail before sentencing. According to Venezuelan law, an individual can not be tried in absentia[citation needed], so the case was never finished. The Cuban government wants to try him for the hotel bombings, but has agreed that extraditing him to Venezuela would be acceptable, not least because Venezuela has had an extradition treaty with the US since 1922, but Cuba does not. The United States denied Venezuela's extradition request, citing a lack of evidence. Some point out that this could have resulted from the poor relations that the U.S. government has with Chavez's Venezuelan government, and from fear that Posada Carriles would not receive a fair trial in Venezuela. However, others have questioned this decision, given the extensive ties between Posada and the US Government, especially in the 1960s and 1970s, when he carried out criminal activities with the knowledge of US officials.
The US Government has been heavily criticized in some circles, especially in the context of the so-called "war on terrorism". International law, including the UN Security Council Resolution 1373 of September, 2001, states that countries should not give safe haven or any kind of assistance to people involved in present or past terrorist activities. The final declaration of the XIVth Ibero-American Summit, held in Salamanca in October 2005, includes a demand to "extradite or judge the man responsible for the terrorist blowing-up of a plane of Cubana Aviation in October 1976, which caused the death of 73 innocent civilians".[33]
Posada was referenced in Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez's address to the UN General Assembly on September 20, 2006. Railing against the U.S. for "imperialism" and "hypocrisy", Chávez called Posada "the biggest terrorist of this continent", and said: "Thanks to the CIA and government officials, he was allowed to escape, and he lives here in this country, protected by the government."[34] [3]

U.S. immigration arrest

On May 17, 2005 the Miami Herald conducted an interview with Posada in South Florida; later that day, the Herald and the Associated Press reported that he had been detained by the Department of Homeland Security. He had withdrawn his asylum appeal and was moving to sneak out of the country when arrested. His arrest presents diplomatic problems as his extradition is sought by both Cuba and Venezuela, neither of which are close U.S. allies. His arrest coincided with large anti-Posada protests in Havana - organizers estimated that hundreds of thousands of Cubans participated in the rally.
Until 19 April 2007, Carriles was being held by U.S. immigration authorities in El Paso, Texas, on charges of entering the country illegally — Posada's immigration case had a hearing before a Homeland Security judge in Texas on August 29, 2005, and another on September 26.

Release on bail

Luis Posada Carriles was released from jail after paying bond on April 19, 2007. The US Fifth District Court of Appeals in New Orleans rejected a Justice Department request Posada be refused bail for entering the U.S. illegally and he was escorted by Federal agents to Miami where members of the Cuban community welcomed him as a patriot.[35]
Posada was required to remain under 24-hour house arrest at his wife's apartment in Miami until trial, with permission to leave only to meet with attorneys or for doctor's appointments.

Immigration fraud charges dismissed

On May 8, 2007 U.S. district judge Kathleen Cardone dismissed seven counts of immigration fraud and ordered Posada's electronic bracelet removed. In a 38 page ruling Judge Cardone criticized the U.S. government's "fraud, deceit and trickery" during the interview with immigration authorities that was the basis of the charges against Posada.[36]
She stated the interview was poorly translated for him, "No effective communication existed between defendant and the interviewers." She wrote in her decision, "In light of the fact that the indictment in this case is based upon statements made during the naturalization interview, this court finds that the interpretation is so inaccurate as to render it unreliable as evidence of defendant's actual statements."[36]
His naturalization interview lasted eight hours over two days. The usual maximum for such interviews is 30 minutes. The interview was a "pretext for a criminal investigation", "[the] defendant did not receive an explanation of the true import of the government's inquiry" and "[the] defendant had few options, and the government took advantage of his situation and manipulated it to serve its own ends", she said in her ruling.[36]
The government gave Posada "warnings" before conducting the interview but they were read to him in English without any translation, and his attorney was repeatedly told that if Posada exercised his Fifth Amendment right against self-incrimination, it would result in termination of the interview. "More importantly, defendant did not receive an explanation of the true import of the government's inquiry", she wrote.[36]
"This court finds the government's tactics in this case are so grossly shocking and so outrageous as to violate the universal sense of justice. As a result, this court is left with no choice but to dismiss the indictment."[36]
"As with each and every defendant who comes before this court, defendant in this case is entitled to certain rights under the United States Constitution. This court will not set aside such rights nor overlook government misconduct because defendant is a political hot potato. This court's concern is not politics, it is the preservation of criminal justice", states her decision.[36]
The Justice Department and the Department of Homeland Security said they were reviewing Judge Cardone's decision.[36]

United Nations Security Council Proceedings of November 12, 2008

During a United Nation Security Council meeting to review the work of its three subsidiary counter-terrorism committees, the United States ambassador was invited by the representatives of Venezuela and Cuba to comment on the evidence (above) in the Posada case. The US ambassador, Ms. Willson, then stated, "an individual cannot be brought for trial or extradited unless sufficient evidence has been established that he has committed the offence charged."[37]
The U.S. Ambassador also stated that the September 27, 2005 deportation order for immigration violations remained in effect. She explained that a district court's dismissal of an indictment charging Posada with violations of immigration laws had been reversed by a federal appeals court on 14 August 2008, so the case could now go back to trial court for further proceedings.[38]
The US ambassador alleged that removal to Venezuela or Cuba could not be carried out as "it was more likely than not that he would be tortured if he were so transferred."[39] This claim was then responded to by Mr. Valero Briceño (Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela) in the following way:
" Through diplomatic notes and official conversations between Venezuelan diplomats, representatives of the Venezuelan embassy in the United States and representatives of the State Department, Venezuela has given full assurances that if the United States complies with the extradition process, Posada Carriles will be subject to the rule of law, with full respect for due process, for his human rights. . . .If any terrorist practices or tortures have been proven, it is those that have been committed by the United States of America, for example in Abu Ghraib and in Guantánamo, where the Government of the United States has refused access, on many occasions, to the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights and both the American and the global press. . . . . Carilles.... was on the CIA payroll. That is possibly one additional reason that has led the United States Government to protect Posada Carilles: the possible confessions that that criminal could make about his CIA past..." [40]
Personal life

According to declassified FBI documents, Posada has been married at least twice and has a son, Jorge.
When Posada appeared in court in July, 2005, he had bandages from an operation for facial skin cancer[citation needed].

References


  1. ^ a b c "Anti-Castro Extremists Tolerated, if Not Encouraged, by Some Latin American Nations.". New York Times. 15 November 1976. http://www.tni.org/letelier-docs/151176.htm. Retrieved on 2009-02-17. "Mr. Posada, the detective agency operator, known as Bambi among Cuban exiles. Mr. Posada, who is now under indictment, is not a friend of President Perez or the rest of the leadership of the ruling Democratic Action Party."
  2. ^ a b "National Briefing". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/04/27/us/27brfs.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-17. "A Cuban militant accused of masterminding the 1976 bombing of a Cuban airliner has applied to become an American citizen, his lawyer said Tuesday. The man, Luis Posada Carriles, has been jailed in El Paso on immigration charges since May. Mr. Posada, a former C.I.A. operative and a fervent opponent of President Fidel Castro, is accused by Cuba and Venezuela of plotting the 1976 bombing while living in Venezuela. He has denied involvement in the bombing, which killed 73 people. Mr. Posada escaped from a Venezuelan prison in 1985 while awaiting retrial on the airline bombing charges, and Venezuela has formally sought his extradition."
  3. ^ Selsky, Andrew O. (May 4, 2007). "Link found to bombing". Associated Press.
  4. ^ Castro: U.S. to free 'monster' Posada, Miami Herald, Wed, April 11, 2007.
  5. ^ Organizations Demand Cuban Militant's Arrest
  6. ^ US tiptoes between terror, Castro's policies
  7. ^ a b U.S. criticized as Cuban exile is freed
  8. ^ US embarrassed by terror suspect Guardian online.
  9. ^ The Confessions of Luis Posada Carriles
  10. ^ Push to free convicted Cuban spies reaches D.C., Miami Herald, September 22, 2006
  11. ^ a b No deportation for Cuban militant (BBC)
  12. ^ Bardach, Ann Louise; Larry Rohter (1998-07-13). "A Bomber's Tale: Decades of Intrigue". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.ht...A96E958260. Retrieved on 2007-01-20. "After studying medicine for two years and then chemistry, Mr. Posada went to work for the Firestone Tire and Rubber Company, first in Havana and then in Akron, Ohio, after the revolution. His entire family, including his parents, two brothers and a sister, remained behind, committed to Mr. Castro's revolution."
  13. ^ Adams, David (2005-05-18). "Cuban "terrorist' arrested in Miami". St. Petersburg Times (Florida) (Times Publishing Company): pp. National; Pg. 1A. http://www.sptimes.com/2005/05/18/Worlda..._arr.shtml. Retrieved on 2007-01-20. - "EARLY 1961: A supervisor for Firestone Tire and Rubber Co., he flees Cuba, first to Mexico, then to Florida."
  14. ^ Candiotti, Susan (2005-05-18). "Alleged anti-Castro terrorist Posada arrested". CNN. http://edition.cnn.com/2005/US/05/17/posada.arrest/. Retrieved on 2008-05-22.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Bardach, Ann Louise. Cuba Confidential: Love and Vengeance in Miami and Havana. p180-223.
  16. ^ a b c CIA declassified report on Luis Posada
  17. ^ The center for justice and accountability Venezuela: Luis Posada Carriles
  18. ^ Posada and his accomplices, active collaborators of Pinochet’s fascist police
  19. ^ Kornbluh, Peter (June 9, 2005) "The Posada File: Part II." National Security Archive.
  20. ^ Declassified FBI report on bombing of Cubana Flight 455, dated 7 October 1976 as posted by the National Security Archive
  21. ^ A Bomber's Tale. The New York Times. July 12, 1998/
  22. ^ Luis Posada Carriles The Declassified Record at the National Security Archive
  23. ^ The Posada File: Part II at the National Security Archive
  24. ^ Profile: Cuban 'plane bomber'
  25. ^ a b Arrest of Cuban ex-CIA figure puts Bush in tough political spot San Francisco Chronicle
  26. ^ a b c Taking Aim At Castro New York Times.
  27. ^ The U.S. and Cuban Exile Violence Human Rights Watch
  28. ^ a b c U.S. Denies Role in Cuban Exiles' Pardon Washington Post.
  29. ^ a b Venezuela envoy to leave Panama BBC News.
  30. ^ Weaver, Bill (September 1, 2005) "On Why Luis Posada Carriles Will Not Be Extradited." Narcosphere; NarcoNews.
  31. ^ "Officials who freed Posada and accomplices stand trial". Granma International. November 6, 2008. http://www.granma.cu/ingles/2008/noviemb...anama.html. Retrieved on 2008-11-15.
  32. ^ Mojitos in Miami | Guardian daily comment | Guardian Unlimited
  33. ^ Comunicado especial de apoyo a la lucha contra el terrorismo (Spanish only)
  34. ^ President Hugo Chavez Delivers Remarks at the U.N. General Assembly (The Washington Post)
  35. ^ Spanish newspaper Informacion April 20, 2007
  36. ^ a b c d e f g Judge throws out charges against anti-Castro militant cnn.com, May 8, 2007
  37. ^ United Nations Security Council Verbatim Report meeting 6015 page 30, Ms. Willson United States on 12 November 2008 (retrieved 2009-01-04)
  38. ^ United Nations Security Council Verbatim Report meeting 6015 page 30, Ms. Willson United States on 12 November 2008 (retrieved 2009-01-04)
  39. ^ United Nations Security Council Verbatim Report meeting 6015 page 30, Ms. Willson United States on 12 November 2008 (retrieved 2009-01-04)
  40. ^ United Nations Security Council Verbatim Report meeting 6015 page 33, Mr. Valero Brice�o Venezuela on 12 November 2008 (retrieved 2009-01-04)


External links


Articles and reports


Spanish language websites





Further reading


Articles

  • Bardach, Ann Louise and Larry Rohter. A Bomber's Tale: Decades Of Intrigue; Life In The Shadows, Trying To Bring Down Castro. The New York Times. Monday, July 13, 1998. Late Edition - Final, Section A, Page 1, Column 3. Abstract available online. Retrieved May 17, 2005.
  • Bardach, Ann Louise and Larry Rohter. A Bombers Tale: Taking Aim At Castro; Key C...
"The philosophers have only interpreted the world, in various ways. The point, however, is to change it." Karl Marx

"He would, wouldn't he?" Mandy Rice-Davies. When asked in court whether she knew that Lord Astor had denied having sex with her.

“I think it would be a good idea” Ghandi, when asked about Western Civilisation.
Reply
#2
CIA Documents On Posada and Bosch
Document 1: CIA, Secret Intelligence Report, "Activities of Cuban Exile Leader Orlando Bosch During his Stay in Venezuela," October 14, 1976
A source in Venezuela supplied the CIA with detailed intelligence on a fund raiser held for Orlando Bosch and his organization CORU after he arrived in Caracas in September 1976. The source described the dinner at the house of a Cuban exile doctor, Hildo Folgar, which included Venezuelan government officials. Bosch was said to have essentially asked for a bribe in order to refrain from acts of violence during the United Nations meeting in November 1976, which would be attended by Venezuelan President Carlos Andres Perez. He was also quoted as saying that his group had done a "great job" in assassinating former Chilean ambassador Orlando Letelier in Washington D.C. on September 21, and now was going to "try something else." A few days later, according to this intelligence report, Luis Posada Carriles was overheard to say that "we are going to hit a Cuban airplane" and "Orlando has the details."
Document 2: CIA, Secret Memorandum to the FBI, "Information Regarding Anti-Castro Figures Possibly Involved in Neutrality or Other Violations of Federal Law," December 9, 1976
In the aftermath of the bombing of the Cubana flight, the CIA ran "traces" on dozens of anti-Castro exiles who might be linked to this atrocity. This document records the summaries of traces on the two exiles who had by then been arrested in Caracas, Orlando Bosch and Luis Posada. The CIA noted that agents had had multiple contacts with Bosch in 1962 and 1963; and the Agency acknowledged that it had employed Luis Posada starting in 1965 and that he was a "demolitions expert." The CIA also noted that he provided information to them on the activities of other exile groups. It censored a section of the document that described the services he performed for the CIA while a high official in the Venezuelan secret police, DISIP, between 1967 and 1974. Other CIA records show that the Agency continued to have contact with Posada until June of 1976, more than eleven years after he was first recruited.
FBI Documents on CORU and ACCION CUBANA
Document 3: FBI, Intelligence Cable, "Bombing of Cubana Airlines DC-8, Near Barbados, West Indies, October 6, 1976, Neutrality Matters-Cuba-West Indies," October 21, 1976
The FBI transmits information from a source who has spoken with a member of CORU named Secundino Carrera who admitted "that CORU was responsible for the bombing of the Cubana Airlines DC-8 on October 6, 1976." Carrera justifies the bombing as an act of war. The memo indicates that the bombing has caused some dissention in CORU over its tactics, but that the organization headed by Orlando Bosch is planning to sell bonds to finance future operations.
Document 4: FBI, Intelligence Report, "Accion Cubana (Cuban Action) Internal Security-Cuba," June 29, 1976
This FBI report contains a range of information on "a small terrorist organization headed by Orlando Bosch Avila," and other Cuban exile terrorists. Based on sources close to Bosch's group, Accion Cubana, the report details Bosch's efforts to raise funds from specific individuals in Miami, Caracas, and elsewhere. The FBI also reports on the activities of Guillermo and Ignacio Novo, who are described as "two Cuban exiles with long records of terrorist activities. Most importantly, on pages 8 and 9, the document describes the meeting in the Dominican Republic where CORU was created in June 1976 to unify five different exile groups. According to the memo, "these groups agreed to jointly participate in the planning, financing and carrying out terrorist operations and attacks against Cuba" and targets in other countries.
Posada and the Iran-Contra Operations
Document 5: Organizational Diagram of the "Benefactor Company" (BC) Contra Resupply Operation in San Salvador
The entity established by Lt. Col. Oliver North and retired Pentagon officer, Richard Secord to illicitly sustain the contra war was known as "BC." At Illopango airbase, known as "Cincinnati" in the BC records, the Reagan administration secret established a mini airforce of resupply planes along with warehouses of supplies. After Luis Posada escaped from prison in Caracas, he was given a high position as "support director" of the Illopango operation, working under another Cuban exile, Felix Rodriguez who used the codename "Max Gomez."
Document 6: Office of the Independent Counsel, Lawrence Walsh, Secret, "Record of Interview with Luis Posada Carriles," February 7, 1992
Two FBI agents interviewed Posada at the U.S. Embassy in Tegucigalpa, Honduras in February 1992. He provided a detailed account of his work for the contra war, which included descriptions of escaping from Venezuela in a private aircraft and being flown to Aruba, and then on to El Salvador. The 31-page interview transcript also provides extensive details on his operations in El Salvador and Guatemala after the Iran Contra scandal broke in November 1986 and the contra resupply operation was shut down. Although Posada accumulated $40,000 from the contra work-he and others were paid from profits from the sale of armaments to Iran--he eventually ran out of funds. At one point Richard Secord sent him $1000.00 for one of his paintings.
[url=http://www.gwu.edu/%7Ensarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB157/19920207.pdf][/url]
"The philosophers have only interpreted the world, in various ways. The point, however, is to change it." Karl Marx

"He would, wouldn't he?" Mandy Rice-Davies. When asked in court whether she knew that Lord Astor had denied having sex with her.

“I think it would be a good idea” Ghandi, when asked about Western Civilisation.
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