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Jandarma İstihbarat ve Terörle Mücadele
Jandarma İstihbarat ve Terörle Mücadele

[Image: 180px-Abd%C3%BClkadir_Aygan_AZIZ57.jpg] [Image: magnify-clip.png]
JITEM operatives. Diyarbakir, 1991.

Jandarma İstihbarat ve Terörle Mücadele (abbr. JİTEM, in English: Gendarmerie Intelligence and Counterterrorism) is a wing of the Turkish Gendarmerie, active in the Turkey-PKK conflict.[1] Officially it does not exist, however this claim is widely rejected outside official circles. Since the Susurluk scandal, news to the contrary has been surfacing, including affirmations from former prime ministers Bülent Ecevit,[2] and Mesut Yılmaz.[3]
According to Murat Belge of Istanbul Bilgi University, who says he was tortured in 1971 by its founder, Veli Küçük,[4] JITEM is an embodiment of the deep state. In other words, it is used by "the Establishment" to enforce alleged national interests.[5] It is also said to be the military wing of Ergenekon, an underground nationalist organization.[6][7]

Does it exist?

JITEM was subjected to parliamentary scrutiny during the Susurluk scandal, when commanders in the Gendarmerie repeatedly denied the existence of an overarching intelligence organization within the Gendarmerie.[8][9] Susurluk commission member Fikri Sağlar said that the commanders denied its existence because the Gendarmerie formally acquired the legal capacity to conduct intelligence operations in 2005 (with law 5397). The author of the Prime Ministry Inspection Board report, Kutlu Savaş, said JITEM was created on Gendarmerie Commander Hulusi Sayın's watch (1981-1985).[10][11] This implies that JITEM's actions before 2005 were extrajudicial. Even then, many disturbing alleged acts of violence attributed to JITEM still have no legal basis.
The first person to write about JİTEM was journalist Ayşe Önal for Ateş magazine on 2 July 1994. Önal had learned about it from Veli Küçük after being introduced to him through MIT spy and fellow journalist, Tuncay Güney. Önal and Küçük's meeting did not go well, and Önal vowed to write about it. She followed through, and was promptly fired, along with nineteen of her coworkers.[12]
Revelations have recently come from an informant named Abdülkadir Aygan (a former PKK member recruited by JİTEM,[13] now a political refugee in Sweden[14]) that it was founded by retired general Veli Küçük, who is currently arrested in the Ergenekon investigations.[15] Other people allegedly involved in its founding are Ahmet Cem Ersever, Arif Doğan,[16][17] Hasan Kundakçı, Hüseyin Kara, Hulusi Sayın and Aytekin Özen, according to Aygan. Küçük confirmed Aygan's allegations about his cofounding the organization.[18]
After being taken into custody, Arif Doğan admitted to being a founder of the organization, originally known as the Intelligence Group Command (Turkish: İstihbarat Grup Komutanlığı), and that in 1990 he handed the reins to Veli Küçük.[19]


[Image: 180px-Abd%C3%BClkadir_Aygan_AZIZ63.jpg] [Image: magnify-clip.png]
Abdülkadir Aygan, circa 1986.

Among the alleged members are ex-PKK-operatives (Turkish: İtirafçı), besides non-commissioned officers and a few officers of the Gendarmerie. Aygan described the organization as follows:[20]
  • Gendarmerie General Command
  • Intelligence Command
  • Joint Group Command
  • Regional Group Commands (of which there are seven)
  • Team Commands
  • Units (small, clandestine cells).[21]


PKK conflict

Kurdish Democrat Ahmet Acar alleged that JİTEM fomented infighting in the PKK, while ensuring the perpetuation of both of the PKK, and by extension, itself.[22] The prosecutors in the Ergenekon case, and Kurdish-Turkish politician Abdülmelik Fırat allege that JİTEM is connected to the PKK, while fighting it at the same time.[23]
Numerous people who claim to be or are purported to be JİTEM operatives has been accused of crimes such as kidnapping, intimidation, and extra-judicial killings of PKK members. Former JİTEM operative Aygan estimated that 80% of these killings were done by JİTEM.[18][7] JİTEM interrogators are especially brutal since they belong to an organization that ostensibly does not exist, and hence they are not accountable. Aygan says that detainees are invariably killed.[21]
Tuncay Güney, a former spy for the National Intelligence Organization who infiltrated JİTEM, alleged that Veli Küçük's men, working for JİTEM, killed people using acid and buried the corpses in wells belonging to the state-owned Turkish Pipeline Corporation, BOTAŞ.[24] Some have responded to the Şırnak Bar's request for witnesses and families of victims to step forward.[25] Ergenekon defendant Levent Ersöz has also been named in connection with the incidents, in Silopi.[26]
A criminal court in Diyarbakır has ruled in a case in 2006 that 11 ex-PKK-operatives charged with kidnapping, assassination, and bombing were military personnel and should be tried in a military court.[8]

Drugs and weapons trafficking

JİTEM's chief, Arif Doğan, was tried in the frame of the Yüksekova Gang (aka "the gang with uniforms"). According to Today's Zaman, the "Yüksekova Gang was an illegal organization formed in the Yüksekova district of Hakkari, headed by three high-ranking military personnel and various politicians that smuggled drugs and weapons."[27] Its activities were first revealed in 1996, in the aftermath of the Susurluk scandal. Its activities are "are only one part of the JİTEM activities" that have been sent to the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR). All of the local court prison sentences concerning the Yüksekova Gang were cancelled by the High Court of Appeals of Turkey, leading the ECHR to fine Turkey 103,000 euros for its decisions about the Yüksekova Gang.[27]


Aygan alleges that JİTEM is responsible for the deaths of Musa Anter, Vedat Aydın, Musa Toprak, Mehmet Şen, Talat Akyıldız, Zahit Turan, Necati Aydın, Ramazan Keskin, Mehmet Ay, Murat Aslan, İdris Yıldırım, Servet Aslan, Sıddık Yetmez, Edip Aksoy, Ahmet Ceylan, Şahabettin Latifeci, Abdülkadir Çelikbilek, Mehmet Salih Dönen, İhsan Haran, Fethi Yıldırım, Abdülkerim Zoğurlu, Zana Zoğurlu, Melle İzzettin, Hakkı Kaya, Harbi Arman, Fikri Özgen, and Muhsin Göl. Of these, Murat Aslan's remains were found in the place described by Aygan, and a forensic dental and ballistic tests confirmed the identity of the victim.[28][29]
Some incidents that received a lot of press coverage are:

Eşref Bitlis

The 1993 assassination of General Eşref Bitlis has been linked to JITEM and Ergenekon. According to court condemnations, the November 2005 bombings in Şemdinli, in Hakkâri Province in the south-east of Turkey, have also been false flag attacks, attributed to the PKK but carried out by JITEM.[30]

Gaffar Okkan

Diyarbakır Police Chief Okkan was assassinated in broad daylight with heavy automatic weapons, despite protection, for hampering the JİTEM in his precinct. Aygan said that only official organizations such as JİTEM are capable of doing this.[31]
A member of the Turkish Hizbullah received a life sentence in this case, but Hizbullah had not claimed the killing. According to the Van prosecutor, the bombing was aimed at stifling Turkey's E.U. accession process, which would emasculate the military complex.[14]
JİTEM operative Muhsin Göl was killed for co-operating with the police on the Okkan investigation.[31]

Musa Anter

Aygan said he had been part of a unit, alongside Cem Ersever and Arif Doğan, which had assassinated 72-year-old Kurdish writer Musa Anter in 1992 in Diyarbakir. Turkey was found guilty of this murder in 2006 by the ECHR, who sentenced Turkey to a fine of 28,500 euros.[27]

Ahmet Cem Ersever

Former JİTEM commander Cem Ersever was assassinated in November 1993.[32] Aygan alleges that Arif Doğan and Veli Küçük's superiors in Ankara ordered the assassination in order to take control of JİTEM from Ersever.[20]


  1. ^ Ayik, Zeki (1997-01-17). "PKK confessors turn into state hitmen". Turkish Daily News. Archived from the original on 2008-10-09.
  2. ^ 1998 Report, Human Rights Foundation of Turkey, chapter II, "SUSURLUK SCANDAL: Counter-Guerrilla Affairs", p.39-86 (see quote on p.40): "It seems that some illegal methods were employed within the state during the anti-terrorist struggle. In the report, some military people are mentioned, but the report implies that the army as a whole was not involved in such affairs. I am glad to hear that. If the army had been involved in such affairs, it would have been highly difficult for us to solve the problem. On the other hand, the situation of the Gendarme is a bit complex because its affiliation is to both the army and the Ministry of Interior Affairs. That's an outcome of the report. JİTEM seems corrupted."
  3. ^ 1998 Report, Human Rights Foundation of Turkey, chapter II, "SUSURLUK SCANDAL: Counter-guerilla Affairs", p.46: The report prepared by Prime Ministry Inspection Board Deputy Chairman Kutlu Savaş mentioned JİTEM as involved in gang activities. However, JİTEM is among the "state secrets" of Prime Minister Mesut Yılmaz. Yılmaz accepted the existence of JİTEM but argued that "military officials were not involved and they intervened when they learned about it." Yılmaz carefully tried to relieve military officials, the Gendarme's former Commander General Teoman Koman from responsibility. Deputy Prime Minister Bülent Ecevit said, "JİTEM is mentioned in the report. However, the Gendarmerie and JİTEM are not equal to the army."
  4. ^ Usul, Safile (2008-09-08). "'Veli Küçük bana işkence yaptı'" (in Turkish). Gazeteport. Retrieved on 2008-12-05.
  5. ^ Düzel, Neşe (2008-01-28). "2009’da kıyamet gibi kan akacaktı" (in Turkish). Taraf. Retrieved on 2008-08-14. "Derin devlet gene askerî bünye içinde oluşuyor ama artık derin devlet MİT değil. Bugün derin devlet JİTEM."
  6. ^ "Assassinations lead to JITEM". Sabah. 2008-08-25. Retrieved on 2008-08-26. "JITEM, considered to be the ancestor of the Ergenekon organization...."
  7. ^ a b Kuseyri, Murat (2008-10-04). "JİTEM Ergenekon’un askeri kanadıdır" (in Turkish). Evrensel. Retrieved on 2008-10-21.
  8. ^ a b "JİTEM vardır!" (in Turkish). Milliyet. 2006-02-16. Retrieved on 2008-07-25. "Jandarma Genel Komutanı Teoman Koman: 'Jandarma teşkilatı içinde JİTEM adında legal ya da illegal bir örgüt kurulmamıştır, yoktur. Ama jandarma dışında bu ismi kullanıp kanunsuz işler yapan bir grup vardır'."
  9. ^ Yedig, Serhan (2005-11-20). "Bir var bir yok. Hem var hem yok JİTEM" (in Turkish). Hürriyet. Retrieved on 2008-09-05. "Aynı dönemde Genelkurmay Başkanı Doğan Güreş, Jandarma Genel Komutanı Teoman Koman başta olmak üzere birçok yetkili ‘JİTEM adında bir örgüt hiç olmadı’ deyip kamuoyunun ruhuna serin su serpmişti."
  10. ^ Yedig, Serhan (2005-11-20). "Bir var bir yok. Hem var hem yok: JİTEM" (in Turkish). Hürriyet. Retrieved on 2008-12-25.
  11. ^ Sağlar, Fikri (2008-12-22). "Ergenekon’da kara göründü mü?" (in Turkish). Star. Retrieved on 2008-12-27. "JİTEM yasal bir kuruluş olmadığı için ‘yok’ demek zorundalar. Aksini söylerlerse hepsi birden suçlu olurlar."
  12. ^ Önal, Ayşe (2008-07-24). "Veli Küçük beni işten kovdurttu" (in Turkish). Yeni Şafak. Retrieved on 2008-11-21.
  13. ^ Ünlü, Ferhat (2008-08-25). "Hem PKK'nın hem de JİTEM'in itirafçısı Aygan" (in Turkish). Sabah. Retrieved on 2008-08-27. "Ben hem PKK'nın hem de JİTEM'in itirafçısıyım. Ama hain değilim, kendimi hain hissetmiyorum. Çünkü hainlerin yaptıklarını açıkladım."
  14. ^ a b Okkan assassination linked to JİTEM, Today's Zaman, 27 August 2008
  15. ^ "Cem Ersever'in kayıp arşivi Veli Küçük'ün evinden çıktı iddiası" (in Turkish). Zaman. 2008-01-31. Retrieved on 2008-08-19. "Ben JİTEM'in kurucusu olarak biliniyorum. Kanunda yeri olan bir birimdir. Bu bende bir meslek hastalığı olarak niteleyebileceğim arşivleme alışkanlığından dolayı bana görev sırasında değişik yerlerden ulaşan belgeleri dosyalayarak muhafaza ettim. Emekli olduktan sonra da bu şekilde gelen belgeleri arşivledim. Beni seven insanlar da bu tür bilgi ve belge akışını bana sağlarlar. Evimde bulunan gizlilik niteliği yüksek olan belgeleri arşivlemem, karakterimin ve alışkanlığımın bir yansımasıdır. Aynı zamanda yazıya dökülen gizli konuşma kayıtları da bunun içinde yer alıyor. Evimde, gündemdeki Ergenekon, Lobi gibi belgelerin orijinal nüshalarının çıkması da arşivleme hastalığımdan kaynaklanmaktadır."
  16. ^ İnci, Fatih (2008-08-19). "JİTEM'ci Albay'dan uyuşturucu servisi!" (in Turkish). Yeni Şafak. Retrieved on 2008-08-19. "Kardeşim ben JİTEM'in kurucusuyum. Bana gramlık uyuşturucunun hesabını soruyorsunuz. Bunları görev icabı ihtayacı olanlara veriyorum. Si....m uyuşturucusunu."
  17. ^ Karapinar, Turker (2008-08-16). "Emekli Albay Doğan: JİTEM’in uygulacısıydım" (in Turkish). Milliyet. Retrieved on 2008-08-19. "Ergenekon’la alakam yoktur. Ergenekon’u soruşturma aşamasında duydum. 21 yıl dağlarda görev yaptım. JİTEM’in de dağlarda uygulayıcısıydım."
  18. ^ a b Duvakli, Melik (2008-01-30). "JITEM hitman: Veli Küçük conceals masterminds". Zaman. Retrieved on 2008-08-11.
  19. ^ Şardan, Tolga; Karapinar, Turker (2008-08-21). "JİTEM’i ben kurdum, Veli Küçük’e devrettim" (in Turkish). Milliyet. Retrieved on 2008-08-21. "1990’da Jandarma İstihbarat Grup Komutanlığı görevimi kendisine devrettim. Bu sırada yarbay olarak görev yapıyordum. Görev alanımız Türkiye geneliydi. Küçük ise albaydı."
  20. ^ a b Cicek, Nevzat (2008-12-17). "JİTEM tabelası bile vardı" (in Turkish). Taraf. Retrieved on 2009-01-04. "Jandarma Genel Komutanlığı-İstihbarat Başkanlığı-Gruplar Komutanlığı-Grup Komutanlıkları (Bunlar yedi ayrı bölgede konumlanmıştır)-Tim Komutanlıkları-Birimler."
  21. ^ a b Kuseyri, Murat (2008-10-03). "Savcılara hatırlatma" (in Turkish). Günlük Evrensel Gazetesi. Retrieved on 2008-11-05.
  22. ^ Duvakli, Melik (2009-01-03). "JİTEM behind Anter and Aydın murders, claims Kurdish group". Today's Zaman. Retrieved on 2009-01-03. "He alleged that jailed PKK leader Abdullah Öcalan told the DTP through his lawyers not to become involved in discussions about Ergenekon."
  23. ^ Kilic, Ecevit (2008-11-27). "Anter cinayetinde sadece JİTEM değil PKK da var" (in Turkish). Sabah. Retrieved on 2009-01-04. "Birbirlerine karşıt olduklarına bakmayın, perdenin arkasında sarmaş dolaşlar."
  24. ^ "‘A piece of bone could shed light on Silopi executions’". Today's Zaman. 2008-12-18. Retrieved on 2008-12-21.
  25. ^ Oktay, Mehmet (2008-12-20). "Family believes four members were executed with acid". Today's Zaman. Retrieved on 2008-12-22.
  26. ^ "Kaçak Paşa'nın korku imparatorluğu" (in Turkish). Bugun (Koza İpek Gazetecilik ve Yayıncılık A.Ş.). 2008-12-17. Retrieved on 2008-12-17.
  27. ^ a b c Duvakli, Melik, JİTEM’s illegal actions cost Turkey a fortune, Today's Zaman, 27 August 2008.
  28. ^ Sik, Ahmet (2005-02-03). "Acı bir Susurluk öyküsü" (in Turkish). Radikal. Retrieved on 2009-01-03.
  29. ^ Ekinci, Burhan (2005-02-02). "İşte İtiraf, İşte Ceset! Sorumlular Nerede?" (in Turkish). Bianet. Retrieved on 2009-01-03.
  30. ^ "Court says senior officers involved in Şemdinli bombing". Turkish Daily News. 2006-07-19. Archived from the original on 2008-11-14.
  31. ^ a b "JİTEM Öldürdü" (in Turkish). ülkede özgür gündem (Bianet). 2004-03-15. Retrieved on 2009-01-03.
  32. ^ Ergenekon indictment reopens gendarmerie major’s murder case, Today's Zaman, 13 August 2008.

Further reading

External links

Two series of articles in pro-Kurdish newspapers:
  • JİTEMciler konuşuyor: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 (Turkish)
  • JİTEM'i deşifre ediyoruz: 1, 2, 3, 4. (Turkish)
"The philosophers have only interpreted the world, in various ways. The point, however, is to change it." Karl Marx

"He would, wouldn't he?" Mandy Rice-Davies. When asked in court whether she knew that Lord Astor had denied having sex with her.

“I think it would be a good idea” Ghandi, when asked about Western Civilisation.
PKK confessors turn into state hitmen

The special teams and village guards have been used in the counter-insurgency operations against the PKK since 1984, while Gendarmerie Intelligence Service (JITEM) employed former PKK members against the PKK's urban organizations.By Zeki Ayik / Turkish Daily News ISTANBUL- It has recently come to light that ultranationalist Ulkucu militants have been used to do some of the Turkish state's dirty work.Now it is claimed that former Kurdish Workers Party (PKK) militants who cooperate with the state have been used to perform state-sponsored extrajudicial killings as well.
People's Democracy Party (HADEP) Istanbul executive Latif Kaya told the TDN that the Gendarmerie Intelligence Services (JITEM) views HADEP as a potentially terroristic organization, and abducts HADEP members to pressurize them into joining an armed counter-PKK organization, AMED, formed under its command.
Kaya also claims that AMED kidnaps and "eliminates" Kurdish intellectuals in the predominately Kurdish provinces of southeastern and eastern Turkey due to the authorities' belief that they support the PKK.
Kaya alleges that HADEP Istanbul executive Mahmut Demir, code named "Yesil" (Green) and Alaattin Kanat, whose names have cropped up quite frequently in the press, are former PKK militants who have been used by the state as part of AMED along with Turkish soldiers, village guards and special teams in its fight against the PKK.
The group's first assignment, mentioned in the memoirs of the late JITEM commander Ahmet Cem Ersever, was supposedly the murder of Vedat Aydin, the People's Labor Party (HEP) Diyarbakir Branch leader, in 1991. Ersever had stated that captured Ulkucu and PKK militants who cooperated were placed in this group. Ersever himself died in a mysterious "unresolved murder" in 1994.
Alaattin Kanat, who agreed to cooperate with the state after his arrest as a PKK militant, was released instead of being imprisoned.Kaya claims that following his release Kanat was involved in the assassination of former Mardin parliamentarian Mehmet Sincar.
Demir, who had been active in Tunceli and Elazig provinces between 1990-1993 with the code names "Yesil" (green) and "Sakalli" (The Bearded One) is said by Kaya to have claimed to be working on behalf of the state, and was actually a former PKK militant who joined AMED.Demir is supposed to have been involved in the assassinations of Mehmet Sincar, journalist Musa Anter and Vedat Aydin.
In addition Demir is supposed to have been active in the assassination of Faruk Candan, the Democracy Party (DEP) Ankara's branch leader, in Golbasi, Ankara in 1994.
Forced to convert to AMED
"AMED, which used to be active in the Eastern provinces, now operates also in the major cities," said Kaya."They kidnap the Istanbul members of HADEP, take them to the Istanbul Police Headquarters in Aksaray where they force them to become confessors.In November 1996, 38 HADEP members were kidnapped by this group.Since 1994, 164 people have been murdered by this group, and none of these murders have been solved."
Kaya said 3,870 people who could not bear the pressures to defect to AMED or serve as village guards have migrated to the cities, and added "there will be many more AMED groups in this environment."
Kaya stated that AMED was formed in Diyarbakir, and continued with the Bucak clan in Sanliurfa.He claimed that there is a torture chamber in the basement of True Path Party (DYP) Sanliurfa Deputy Sedat Bucak's house, which is used to force the abducted people to join AMED.
One so taken and forced to work for the state is HADEP member Adil Dizek, who recounted his experiences for the TDN:

I was forced into a car by two plainclothes men, who identified themselves as Police Investigation Bureau officers, in front of Kucukkoy Park, Istanbul.When I asked them why they were not taking me to the Kucukkoy Police Station, they replied, `We are from JITEM. Do not think of resisting.'
We arrived at Istanbul Police Headquarters in Aksaray and waited in the car for someone called "Dayi" (Uncle). Then we drove through an army base in Macka where a couple of police vehicles were waiting at the entrance.We continued on an unfinished road for about two kilometers and stopped.They threatened me with death by putting a gun in my mouth and firing another gun beside my ear.For about two hours they beat me, and I agreed to work with them.
They brought me to Istanbul Police Headquarters and said, `from now on, you are one of us.You will join AMED. You will tell us whatever happens in HADEP. We will supply money and arms for you. If you want, we can find you drugs to sell.' After making an appointment to meet in 15 days, they released me.
Dizek did not show up at the appointed date. He said the threats on his life continued and he filed a criminal suit against the Istanbul Police.
A sudden increase in the numbers of the unresolved murders and "missings" coincides with the alleged formation date of AMED in 1991.Following are some events since 1991 in which the AMED group is believed to have taken part:
Four missings and 31 unresolved murders in 1991; eight missings and 360 unresolved murders in 1992; 13 missings and 467 unresolved murders in 1993; 49 missings and 423 unresolved murders in 1994; 163 missings and 84 unresolved murders 1995; 191 missings and 59 unresolved murders in 1996.
Kaya claims their investigation has established Alaattin Kanat, Mahmut Demir, Ibrahim Bobat, Ali Pinar, Abdulhakim Guven, Kahraman Bilgic, Ali Timurtas, Kemal Enik, Irfan Beyaz, Ali Ozansoy, and Abdulkerim Altug as AMED hitmen.
"The philosophers have only interpreted the world, in various ways. The point, however, is to change it." Karl Marx

"He would, wouldn't he?" Mandy Rice-Davies. When asked in court whether she knew that Lord Astor had denied having sex with her.

“I think it would be a good idea” Ghandi, when asked about Western Civilisation.

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