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Bird Flu as a Weapon? A Bit of History of Biological Weapons
Just so that we remember that many governments are perfectly capable of using deadly biological variants against humans, including their own citizens and then there are the unintended consequences. Here is a collection of links to these historical events. Generously pointed out to me Edwin Jewett from E Pluribus Unum forum who we hope will join us soon. :wavey: :dancing:

excerpts from A Short History of Bio-Warfare (AARC)

Little known and yet remarkable in its scope is Japan's biological warfare program during World War II. Probably, the most extensive and most horrorific biological weapons research and deployment occurred in Manchuria from 1932 until the end of the war. [20] This program, innocuously entitled as Unit 731 was located in Pingfan Manchuria. Under the direction of Dr. Shiro Ishii from 1932 to 1942 and then Kitano Misaji from 1942 until 1945, Unit 731 employed a staff of over 3,000 scientists and technicians. Unit 731, sprawled over 150 building and five satellite camps. Additional sub-units were located in Mukden, Changchun and Nanking. Experimentation on prisoners using Shigella (bacterial dysentery*), Vibrio cholerae (cholera) and Yersinia pestis (the bubonic plague) was part of the Unit 731 program. At least 10, 000 prisoners died. Most from "experimental infection" and the remaining were executed after experiments for autopsy. [21]

Both the United States and the Soviet Union's Biological Warfare program owe their germination to the work of Unit 731. The Soviets captured Unit 731. US forces captured Shiro Ishii and Kitano Misaji and granted them immunity from war crimes if they divulged their BW secrets. US had no research in either offensive or defensive BW early in World War II. Only when the intelligence agents of the Office for Strategic Services (OSS) discovered the activities of Unit 731 did the US initiate its own offensive germ warfare program at Camp Detrick, Maryland in late 1942. [22]

The British secretly developed their own biological warfare program focused on anthrax. To test the effectiveness of weaponized anthrax delivered by a conventional bomb the British chose Gruinard Island off the coast of Scotland. The island was bombed in experiments to determine the best dispersal. Then in 1943, there was an outbreak of anthrax in sheep and cattle on the coast of Scotland that faced Gruinard Island. Attempts at decontamination by starting brushfires failed as spores of anthrax had been embedded in the island's soil thus making total decontamination impossible to this day. This creates the third disadvantage of BW use by a nation; the difficulty in decontamination may preclude the use of acquired territory. [23, 24]

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1949-69: The US Defense Department’s Committee on Biological Warfare conducts field tests in over 200 populated areas across the nation, unbeknownst to the civilians in these areas. Field tests were conducted using non-lethal forms of bacteria in order to test their dispersion properties as weapons. Field tests were conducted in San Francisco (1950), Norfolk, Virginia (1951), Minneapolis, Minnesota (1953), the Gulf Coast of Florida (1955), Savannah, Georgia (1956-
58), and New York City (1966), as well as animal and human volunteer studies at the Dugway Proving Ground, Utah (1955-?), and “large area coverage” tests over South Dakota and Minnesota (1957). In the San Francisco test (Serratia marcescens and Bacillus globigii), some 11 cases of urinary tract infection were reported at Stanford University Hospital in 1950-51. A 1951 article in the Archives of Internal Medicine, describes the infections and attributes them to S.marcescens. An investigation led by the CDC, NIH, and City of New York did not comment on the use of S.marcescens but recommended finding a substitute. Samples from the San Francisco tests were collected by Soviet spies off the Pacific coast, and helped to jump-start the Soviet biological weapons program.”


Germs on the Loose”, By Eileen Choffnes, March/April 2001 pp. 57-61 (vol. 57, no. 02) © 2001 Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists

In 1981, troops training at the Jungle Warfare Training Center at Fort Sherman, Panama, contracted the mosquito-borne disease Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE)--an outbreak that was eventually linked to a military experiment conducted in 1970. As a consequence of this test, VEE remains an endemic threat in certain areas of Central America. [13]

The reference: "Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis: Report of an Outbreak Associated with Jungle Exposure," Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, November 1984.

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National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 58
Edited by Dr. Robert A. Wampler
October 25, 2001; Updated December 7, 2001

This is a major resource with direct links to 26 documents in pdf format. Three excerpts from the introduction:

Perhaps the most troubling and terrifying development in the wake of the terrorist attacks of September 11th is the emergence of biological warfare as a real, instead of a potential, threat for our government and the public to confront. To provide the historical context for this new threat, the National Security Archive published on October 25, 2001 key declassified documents on President Richard Nixon's decision to halt the U.S. biological warfare program. In this updated briefing book, the Archive is making available the official history of the U.S. Army's activities in the U.S. biological weapons program (see Document No. 26). New revelations in the news now make this history even more vital to understand, since the mailed anthrax that has killed five Americans in recent weeks may have come from the U.S. program, not from foreign sources.

According to William Broad in The New York Times (December 3, 2001),

"The dry powder used in the anthrax attacks is virtually indistinguishable in critical technical aspects from that produced by the United States military before it shut down its biowarfare program, according to federal scientists and a report prepared for a military contractor. The preliminary analysis of the powder shows that it has the same extraordinarily high concentration of deadly spores as the anthrax produced in the American weapons program. While it is still possible that the anthrax could have a foreign source, the concentration is higher than any stock publicly known to be produced by other governments. The similarity to the levels achieved by the United States military lends support to the idea that someone with ties to the old program may be behind the attacks that killed five people."(1)

The range of experimentation on human subjects carried out by the U.S. biological weapons program, as summarized by Jeanne Guillemin, a Boston College sociologist and the wife of Matthew Meselson, makes for chilling reading:

"The entire experimental legacy is dismaying, from the hundreds of dead monkeys at Fort Detrick to the spectacle of Seventh Day Adventist soldiers, the vaccinated volunteers in Project Whitecoat, strapped to chairs amid cages of animals in the Utah sunlight as Q fever aerosols are blown over them. Most chilling are the mock scenarios played out in urban areas: light bulbs filled with simulated BW agents being dropped in New York subways, men in Washington National Airport spraying pseudo-BW from briefcases, and similar tests in California and Texas and over the Florida Keys."(5) Equally troubling was the evidence that the CIA had maintained a small stockpile of biological agents and toxins in violation of Nixon's ban that were capable of sickening or killing millions of people. Among this stockpile was 100 grams of anthrax, as well as smallpox, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus, salmonella, and clostridium botulinum, or botulism germs.(7)

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The “Eight Ball” and Operation Whitecoat

“Olesen would fully recover from his infection, as would all the other volunteers in Operation Whitecoat who willingly became guinea pigs in Cold War-era tests involving yellow fever, plague, the infectious disease tularemia and other deadly bugs.”

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Human medical experimentation in the United States:
The shocking true history of modern medicine and psychiatry (1965-2005)

A limited sampling of the listings:

1967: Researchers paralyze 64 prison inmates in California with a neuromuscular compound called succinylcholine, which produces suppressed breathing that feels similar to drowning. When five prisoners refuse to participate in the medical experiment, the prison's special treatment board gives researchers permission to inject the prisoners with the drug against their will.

1969: The U.S. military conducts DTC Test 69-12, which is an open-air test of VX and sarin nerve agents at the Army's Edgewood Arsenal in Maryland, likely exposing military personnel.

1969: Dr. Donald MacArthur, the U.S. Department of Defense's Deputy Director for Research and Technology, requests $10 million from Congress to develop a synthetic biological agent that would be resistant "to the immunological and therapeutic processes upon which we depend to maintain our relative freedom from infectious disease".

1969: Judge Sam Steinfield's dissent in Strunk v. Strunk, 445 S.W.2d 145 marks the first time a judge has ever suggested that the Nuremberg Code be applied in American court cases.

1970: A year after his request, under H.R. 15090, Dr. MacArthur receives funding to begin CIA-supervised mycoplasma research with Fort Detrick's Special Operations Division and hopefully create a synthetic immunosuppressive agent. Some experts believe that this research may have inadvertently created HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.

1970: Under order from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which also sponsored the Tuskegee Experiment, the free childcare program at Johns Hopkins University collects blood samples from 7,000 African-American youth, telling their parents that they are checking for anemia but actually checking for an extra Y chromosome (XYY), believed to be a biological predisposition to crime. The program director, Digamber Borganokar, does this experiment without Johns Hopkins University's permission.

1971: Stanford University conducts the Stanford Prison Experiment on a group of college students in order to learn the psychology of prison life. Some students are given the role as prison guards, while the others are given the role of prisoners. After only six days, the proposed two-week study has to end because of its psychological effects on the participants. The "guards" had begun to act sadistic, while the "prisoners" started to show signs of depression and severe psychological stress.

1973: An Ad Hoc Advisory Panel issues its Final Report on the Tuskegee Syphilis Study, writing, "Society can no longer afford to leave the balancing of individual rights against scientific progress to the scientific community".

1977: The Kennedy Hearing initiates the process toward Executive Order 12333, prohibiting intelligence agencies from experimenting on humans without informed consent.

1977: The U.S. government issues an official apology and $400,000 to Jeanne Connell, the sole survivor from Col. Warren's now-infamous plutonium injections at Strong Memorial Hospital, and the families of the other human test subjects.

1978: The CDC begins experimental hepatitis B vaccine trials in New York. Its ads for research subjects specifically ask for promiscuous homosexual men. Professor Wolf Szmuness of the Columbia University School of Public Health had made the vaccine's infective serum from the pooled blood serum of hepatitis-infected homosexuals and then developed it in chimpanzees, the only animal susceptible to hepatitis B, leading to the theory that HIV originated in chimpanzees before being transferred over to humans via this vaccine. A few months after 1,083 homosexual men receive the vaccine, New York physicians begin noticing cases of Kaposi's sarcoma, Mycoplasma penetrans and a new strain of herpes virus among New York's homosexual community -- diseases not usually seen among young, American men, but that would later be known as common opportunistic diseases associated with AIDS.

1980: American doctors give experimental hormone shots to hundreds of Haitian men confined to detention camps in Miami and Puerto Rico, causing the men to develop a condition known as gynecomastia, in which men develop full-sized breasts.

1985: A former U.S. Army sergeant tries to sue the Army for using drugs on him in without his consent or even his knowledge in United States v. Stanley, 483 U.S. 669. Justice Antonin Scalia writes the decision, clearing the U.S. military from any liability in past, present or future medical experiments without informed consent.

1988: The U.S. Justice Department pays nine Canadian survivors of the CIA and Dr. Cameron's "psychic driving" experiments (1957 - 1964) $750,000 in out-of-court settlements, to avoid any further investigations into MKULTRA.

1990: The United States sends 1.7 million members of the armed forces, 22 percent of whom are African-American, to the Persian Gulf for the Gulf War ("Desert Storm"). More than 400,000 of these soldiers are ordered to take an experimental nerve agent medication called pyridostigmine, which is later believed to be the cause of Gulf War Syndrome -- symptoms ranging from skin disorders, neurological disorders, incontinence, uncontrollable drooling and vision problems -- affecting Gulf War veterans.

1990: The CDC and Kaiser Pharmaceuticals of Southern California inject 1,500 six-month-old black and Hispanic babies in Los Angeles with an "experimental" measles vaccine that had never been licensed for use in the United States. Adding to the risk, children less than a year old may not have an adequate amount of myelin around their nerves, possibly resulting in impaired neural development because of the vaccine. The CDC later admits that parents were never informed that the vaccine being injected into their children was experimental.

1990: The FDA allows the U.S. Department of Defense to waive the Nuremberg Code and use unapproved drugs and vaccines in Operation Desert Shield.

1995: In the Mar. 15 President's Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE), former human subjects, including those who were used in experiments as children, give sworn testimonies stating that they were subjected to radiation experiments and/or brainwashed, hypnotized, drugged, psychologically tortured, threatened and even raped during CIA experiments. These sworn statements include:

Christina DeNicola's statement that, in Tucson, Ariz., from 1966 to 1976, "Dr. B" performed mind control experiments using drugs, post-hypnotic injection and drama, and irradiation experiments on her neck, throat, chest and uterus. She was only four years old when the experiments started.

Claudia Mullen's testimony that Dr. Sidney Gottlieb (of MKULTRA fame) used chemicals, radiation, hypnosis, drugs, isolation in tubs of water, sleep deprivation, electric shock, brainwashing and emotional, sexual and verbal abuse as part of mind control experiments that had the ultimate objective of turning her, who was only a child at the time, into the "perfect spy." She tells the advisory committee that researchers justified this abuse by telling her that she was serving her country "in their bold effort to fight Communism."

Suzanne Starr's statement that "a physician, who was retired from the military, got children from the mountains of Colorado for experiments." She says she was one of those children and that she was the victim of experiments involving environmental deprivation to the point of forced psychosis, spin programming, injections, rape and frequent electroshock and mind control sessions. "I have fought self-destructive programmed messages to kill myself, and I know what a programmed message is, and I don’t act on them," she tells the advisory committee of the experiments' long-lasting effects, even in her adulthood.

1996: Professor Adil E. Shamoo of the University of Maryland and the organization Citizens for Responsible Care and Research sends a written testimony on the unethical use of veterans in medical research to the U.S. Senate's Committee on Governmental Affairs, stating: "This type of research is on-going nationwide in medical centers and VA hospitals supported by tens of millions of dollars of taxpayers money. These experiments are high risk and are abusive, causing not only physical and psychic harm to the most vulnerable groups but also degrading our society’s system of basic human values. Probably tens of thousands of patients are being subjected to such experiments".

1996: President Clinton issues a formal apology to the subjects of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study and their families.

2000: The Department of Defense begins declassifying the records of Project 112, including SHAD, and locating and assisting the veterans who were exposed to live toxins and chemical agents as part of Project 112.

2002: President George W. Bush signs the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act (BPCA), offering pharmaceutical companies six-month exclusivity in exchange for running clinical drug trials on children. This will of course increase the number of children used as human test subjects.

2004: In his BBC documentary "Guinea Pig Kids" and BBC News article of the same name, reporter Jamie Doran reveals that children involved in the New York City foster care system were unwitting human subjects in experimental AIDS drug trials from 1988 to, in his belief, present times.

2005: In response to the BBC documentary and article "Guinea Pig Kids", the New York City Administration of Children's Services (ACS) sends out an Apr. 22 press release admitting that foster care children were used in experimental AIDS drug trials, but says that the last trial took place in 2001 and thus the trials are not continuing, as BBC reporter Jamie Doran claims. The ACS gives the extent and statistics of the experimental drug trials, based on its own records, and contracts the Vera Institute of Justice to conduct "an independent review of ACS policy and practice regarding the enrollment of HIV-positive children in foster care in clinical drug trials during the late 1980s and 1990s".

2005: In exchange for receiving $2 million from the American Chemical Society, the EPA proposes the Children's Health Environmental Exposure Research Study (CHEERS) to learn how children ranging from infancy to three years old ingest, inhale and absorb chemicals by exposing children from a poor, predominantly black area of Duval County, Fla., to these toxins. Due to pressure from activist groups, negative media coverage and two Democratic senators, the EPA eventually decides to drop the study on Apr. 8, 2005.

2005: Bloomberg releases a series of reports suggesting that SFBC, the largest experimental drug testing center of its time, exploits immigrant and other low-income test subjects and runs tests with limited credibility due to violations of both the FDA's and SFBC's own testing guidelines.

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Article in Baltimore Sun, Dec. 23, 2001

“In an attempt to make America's biological arsenal more lethal during the Cold War, the Army collected anthrax from the bodies or blood of workers at Fort Detrick who were accidentally infected with the bacteria, veterans of the biowarfare program say.

The experiments, during the 1950s and '60s, were based on long experience with animals showing that anthrax often becomes more virulent after infecting an animal and growing in its body, according to experts on the bacteria and scientific studies published at the time. Former Army scientists say the anthrax strain used to make weapons was replaced at least once, and possibly three times, with more potent anthrax that had grown in the workers' bodies. But some of the key scientists who did the work more than four decades ago are dead, and records are classified, contradictory or nonexistent, so it is difficult to establish with certainty the details of what happened.

The use of human accident victims to boost the killing power of the nation's germ arsenal is a macabre footnote to a top-secret program designed to destroy enemy troops with such exotic weapons as botulism, smallpox, plague and paralytic shellfish poison….”

Please read the entire article at the link…

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an article in the Baltimore Sun, August 2004 (some excerpts)

During the Cold War, top Army scientists toiled stealthily in rural Maryland to make covert weapons coveted by new enemies.

For years, in total secrecy, they studied the black art of bioterrorism.
They designed deadly, silent biological dart guns and hid them in fountain pens and walking sticks. They crunched lethal bacteria into suit buttons that could be worn unnoticed across borders. They rigged light fixtures and car tailpipes to loose an invisible spray of anthrax. They practiced germ attacks in airports and on the New York subway, tracking air currents and calculating the potential death toll.

But they weren't a band of al-Qaida fanatics -- or enemies of any kind. They were biowarriors in the U.S. Army's Special Operations Division at Fort Detrick

A 1954 Army document says high-ranking officials -- including George W. Merck, the pharmaceutical executive and top government adviser on biowarfare -- wanted to shut down the SO Division because they considered it "un-American."

But Fort Detrick's rank and file rarely voiced such doubts. "We did not sit around talking about the moral implications of what we were doing," said William C. Patrick III, a Fort Detrick veteran who worked closely with the SO Division. "We were problem-solving."…

A gun or a bomb leaves no doubt that a deliberate attack has occurred. But if someone is stricken with a sudden, fatal illness -- or if an epidemic slashes across a crowded city -- there is no way of knowing whether anyone attacked, much less who. That was the key conclusion of the Pentagon's Committee on Biological Warfare in a secret October 1948 report on covert biowarfare….

Although it emphasized the threat to America, the report called for offensive capability. "Biological agents would appear to be well adapted to subversive use since very small amounts of such agents can be effective," the report said. "A significant portion of the human population within selected target areas may be killed or incapacitated."

Setting an imaginative tone for what would follow, the report listed potential targets: "ventilating systems, subway systems, water supply systems ... stamps, envelopes, money, biologicals and cosmetics ... contamination of food and beverages."

Understanding U.S. vulnerability may have been the main purpose of such experiments. But defensive findings had offensive implications. If the subway tests could be explained as defensive, there was no such ambiguity in the SO Division's development of covert biological weapons.

Mysterious characters from Fort Bragg and the CIA came and went at the SO Division, leaving wish-lists and checking progress. For cover, CIA visitors often wore military uniforms and said they worked for "Staff Support Group." No one mentioned aloud the name of the agency financing so much of the division's work.. "It was never really said, except that probably by the middle '60s it became obvious," Pannier said. Army bosses "would ask: 'Are you keeping them happy?'" Most CIA records on the SO Division were apparently destroyed in 1973 by Gottlieb, the agency's liaison to Fort Detrick. But declassified invoices the division submitted to the CIA give a sense of the work ….

Among the other Big Five weapons: a 7.62 mm rifle cartridge packed with anthrax or botulinum toxin that would disperse in the air on impact; a time-delay bomblet that would release a cloud of bacteria when a train or truck convoy passed; and a pressurized can that sprayed an aerosol of germs. The fifth is described in unclassified documents only as an "E-41 disseminator."

Cheney And Rumsfeld and the Alleged Murder of CIA bioterror expert…

Frank Olson, who was a key member of the CIA's secret brainwashing program MK-ULTRA, was sent plunging from a New York hotel window after he had threatened to reveal the CIA involvement in "terminal experiments" in post-war Germany…. Frank Olson's work for the CIA had included making biological weapons. He had devised an aerosol disguised as insect spray that contained the lethal pathogen, botulism. It was successfully used to kill a Russian GRU military intelligence officer on a visit to Gdansk, Poland, in 1951. Another creation had been toothpaste containing salmonella, an incapacitating bacterium.

[But] documents which have surfaced in Washington all too clearly pinpoint the role [Cheney and Rumsfeld] played in covering-up the murder of Frank Olson. In a "Flash Secret" memo from Cheney to Rumsfeld, the [then] future Vice President warns if the truth emerged "it might be necessary to disclose highly classified national security information"…. Cheney warns in a further memo that Olson's job "is so sensitive that it is highly unlikely we would submit relevant evidence on the issue of his duties". The 23 pages of documents paint a clear picture of the determination of Cheney and Rumsfeld to keep secret Olson's work and to ensure, as a matter of public policy, it must remain secret that "a drug criminally given him (Olson) cannot as a matter of law be determined he died in the course of his official duties"…

A California history professor, Kathryn Olmstead discovered the documents in the Gerald Ford library. Cheney and Rumsfeld were given the task of covering up the details of Frank Olson's death. At the time, Rumsfeld was White House Chief of Staff to President Gerald Ford. Dick Cheney was a senior White House assistant to the President. Frank Olson's family received US $750,000 to settle their claims against the US government in 1976.


[B]October 10/11, 2001
: The FBI, in an action that would make it much more unlikely that we would be able to trace the anthrax type mailed in recent letters, allowed the original batch of the Ames strain of anthrax to be destroyed. (Suspicions that the anthrax used in the letters had been this Ames strain would, however, nevertheless receive confirmation on October 17th.)

October 18: In conjunction with the U.S. Post Office, the FBI offered a reward of $1,000,000 for information leading to the arrest of the person who mailed letters contaminated with anthrax to media organizations and congressional offices.

October 24: The US House of Representatives passed a number of previously unpopular Bush projects, Alaska oil drilling, $25 billion in tax cuts for corporations, taps into Social Security funds, and cuts in education, and also passed the final version of the “USA Patriot Act.” Republican Congressman Ron Paul commented that “It’s my understanding the bill wasn’t printed before the vote — at least I couldn’t get it. They played all kinds of games, kept the House in session all night, and it was a very complicated bill. Maybe a handful of staffers actually read it, but the bill definitely was not available to members before the vote.” It would later be revealed that only two copies of the bill had been made available in the hours before its passage. Most Representatives would admit that they voted for the Act without reading it.

March 25, 2002: On this day occurred what is hopefully the last, the sixteenth, of the series of mysterious deaths of renowned microbiologists. This microbiologist was Steven Mostow, dying at 63 years of age when the airplane he was piloting crashed near Denver, Colorado. Three others died in the crash. He had worked at the Colorado Health Sciences Centre and was known as Dr. Flu for his expertise in treating influenza. He had been one of the country’s leading infectious disease experts and was associate dean at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center.

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The State Department defines terrorism as “premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience.”

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The White House staff was given Cipro on 9/11. The FEMA drill scheduled for NYC on September 10th, 2001 was a bio-terror drill…. a “TRIPOD” drill… Trial Point of Distribution.

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Biological Threat Assessment: Is the Cure Worse Than the Disease? by Jonathan Tucker,
Arms Control Association, October 2004

“The Bush administration contends that science-based threat assessment is needed to shorten the time between the discovery of new bioterrorist threats, such as pathogens engineered to be resistant to multiple antibiotics, and the development of medical countermeasures, such as vaccines and therapeutic drugs. This rationale is flawed, however, for three reasons.

First, the administration’s biodefense research agenda credits terrorists with having cutting-edge technological capabilities that they do not currently possess nor are likely to acquire anytime soon….

Second, prospective threat-assessment studies involving the creation of hypothetical pathogens are of limited value….

Third, by blurring the already hazy line between offensive and defensive biological R&D, science-based threat assessment raises suspicions about U.S. compliance with the BWC and fosters a “biological security dilemma” that could lead to a new biological arms race. At the same time, the novel pathogens and related know-how generated by threat-assessment work could be stolen or diverted for malicious purposes, exacerbating the threat of bioterrorism.”

Read more at the link, especially the parts about domestic oversight and unilateral restraint.

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“A Journalist’s Guide to Covering Bioterrorism” (second edition)(2004), Radio & Television News Directors Foundation, Funded by the Carnegie Corp.

One of the project advisors was Jerome Hauer.

Opening paragraph in the Foreword:

“Journalists usually are uninvolved observers, reporting on events as they unfold. But as we know all too well—after the September 11 attacks on New York and Washington—when anthrax hit, journalists and news organizations themselves became part of the story.”

In other words, the target…

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“… immediately after 9/11 Jerome Hauer was making the exact same claims, helping to propel Bush’s call to war…”


Jerome Hauer is a Bio-Warfare expert who is well known in New York City for having created former mayor Rudolph Giuliani’s Office of Emergency Management (OEM) in World Trade Center 7 – the building that inexplicably imploded in a freefall on September 11, 2001, without having been hit by an airplane. Hauer’s corporate affiliations include SAIC, Batelle, CSC-DynCorp, Hollis-Eden, and one of the nation’s most powerful private investigative and security firms Kroll Inc., among others. Now BioPort has been added to his resume.

On the eve of 9/11, in NYC, Hauer was having drinks with his close friend, the recently retired FBI Agent and “Osama-Chaser,” John O’Neil. At that time O’Neil was the head of security at the World Trade Center complex, a position Hauer had helped him to get. O’Neil died in the World Trade Center on 9/11, and it was Hauer who identified his body.

Hauer was quoted by Newsday staff writer Laurie Garrett on her personal blog as saying, “John O’Neill was head of the FBI’s counterterrorism branch in Washington. He led every important investigation you can name — the USS Cole, Tanzania, Kenya bombings. He retired three weeks ago. I helped him get the job as head of security for the World Trade Center.And the irony is, the guy he chased for most of his career killed him.”

Please read more at the link ….

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The book Biowarfare and Terrorism outlines how and why the United States government initiated, sustained and then dramatically expanded an illegal biological arms buildup.

Most significantly, U.S. expert Francis A. Boyle reveals how the new billion-dollar U.S. Chemical and Biological Defense Program has been reorientated to accord with the Neo-Conservative pre-emptive strike agenda—this time by biological and chemical warfare.

Linking U.S. biowarfare development to the October 2001 anthrax attack on Congress—the most significant political attack on the constitutional functioning of democracy in the United States in recent history—Boyle sheds new light on the motives for the attack, the media black hole of silence into which it has fallen, and why the FBI may never apprehend the perpetrators of this seminal political crime of the 21st century.

Biowarfare and Terrorism should raise public concern at what the vastly expanded US biowarfare research and purported civilian preparedness programs hold in store for America—and the extent to which the Bush administration is prepared to pursue them, irrespective of their incitement to a global biowarfare arms race, and likely exposure of the American people to future accidents and reprisals.

Francis A. Boyle is a leading American professor, practitioner and advocate of international law. He was responsible for drafting the Biological Weapons Anti-Terrorism Act of 1989, the American implementing legislation for the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention. He served on the Board of Directors of Amnesty International (1988-1992), and represented Bosnia- Herzegovina at the World Court. Professor Boyle teaches international law at the University of Illinois, Champaign. He holds a Doctor of Law Magna Cum Laude as well as a Ph.D. in Political Science, both from Harvard University.

JONATHAN KING is Professor of Molecular Biology at MIT, and an authority on the genes and proteins of micro-organisms. Prof. King was a founder of the Council for Responsible Genetics and Co-Chair of its Committee on the Military Use of Biological Research. He has long been concerned with the social, economic and public health consequences of biomedical research.

The web site has the Table of Contents for the book, and an ordering mechanism.

See also the fascinating quotes from many sources down the right side of the web page.
See also
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Boyle’s letter to Judith Miller on her New York Times article on Iraqi bio-weapons.

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“Taking Biodefense Too Far” by Susan Wright (November/December 2004 pp. 58-66 (vol. 60, no. 6) © 2004 Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists)

Some excerpts:

Clarke and others in the Clinton administration believed international terrorists were also interested in using biological weapons, but whether there was an actual link was--and still is--debatable. [1]
In June 2001, a simulated smallpox attack on the United States, "Dark Winter," predicted a trail of death and disease across the nation. Although later analyses questioned the assumptions on which Dark Winter was based, particularly the transmission speed for the disease, media coverage was overwhelmingly apocalyptic. [3]
As one Washington security think tank, the Center for Strategic and International Studies noted in its report, Defending America in the 21st Century, in December 2000: "Many experts believe that the federal government should foster an acceleration of research in immunology and genetics with the objective of putting improvements in immune responses ahead of the ability to create new and more deadly biological agents."

In other words, American technological prowess should allow it to prevail against any biological weapons-armed foe by staying ahead of technological innovation. This message resonated with a more general one coming from the neoconservative group Project for a New American Century (PNAC). In September 2000, PNAC published Rebuilding America's Defenses, a blueprint for a world dominated by American military force. Many of those supporting the PNAC proposals would populate the higher echelons of the Bush administration following the November 2000 election.

When Al Qaeda attacked the World Trade Center and Pentagon on September 11, 2001, and anthrax was disseminated through the postal system some two weeks later, the groundwork for the government's response, in terms of both a major expansion and a reorientation of biodefense, had been very effectively prepared.

As the news of the first casualty from pulmonary anthrax broke on October 4, 2001, the Bush administration launched a dramatic expansion of counter-bioterrorism programs, requesting emergency funding of $1.5 billion. A frightened Congress increased the amount to $2.5 billion. Funding for counter-bioterrorism began to soar and has been soaring ever since (see page 62).

The first indication of the change in direction in U.S. policy was the revelation in September 2001 by three New York Times journalists that work on a genetically modified, vaccine-resistant form of anthrax had been secretly initiated by the Pentagon in early 2001. The project was later transferred to the Defense Intelligence Agency, which turned it over to Battelle, a private military contractor based in Columbus, Ohio. A senior White House official told journalists that the defense secretary had the authority to approve the project and that the administration intended to pursue more work of this kind "to help build germ defenses and protect American lives." [13]

Increasingly, biodefense research aimed at genetically altering microbes to increase their pathogenicity, virulence, persistence, or transmissibility is portrayed as normal. Last year, a National Academy of Sciences report, Biotechnology Research in an Age of Terrorism, described such work as "areas of concern"--but only because, if known, it might give terrorists similar ideas. In February, NBACC Deputy Director Lt. Col. George Korch revealed that NBACC intends to pursue a range of topics including "aerosol dynamics," "novel packaging," "novel delivery of threat," "genetic engineering," "bioregulators/ immunomodulators," "genomics and proteomics," and "red teaming."

…designing a specific defense against any single genetic variation makes no sense…

Many life scientists seem unaware that their work is being framed by the hyper-realist paradigm that Bush endorsed at West Point in 2002--a vision of the United States as so powerful, so technologically dominant, that military competition is pointless. In pursuing every conceivable form of defense--even against organisms that exist only in the imagination--scientists are buying into that vision. But just as hyper-realism has not worked in Iraq--and has, instead, increased insecurity by providing a new breeding ground for terrorism--so a parallel argument applies to forms of biodefense that strain the limits of the Biological Weapons Convention. In seeking the ultimate form of biological dominance--a biological defense against which all bioweapons fail--the United States runs a grave risk of providing a breeding ground for a new form of biological warfare.

# # # # # # * (see info on web site author below)

"As governments begin to declare cautious victory over severe acute respiratory syndrome - a disease that, like HIV, Ebola and Nipah is believed to have jumped from an animal host to humans - some scientists are turning their attention to a question asked all too infrequently once deadly viral outbreaks have been contained: Where did that come from?"

Scientists Search For Human Hand Behind Jungle Virus, The Wall Street Journal, June 19, 2003.
-- --

"Helms sought Allen's approval for a major project 'to develop a capability in the covert use of biological and chemical materials, . . . . From the start . . . CIA officers made no pretense that this project would be an innocuous matter of pure science. The research would have to proceed 'without the establishment of formal contractual relations,' Helms advised Allen; the existence of signed contracts would reveal the government's sponsorship. Moreover, the scientists qualified to do research in this field 'are most reluctant to enter into signed agreements of any sort which connect them with this activity, since such a connection would jeopardize their professional reputations.'

". . . five years later a CIA audit justified the extraordinary secrecy of the project: 'Precautions must be taken not only to protect operations from exposure to enemy forces but also to conceal these activities from the American public in general. The knowledge that the Agency is engaging in unethical and illicit activities would have serious repercussions in political and diplomatic circles.' For years to come CIA auditors defended the absence of normal accountability on grounds of professional discretion within the scientific community, dubious legality, and the dangers of public disclosure. Neither Congress nor the president was informed. . . ."

Gentleman Spy: The Life of Allen Dulles, 1994


The CIA destroyed most of the records of the Special Virus Cancer Project (SVCP). [28] Copies of the first seven volumes of the SVCP Report were shredded, but a few copies of Volumes 8 (July 1971) and 9 (July 1972) survived. They reveal a frightening story. SVCP scientists worked on pathogenic retroviruses (RNA viruses) during the 1960s and 1970s. [29] (see link for notated references)

Margaret Sanger embraced eugenics, organized Planned Parenthood, and called for: ". . . the elimination of 'human weeds,' for the 'cessation of charity,' for the segregation of 'morons, misfits, and the maladjusted,' and for the sterilization of 'genetically inferior races.'" [34]

She stated: "The mass of Negroes . . . particularly in the South, still breed carelessly and disastrously, with the result that the increase among Negroes, even more than among Whites, is from that portion of the population least intelligent and fit." [35]

Read more at the link about …
West Nile Virus, SARS, the Nipah virus, mycoplasmas (patented in June 1991 by a researcher at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology), Metapneumovirus infection, monkeypox, Lyme disease, Lass fever, hantavirus, Ebola, and the interesting history of the Marburg hemorrhagic fever virus (and its variants).

A bio of the developer of this web site and radio program can be found here: .

He is a retired orthopedic surgeon, evangelist, radio personality, and is the author of AIDS: The Unnecessary Epidemic and The Brotherhood of Darkness (about secret societies).

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“Memorandum 200”: Implications of Worldwide Population Growth for U.S. Security and Overseas Interests

The Ford/Kissinger plan for population control of under-developed countries

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"pathogenic mycoplasma”…. It is flu-like. It is pathognomonic of, not a bacterial or viral infection, it is pathognomonic of a fungus or a fungus related to a flu. And that's exactly what has been developed and patented by the Armed Forces Research Institute of Pathology.

Mycoplasma is not really a fungus, it's not really a bacteria, it's not really a virus. It's sort of like a pseudo all of them. It has no cell wall, it goes deep into the cell nuclei thereby making it very difficult to mount an immune response against. And it’s man-made…

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"Ebola, the ideal biological weapon that kills nine-out-of-ten humans within three weeks of infection, emerged first in three European vaccine production laboratories virtually simultaneously in 1967. Then named the Marburg virus (after one of the vaccine maker's Marburg, Germany, address), consensus held that this virus arrived in Europe in a shipment of nearly 500 African monkeys. The scientific literature, mainstream media, and Richard Preston, never once disclosed the name of the infamous monkey supplier - Litton Bionetics. Bionetics is cited in the US Congressional Record as a leading biological weapons contractor and nonhuman primate supplier for the US military. "

"Similarly, U.S. legislators learned in 1999 the little reported fact that Gulf War troops, as many as 200,000, were unwittingly used in AIDS vaccine experiments wherein portions of the AIDS virus, HIV, were recombined with a pathogenic mycoplasma, isolated, tested, and then patented by Dr. Shyh-Ching Lo of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology for the American Registry of Pathology in Washington, D.C.”

“Why so many orphaned children in Uganda? Because this was the principle site of the African hepatitis B vaccine trials in 1974-1975. Uganda was the home of the International Agency for Research in Cancer (IARC) that collaborated with Litton Bionetics, the U.S. Army's sixth top biological weapons contracting lab during the late 1960s and early 1970s. Bionetics was the organization that, at this time, developed numerous AIDS-like viruses under the direction of Dr. Robert Gallo of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), who more than a decade later received credit for "discovering" the AIDS virus HTLV-III (HIV-1).”

Dr. Leonard Horowitz received his doctorate from Tufts University and was awarded a fellowship in behavioral research at the University of Rochester. Dr. Horowitz earned a master's degree in public health and behavioral science from Harvard University. He also holds a master's degree in health education from Beacon College. For more than a decade, Dr. Horowitz directed a multidisciplinary health center. He served on the faculty at Tufts University, Harvard University, and the Leslie College Institute for Arts and Human Development.

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The Virus Cancer Program: The Birthplace of AIDS and Kaposi’s Sarcoma
The Secret Origin of AIDS and HIV: How Scientists Produced the Most Horrifying Plague of All Time – and then Covered It Up (human radiation experiments in the US) (Gulf War syndrome) (index of Cantwell articles)

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“The spread of human, animal or crop disease can be made to look like an "act of God" with no one able to trace the perpetrator(s)… [15]”

“In the 1980s, South Africa's apartheid regime ran a biological weapons program called "Project Coast". According to an April 2001 U.S. Air Force Report [36] one of the program's goals was to develop a "black bomb" via genetic engineering research. The "black bomb" would weaken or kill blacks but not whites. [37] In addition to the "black bomb," Project Coast planned to build a large-scale anthrax production facility to produce anthrax for use against black guerrilla fighters inside or outside of South Africa [38], and to develop a drug that would induce infertility and could be given surreptitiously to blacks, perhaps under the pretext of a vaccine. [39] None of these goals were achieved. However, in one of the appendices to the USAF report, the authors asked, "In its genetic engineering experiments, how close was South Africa to a "black bomb"? Are other countries developing similar biological weapons?" [40]

“On November 15, 1998, the Sunday Times of London ran a front page article reporting that the Israelis were planning an ethnic bomb. [41] The article stated that the Israelis were trying to identify distinctive genes carried by some Arabs, particularly Iraqis.” .

“In light of the Israeli research into the genetic differences between Arabs and Jews, who share Semitic origin, and in light of the overwhelming evidence that the United States Government had foreknowledge of the 9-11 attacks and allowed them to occur, resulting in the deaths of thousands of U.S. citizens, no one should assume that any weapon, genetic or not, would not be developed because some of the developer's people might suffer the same fate as the targeted "enemy."
-- --

“The JGI web site describes the Institute as "virtual human genome institute" that integrates the sequencing activities of the human genome centers at the three JGI member institutions: Lawrence Livermore, Lawrence Berkeley, and Los Alamos National Laboratories. JGI partner institutions include Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and Stanford Genome Center." [50] The Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos and Oak Ridge laboratories are well known as nuclear weapons research facilities. Lawrence Livermore and Los Alamos are seeking to install high containment microbiology labs in their facilities. These labs could work with virulent organisms such as live anthrax, botulism, plague.”

“A Career in Microbiology Can Be Harmful to Your Health:


“In the four-month period from Nov. 12 through Feb. 11, seven world-class microbiologists in different parts of the world were reported dead. Six died of "unnatural" causes, while the cause of the seventh's death is questionable. Also on Nov. 12, DynCorp, a major government contractor for data processing, military operations and intelligence work, was awarded a $322 million contract to develop, produce and store vaccines for the Department of Defense. DynCorp and Hadron, both defense contractors connected to classified research programs on communicable diseases, have also been linked to a software program known as PROMIS, which may have helped identify and target the victims.”
-- --

“Currently, Ken Alibek [Kanatjan Alibekov, the no. 2 man in the former Soviet Union biowarfare program who defected to the US in 1992] is President of Hadron Advanced Biosystems, a subsidiary of Alexandria, Va.-based Hadron, Inc. Hadron describes itself as a company specializing in the development of technical solutions for the intelligence community. As chief scientist at Hadron, Alibek gave extensive testimony to the House Armed Services Committee about biological weapons on Oct. 20, 1999, and again on May 23, 2000. Hadron announced on Dec. 20 that as of that date, the company had received $12 million in funding for medical biodefense research from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, and the NIH. Hadron said it was working in the field of non-specific immunity.

In the 1980s Hadron was founded and headed by Dr. Earl Brian, a medical doctor and crony of Ronald Reagan and an associate of former Attorney General Edwin Meese. Brian was convicted in the 1980s on fraud charges. Both Hadron and Brian have been closely associated in court documents and numerous credible reports, confirmed since Sept. 11, with the theft of enhanced PROMIS software from its owner, the INSLAW Corporation. PROMIS is a highly sophisticated computer program capable of integrating a wide variety of databases. The software has reportedly been mated in recent years with artificial intelligence. PROMIS has long been known to have been modified by intelligence agencies with a back door that allows for surreptitious retrieval of stored data.”

-- --

“The entire process can also be turned around to develop a pathogen that will affect a broad class of people sharing a genetic marker. A broad class of people sharing a genetic marker could be a group such as a race, or people with brown eyes.”


One company, DynCorp, handles data processing for many federal agencies, including the CDC, the Department of Agriculture, several branches of the Department of Justice, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the NIH. On Nov. 12 DynCorp announced that its subsidiary, DynPort Vaccine, had been awarded a $322 million contract to develop, produce, test, and store FDA licensed vaccines for use by the Defense Department….

Reasons to suspect DynCorp of criminal behavior are not hard to find. Investigative reporter Kelly O Meara of Insight Magazine, in a story dated February 4, disclosed a massive US military investigation of how DynCorp employees in Bosnia had engaged in a widespread sex slave ring, trading children as young as eight and videotaping forced sexual encounters. She reviewed government documents and interviewed Army investigators looking into the activities which had spread throughout DynCorp s contract operations to service helicopters and warehouse supplies for the US military. Videos and other evidence of the crimes are in the Army s possession. And in a February 23rd story, veteran journalist Al Giordano of reported that a class action suit had been filed in Washington, D.C. by more than 10,000 Ecuadorian farmers and a labor union against DynCorp for its rampant spraying of herbicides which have destroyed food crops, weakened the ecosystem and caused more than 1,100 documented cases of illness…. DynCorp s former Chairman, current board member and the lead investor in Capricorn Holdings, is Herbert Pug Winokur. Winokur was, until recently, Chairman of the Enron Finance Committee.

Please read more at the link….

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An article from October 2005 entitled: The Avian Flu Fright is Politically Timed: A Public Health Warning and Political Essay by Dr. Len Horowitz, whose work “resulted in the United States General Accounting Office investigating the man-made origin of AIDS theory”, and whose “stunning testimony before the United States Congress' Government Reform Committee, literally brought the hearing to a halt. (See: Dr. Horowitz questioned government health officials regarding a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) secreted report showing a definitive link between the mercury ingredient (i.e., Thimerosal), common to most vaccinations, and the skyrocketing rates of autism and behavioral disorders affecting our children and the future of our nation.” He is the author of two books: Emerging Viruses: AIDS & Ebola - Nature, Accident or Intentional? and Death in the Air: Globalism, Terrorism and Toxic Warfare.

Here’s the abstract for that article:

If avian flu becomes more than a threatened pandemic, it will have done so by political and economic design. This thesis is supported by current massive media misrepresentations, profiteering on risky and valueless vaccines, gross neglect of data evidencing earlier similar man-made plagues including SARS, West Nile Virus, AIDS and more; continuance of genetic studies breeding more mutant flu viruses likely to outbreak, inside trading scandals involving pandemic savvy White House and drug industry officials, curious immunity of these pharmaceutical entities over the past century to law enforcement and mainstream media scrutiny, and published official depopulation objectives. With the revelations and assertions advanced herein, the public is forewarned against this physician-assisted mass murder best termed “iatrogenocide.”* This genocidal imposition is expected to serve mainly economic and political depopulation objectives.

Here is an excerpt from that article:

I suppose we should overlook the fact that the current frightening strain of H5N1 avian flu virus has never readily jumped from human to human, and not commonly from birds to humans either. Thus, an effective vaccine can only be prepared by mutating this virus, thus creating what the world fears most. Let me explain. . . .

To make the human vaccine specific for the H5N1 mutant virus, you must start with the human virus which does not yet exist, except in perhaps military-biomedical-pharmaceutical laboratories. In fact, this is precisely what is being prepared based on news reports. To produce the human pathogen, the avian virus must be cultured for lengthy periods of time in human cell cultures, then injected into monkey and ultimately humans to see if these experimental subjects get the same feared flu. Thus, the flu virus the world currently fears most is either: 1) now being prepared in labs paid by industrialists with massive wealth-building incentives to “accidentally” release the virus; or 2) has already been prepared in such labs to take advantage of this current fright and future sales following the virus’s release.

Remember, to be effective against a virus, a vaccine is said to require specificity. If authorities were to now have the main H5N1 avian flu strain feared to spread at some future date there’s no assurance by the time they developed the vaccine the strain would remain sufficiently the same for the vaccine to be effective anyway due to expected viral mutations. Viral mutations over time is a function of the agent’s newness. New man-made viruses, laboratory creations, like the ones currently being prepared for vaccine trials, are less stable not having evolved over the millennia. Thus, the entire vaccine effort is largely, if not entirely, a sham with ulterior motives.

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Simultaneous drill and bird flu outbreak in Britain?

“Britain's bird flu scare that officials are now warning could spread to other areas of Scotland coincided with an exercise that drilled a response to an avian flu outbreak. The drill included the involvement of Downing Street and the Ministry of Defence.

The BBC reports that the exercise was cancelled as soon as the discovery of the H5 virus in the dead swan in Fife was made.

"The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs in London was running it with control centres in Bury St Edmunds, Leeds, Cardiff and Gloucester," states the article.

"It also involved the Association of Chief Police Officers, the Environment Agency, Downing Street, the Ministry of Defence, and other government departments."

The drill revolved around a scenario where bird flu was discovered in two places in England and one in Wales…”. (more at link)

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A book review:

"In False Alarm: The Truth About the Epidemic of Fear, Marc Siegel, M.D. tries to reduce the hysteria quotient with a straightforward recitation of facts and statistics. He says that anthrax, severe acute respiratory syndrome, bird flu and Iraq's so-called weapons of mass destruction have been transformed by exploitative politicians and a pandering media into prompts that raise our anxiety levels much higher than the statistical likelihood of these threats happening... Fear, biologically wired in, has been a protective adaptation that has allowed the human species to survive. But today, as Siegel suggests, it is counter-adaptive"-

-- Benjamin Barber, Los Angeles Times

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Don’t forget the proclamations of the President… that he be allowed to mobilize the military in response to an outbreak of a flu pandemic.

# # #

On Los Alamos computer simulations of pandemic

“A mile from the main compound at Los Alamos, in a grade school turned research lab, half a dozen physicists and computer scientists (and one mathematical biologist) are grinding out disease like pepper from a mill. This is EpiSims, an ambitious computer-simulation project that has released anthrax in Houston, sown the bubonic plague in Chicago, and, most recently, spread the flu in Los Angeles. In 2000, EpiSims let loose smallpox in Portland, Oregon. Programmers started by creating a computer model of the city that's accurate down to the individual high school, traffic light, and citizen… James Smith, who runs the EpiSims project at Los Alamos, describes his tools as "giant data fusion engines." Tapping the scientists' sophisticated computing algorithms and the lab's supercomputer clusters, it takes about 300 parallel processors and less than 24 hours to run a one-year simulation.

But simulating the spread of disease is only half the job. EpiSims also had to evaluate how officials should respond…. EpiSims eventually ran through hundreds of smallpox models, sometimes vaccinating only exposed individuals, other times targeting the so-called superspreaders, individuals who transmit more than their share of disease, sometimes putting the entire city in quarantine. With every tweak, the disease would peter out or gain steam accordingly….

For a highly communicable disease like smallpox or influenza, these incident...
"The philosophers have only interpreted the world, in various ways. The point, however, is to change it." Karl Marx

"He would, wouldn't he?" Mandy Rice-Davies. When asked in court whether she knew that Lord Astor had denied having sex with her.

“I think it would be a good idea” Ghandi, when asked about Western Civilisation.
The problem is that the powers that be would use such weapons when it suited their purposes, but they would also create an illusory panic of a possible global pandemic if it also suited their agenda.

Not to mention the very considerable additional profit generated from world sales of completely unnecessary drugs and equipment as we saw from Bird flu and the leap in Tamiflu vaccines

So, I'm sitting here looking at the growing panic around the world noting that there have been no deaths of the Pig flu outside of Mexico - albeit two "possible" deaths in California, plus a total of 152 deaths in Mexico itself.

Should we truly be alarmed? Not really.

In an ordinary flu season, 35,000 deaths occur in the US alone (see: )

In the Uk in the early 1990's seasonal flu deaths totaled around 22,000. By 2004/5 this number had been reduced to the low 2000's due to the increased vaccination programme in the UK (see: ).

In the last outbreak of "scare flu", sales of Tamiflu vaccine skyrocketed from $150 million to $2.2 billion. This time around all the big pharma companies stock market prices have leapt (see: ).

[Image: article-1173894-04B21CEA000005DC-382_468x193.jpg]
The shadow is a moral problem that challenges the whole ego-personality, for no one can become conscious of the shadow without considerable moral effort. To become conscious of it involves recognizing the dark aspects of the personality as present and real. This act is the essential condition for any kind of self-knowledge.
Carl Jung - Aion (1951). CW 9, Part II: P.14
"The philosophers have only interpreted the world, in various ways. The point, however, is to change it." Karl Marx

"He would, wouldn't he?" Mandy Rice-Davies. When asked in court whether she knew that Lord Astor had denied having sex with her.

“I think it would be a good idea” Ghandi, when asked about Western Civilisation.
With regard to Frank Olson, the version of events that I now believe is that Olson discovered his conscience, and was about to blow the whistle on terminal human experiments being undertaken under early incarnations of "MK-ULTRA" and its still highly secret British equivalent. Plus the use of biological warfare weapons by the "allies"/NATO.

There's a very good German documentary on the murder of Dr Frank Olson by by American intelligence starting at the url below (it's in five parts, and the other parts can be easily found from this Part One link):

Lots of interesting material, such as the proven use by the CIA of Nazi doctors (eg Kurt Blome, Fritz Hoffmann) in mind control & lethal chemical interrogation "research" (probably under Paperclip), and the identification of a top secret CIA headquarters in Germany, located in the building of an IG Farben successor company, in the heart of Frankfurt in the early 1950s.

(Thomas Pynchon - have a good giggle at that!)

Frank Olson's son, Eric Olson, believes that one of the reasons his father was murdered was his knowledge of the use of germ warfare by America during the Korean War. Of course after American POWs confessed to this, known CIA asset & hack Edward Hunter claimed that they had been "brainwashed" - a piece of essentially meaningless mumbo jumbo that has prevailed ever since. The documentary includes attempts by Eric Olson to persuade his father's scientific colleagues to repeat on camera what they have told him off camera.

Watch and judge for yourselves who you believe.

A good and important film.

Dr Frank Olson seems to have been a man with a conscience. His murder was covered up by Donald Rumsfeld and Dick Cheney to protect their bastard view of American "National Security".

Yet again, the orthodox history of the Twentieth Century (the one they teach in schools and universities) is revealed as an ugly lie.

Quote:August 28, 2002
The Secret Sharers
The CIA, the Bush Gang and
the Killing of Frank Olson

by Chris Floyd

There is a thread running through modern American history, a thin red cord that weaves in and out of the shifting facades of reason and respectability that mask the brutal machinery of power. At certain rare moments the thread flashes into sight, emerging from the chaotic jumble of unbearable truth and life-giving illusion that makes up human reality. It appears, bears witness, then vanishes again, forgotten behind the next facade.

It's a thread that runs from horrified young intelligence operatives stumbling into the death camps of Nazi Germany to hardened agents running assassination programs in the jungles of Vietnam to august men of state building a shadow government with secret decrees authorizing tyranny, murder, torture and deceit. It's a thread of moral corruption, corruption by an idea, a temptation, a perversion of reason, the whisper of evil that says: "The end justifies the means."

That thread fetched up briefly again earlier this month, then was buried, literally, in a Maryland grave. The family of Frank Olson laid his exhumed remains to rest, closing the book on their half-century of struggle to find out why he died so violently in the hands of the government he had served--and whose deepest secrets he had guarded.

Frank's son, Eric, believes he knows the answer now: his father was murdered to keep the thread from sight, to "protect" the American people from the knowledge that their own government had taken up and extended Nazi experiments on mind control, psychological torture and chemical warfare--and that it was conducting these experiments as the Nazis did, on unwilling subjects, on captives and "expendables," even to the point of "termination."

Frank Olson was a CIA scientist at Fort Detrick, Maryland, the Army's biological weapons research center. Ostensibly he was a civilian employee of the Army; his family didn't know his true employer. Olson worked on methods of spreading anthrax and other toxins; some of his colleagues were involved in mind control drugs and torture techniques. But his life within the charmed circle of the American intelligence elite would unravel with dizzying speed in just a few months in 1953.

It began in the summer of that year, when Olson--increasingly troubled by his own and his colleague's work--made several trips to Europe, to investigate secret American-British research centers in Germany. There he found the CIA was testing "truth serums" and other torture drugs on "expendables," including captured Russian agents. He told a British colleague that he had witnessed "horrors" there. And it called into starkest question his own work on biochemical weapons. He came home a changed man, troubled, morose. He told his wife he wanted to leave government service.

But it was too late: the brutal machinery was already grinding. His British colleague told his own superiors about Olson's concerns; they in turn informed the CIA that Olson was now a "security risk." Not long after his return, Olson was given the LSD. Then he was flown to New York, ostensibly for psychiatric treatment, at the hands of a CIA doctor--who prescribed whiskey and pills. Then he was taken to a CIA magician--yes, a magician--who apparently tried to hypnotize him for interrogation.

Finally he checked into a cheap hotel--with a CIA handler, Robert Lashbrook, in tow. Olson called his wife, told her he was feeling better and would be home the next day. But that night, he was found dead on the street, 10 floors below. The handler said that Olson had apparently thrown himself through the closed window in a suicidal fit. The government told the family it was simply a tragic suicide. They didn't mention the LSD--or the fact that Olson worked for the CIA.

It would take Eric Olson 49 years to piece together as much of the truth as we are ever likely to know about what happened that night. But first would come a false dawn, a cruel trick played on the family by cynical operators in Ford Administration, who used a screen of half-truth and deliberate falsehood to divert the Olsons--and the nation--from the darkest tangles of the thread. Two of those operators would would work the thread--play upon it, thrive on it, hold hard to its damp crimson stain--to rise from the obscurity of White House functionaries to positions of colossal, world-shaking power:

Dick Cheney and Donald Rumsfeld.

Keeping the Faith

Washington, 1975. It was a long hot summer of discontent in the White House. The unelected president, Gerald Ford--who'd taken office after the resignation of Richard Nixon--was raging. Every day seemed to bring fresh horrors from the Congressional committees investigating America's intelligence agencies. Assassination plots, terrorist acts, coups, secret armies, subversion of allied governments, Mafia connections, torture, press manipulation, domestic surveillance--the revelations were endless, a bottomless pit of corruption and criminality being dredged up by the House and Senate panels.

Where was their sense of duty, the code of omerta that had for so long protected those who toil in the shadows, who do the dirty work to keep America fat and safe and happy? What right did these mere senators and representatives have to tell the people--the big dumb dazed mobocracy out there--the truth about what their leaders were doing in their name? They were like children, they could never understand the higher wisdom that guided the elites. Oh, it was a far cry from the old days, back on the Warren Commission, when a good soldier like Jerry Ford knew just what to do: you accepted whatever the agencies told you, and you steered investigations away from anything that might break the code and pierce the shadows.

So Ford seethed. What the hell is wrong over there at the CIA, he complained to his chief of staff, Donald Rumsfeld. Why couldn't Bill Colby, the director, keep a lid on things? Colby had even come clean about Operation Phoenix, for Christ's sake. More than 20,000 Vietnamese murdered in the CIA-run program--did Joe Lunchbucket really need to know about that?

What next? Are they going to find about Reinhard Gehlen, too: the Nazi spy who joined the CIA and recruited thousands of Hitler's best and brightest--including Klaus Barbie and a cadre of SS veterans--to work for the Agency? Sure, it would look bad, but come on: Gehlen was championed by Allen Dulles himself--the founding father of the CIA, the hotshot lawyer who kept Prescott Bush's name out of the papers when Pres was caught trading with the Nazis in 1942. Dulles and those Yale boys knew what was best--but try explaining that to some poor schmuck whose father got killed at Normandy or Auschwitz or some other godforsaken hole, eh?

As it happened, the "Gehlen Organization" stayed secret for another 26 years. But in July 1975, Ford had still more worries. A top White House aide, Dick Cheney, sent a memo to Rumsfeld, warning him about an upcoming lawsuit. The family of Frank Olson had found out--through the Congressional investigations--that he had been secretly drugged by the CIA not long before he took that fall from the hotel window. Now they were suing the government for damages.

The lawsuit could be bad business, Cheney told Rumsfeld. "It might be necessary to disclose highly classified national security information" during the trial. That would include the truth about Olson: the CIA connection, biochemical weapons, the mind-control and torture experiments based on Nazi death-camp "research," and the Agency fingerprints all over Olson's last days in New York City. The case might even reveal the existence of special "CIA Assassination Manuals," like the one issued in the year of Olson's death, 1953, stating: "The most efficient accident, in simple assassinations, is a fall of 75 feet or more onto a hard surface. Elevator shafts, stairwells, unscreened windows and bridges will serve. [In some cases], it will usually be necessary to stun or drug the subject before dropping him."

Such revelations had to be avoided at all costs. Rumsfeld and Cheney urged Ford to make a settlement before the trial started. To avoid the courts entirely, they would arrange a private bill in Congress to give the family some cash. The deal would be sweetened by private audiences with both Ford and Colby, apologizing for the CIA's past "mistakes," and promising "full disclosure" of all the facts, so the family could at last find peace.

And so it was done. And it was all a lie--beyond the bare fact, already unearthed by Congress, that Olson had been drugged by the CIA. The family got 17 minutes in the Oval Office with Ford--who apologized for the government's indirect involvement in Olson's death--that LSD test gone awry. Rogue elements, you know; unauthorized activity. Shouldn't have happened; never happen again. This was followed by a meeting with Colby, who handed over a thick file: the CIA's "complete" investigation of the Olson affair--so complete that it forgot to mention that Olson was a CIA official. Or that his colleagues considered him a "security risk." Little things like that.

Thus began the second cover-up. It took Eric Olson another 27 years to piece together the story, from obscure archives, through lucky accidents, and strained meetings with old CIA hands, who let fall dribs and drabs of the truth. He was even forced to exhume his father's body: a gruesome process that revealed the original 1953 post-mortem had also been a lie.

That examination had simply confirmed the cover story: poor sap had flung himself through the glass and splattered on the sidewalk below. No autopsy needed. Close the coffin--the body is too busted-up for the family to see--and close the case. But the second examination, decades later, carried out by forensic experts, revealed the truth. There were no marks on the well-preserved cadaver consistent with a self-propelled flight through the window: no cuts on the face or arms. There was, however, a cranial injury entirely consistent with a blow to the head--delivered before the fall.

Earlier this year, the Cheney-Rumsfeld memos came to light, confirming that the Olsons had been deliberately lied to in 1975. It helped fill in some of the remaining pieces of the scattered jigsaw puzzle that was his father's death--and had become Eric's life. And although the centerpiece of the puzzle--the fateful moments in that hotel room, before Frank Olson went through the glass--remains forever absent, the picture was as complete as it would ever be, Eric decided. And so he buried his father, again, in the dark Maryland earth.

But Ford, Rumsfeld and Cheney had kept the faith back in those dangerous days of 1975. They had honored omerta. Colby was not so lucky. For his sins--his "weakness" in allowing a few spears of sunlight into the shadows--he was summarily dismissed a few months later. He was replaced by a man who also lived by the code, who would keep the precious Agency--and all its Gehlens, its torturers, its dopers, its shooters--safe from the mobocracy, the ignorant rabble with their pathetic fairy-tale notions about democracy, justice, law and honor. He would guard the shadow world so well that one day the headquarters of the CIA would proudly bear his name:

George Herbert Walker Bush.

Chris Floyd is a columnist for the Moscow Times and a regular contributor to CounterPunch.
"It means this War was never political at all, the politics was all theatre, all just to keep the people distracted...."
"Proverbs for Paranoids 4: You hide, They seek."
"They are in Love. Fuck the War."

Gravity's Rainbow, Thomas Pynchon

"Ccollanan Pachacamac ricuy auccacunac yahuarniy hichascancuta."
The last words of the last Inka, Tupac Amaru, led to the gallows by men of god & dogs of war
A secret that could destroy the CIA
by Kevin Dowling and Phillip Knightley

In the early hours of 28 November 1953, Armand Pastore, the night manager of the Statler Hotel, New York, was startled to hear a crash of breaking glass and then a sickening thump on the pavement outside his hotel. He rushed out to find a middle-aged man lying semi-conscious on the ground.

Pastore looked up to see light shining from a shattered window of a room on the hotel's thirteenth floor. He knelt down alongside the man, cradled his head in his arms and leaned closer as the man made an effort to speak, then died. He had obviously jumped out of the window, just another suicide in a city where the plunge from skyscraper to pavement was a shocking but not unusual event.

Suicide was certainly the finding at the inquest — Dr Frank Olson, a United States Army scientist, for reasons no one could fathom, had taken his own life. And that was what the record showed for the next twenty-two years.

Then in 1975 the Rockefeller Commission, set up by President Ford to examine the extent of the CIA's illegal domestic operations, revealed that an unnamed army scientist had died after CIA experts, experimenting with mind-bending drugs, had secretly slipped him a dose of potent LSD. During the ensuing uproar, the scientist was identified as Frank Olson.

The US government moved immediately to show how sorry it was for what had happened. Congress passed a private humanitarian relief bill which authorised a payment of $750,000 to the widow, Mrs Olson, and her three children. Mrs Olson and her son Eric were invited to the White House where President Ford publicly apologised to them. And the then CIA director, William Colby, held a lunch for Mrs Olson and Eric in his office at the CIA, apologised and gave them the CIA file on the case.

According to the file, Olson had suffered a "chemically-induced psychotic flashback" a week after he had been slipped the dose of LSD. So a CIA doctor, Richard Lashbrook, had been deputed to look after Olson until he was normal again. Lashbrook had been sharing the hotel room with Olson and was asleep in a bed next to him when, he said, he was awoken by the sound of breaking glass and realised that Olson had crashed through the window.

Eric, who is now 54,was never very convinced by this version of events but kept quiet so as not to distress his mother. Then when she died in 1994 he decided to test the official story of his father's death. Experts told him that in order to achieve the momentum needed to vault over a central heating radiator under the window, burst through the closed blinds and smash through the hotel's heavy glass panes, Olson would have had to struck the window travelling at more than 30 km per hour. A trained athlete takes about fifty metres to accelerate to that speed. But the hotel room was only 5.5 metres long.

Next there was Dr. Lashbrook's strange behaviour when the hotel manager Pastore arrived in the room to tell him that his colleague was dead on the pavement below. Lashbrook went to the telephone, rang a number and simply said, "Olson's gone". Then he hung up and retired to the bathroom where he sat on the lavatory with his head in his hands.

Eric Olson, a Maryland clinical psychologist, began to spend every spare moment trying to get at the true story of what had happened to his father. Today he is convinced he is on the brink of doing so. But the story is so strange, so reminiscent of the TV series "The X-Files," that despite compelling evidence, it is uncertain that anyone will believe it.

THE TERMS of the $750,000 government settlement for Olson's death prevented his family from pursuing the matter in the civil courts. But if Eric Olson could convince the authorities that his father's death was a criminal matter, then he might eventually get at the truth. Four years ago he had his first breakthrough when he won a court order to exhume his father's body.

"When he was buried the coffin had been sealed. They said he had been so badly mutilated in the fall that it wouldn't be right for the family to see him. But when we opened the casket a lifetime later, I knew Daddy at once. He had been embalmed and his face was unmarked and untroubled. He hadn't been hurt the way they said he had."

A new autopsy confirmed Eric Olson's impression and entirely contradicted the findings of the first inquest. Carried out by a team led by James Starrs, Professor of Law and Forensic Science at The National Law Centre, George Washington University, it could find no sign of the cuts and abrasions that the first autopsy said had been caused by crashing through the window glass.

On the other hand, there was a haematoma, unrecorded at the first post mortem examination, on the left hand side of Olson's skull. This had been caused by a heavy blow, James Starrs decided, probably from a hammer, before the fall from the window. Starrs and his team concluded that the evidence from their examination was "rankly and starkly suggestive of homicide."

Although the team did not say so — because it could be only supposition — someone had struck Olson on the head with a hammer, smashed open the window, probably with the same hammer, and had then thrown Olson out. But the new autopsy findings were certainly enough for a New York public prosecutor, Stephen Saracco, to win the right for a grand jury to begin hearing the evidence he had uncovered. If the jury, too, found the evidence of murder compelling, then Saracco requested that it should hand down indictments for murder and conspiracy to murder.

Saracco, an ambitious, aggressive lawyer with no fear about taking on the American establishment, says that the men he wants named in the indictments will include some of America's most respected CIA veterans and, if the grand jury agrees to his request to widen his investigations, former officers of the British Secret Intelligence and Security Services as well.

Already there are indications that the international intelligence community is running scared. The CIA and the Department of Justice have resisted Saracco 's attempts to subpoena Dr. Lashbrook, who now lives in California, to question him, among other things, about Olson's last hours, the telephone call that Lashbrook made immediately after Olson's death and the work that Lashbrook and Olson had been engaged in together.

Early in July, after months of negotiation, the two government departments gave in and agreed that the grand jury should hear Saracco's team examine Lashbrook at Venture County Courthouse during the week beginning 24 August. Saracco has already offered Lashbrook immunity from prosecution in return for his testimony. He was too late, however, to do the same for William Colby, the CIA chief who apologised for Olson's death.

On 27 April 1996, after Saracco won the right to a grand jury hearing, Colby who realised that he would be forced to give evidence, vanished from his country retreat about forty miles south of Washington. It looked as if he had left in a hurry: the lights and the radio were still on, his computer was still running, and a half finished glass of wine was on the table. The next day his empty canoe was found swamped on a sand bar. Five days later divers found a body identified as Colby's. He had apparently been the victim of a boating accident.

If so, it would appear that Maryland waters are particularly unkind to retired members of the CIA. In 1978 another CIA officer, John Paisley, also vanished there in another boating accident. A week after Paisley's abandoned boat was located, a body with a gunshot wound to the head was found. But the condition of the body meant that precise identification was impossible — making the area a conspiracy blackspot.

Suppose the grand jury does in the end find that the evidence that Olson was murdered and that the perpetrators were other CIA officers, there will still remain a major barrier to an eventual conviction — what was the motive? What was so sensitive to the CIA that it would kill one of its own? To find an answer we have to go back to the fifties when the two great ideologies of the 20th century, communism and capitalism, were locked in a battle to the death and no act no matter how morally shocking was ruled out in the struggle for victory.

THE NUCLEAR stand-off of the Cold War had sent both sides back to their drawing boards. If it were impossible to employ nuclear weapons without assuring mutual total destruction, what other weapons could the boffins come up with — given virtually unlimited funds and no moral restraints — that would win any future war? Two possibilities attracted attention. The first was bacteriological warfare.

Bacteriological warfare is remarkably cheap; it has been described as "the poor man's nuclear bomb." A deadly virus sufficient to wipe out every living person over an area of one square mile would cost only about $50. In the 1950s both sides in the Cold War set up research establishments to develop biological weapons, methods of delivering them, and methods of protecting against them. Dr. Frank Olson worked in this area.

Trained as a biochemist, he had been employed since 1943 in the Special Operations Division at Fort Detrick, Maryland, was associated with a CIA secret research unit known at the time as MK-ULTRA, and came to Britain frequently between 1950-53 to work at the British Microbiological Research Establishment (MRE) at Porton Down. Olson was part of a team which was developing aerosol delivery systems for biological weapons that included staphylococcus enterotoxin, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis and anthrax. Olson seems to have concentrated on counter-biological warfare, trying to find vaccines and special clothing that would protect against attack.

Deadly effective though it may be, biological warfare has drawbacks. There is always the risk that it may get out of control and attack not only the enemy but those who decided to employ it in the first place. Like nuclear warfare, biological warfare could wipe out civilisation as we know it. So Olson and some of his colleagues became intrigued by another type of weapon altogether, one which attacked not the body but the mind.

Those scientists in the Western intelligence community who supported the idea of developing brain-washing programmes had two gurus — Dr Douglas Ewan Cameron, a Glasgow-born psychiatrist, and Dr. Sydney "The Gimp" Gottlieb, the CIA's top expert on brainwashing. Cameron won his post-graduate diploma in psychiatric medicine at the University of London before joining the staff at John Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, in 1926. He became convinced that the mentally ill posed a grave threat to Anglo-American civilisation and should be forcibly sterilised.

During the Second World War he was a member of the Military Mobilization Committee of the American Psychiatric Association and was appalled to learn that of the fifteen million men inducted into the US armed forces, two million had to be rejected on neuropsychiatric grounds, a proportion far higher than in any other nation. He set about finding remedies including electroshock (60,000 ECTs in a single year), lobotomies and other forms of psychosurgery, sensory deprivation and mind-altering drugs — all used on patients who had little or no say in their treatment. Conscientious objectors, many of them Quakers, were defined by Cameron as mentally-ill and sometimes forced to accept treatment.

When the end of the war revealed that the Nazis had been carrying out similar experiments — 23 German doctors were convicted at Nuremberg — the Western intelligence community suddenly became very interested in Cameron's work. This interest grew to an obsession after the Stalin show trials with the robotic, apparently artificially-induced confessions made by the accused. Then the behaviour of American POWs held in Chinese camps during the Korean War and their subsequent denunciation of the American way of life, futher convinced the CIA that the communists were already well advanced in mind control techniques. In intelligence circles there were rumours of a Soviet plot to place brain-washed zombies in the White House and other citadels of Western power.

The American response was MK-ULTRA. Its director, Dr. Gottleib, sought help from his Scottish hero, Cameron, and set him up with cover organisations to distance the CIA from some of the more abhorent aspects of MK-ULTRA's work. So Cameron founded the Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology, ran a proprietary company called Psychological Assessment Associates, and contributed papers to learned journals on "Psychic Driving", "The Restructuring of the Personality" and "Suggestion and Extra-Sensory Perception."

The short-term goals were to counter any communist plot to insert brain-washed assassins into the West. However, according to authors Gerald Colby and Charlotte Dennett, biographers of Nelson Rockefeller — one-time chairman of a committee overseeing the MK-ULTRA operation — the scientists also wanted to find drugs or techniques by which "a man could be surreptitiously drugged through the medium of an alcoholic cocktail at a social party ... and the subject induced to perform the act of attempted assassination of an official in a government in which he was well-established socially and politically."

A far-fetched idea, perhaps, but one whose currency was not limited to the CIA. A few years later, the surreptitious administration of a mind-altering drug in a drink at a party was suggested as a possible solution to a strange double death in Sydney, Australia. On the morning of January 1, 1963, Dr. Gilbert Bogle, and his lover, Mrs. Margaret Chandler, were found dead on a river bank after a riotous party given by staff of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization. Bogle, a brilliant scientist, had told friends that he was about to go to the US to work on scientific research of great military importance. The deaths were never solved, but Sydney detectives became convinced that Bogle and his colleagues had been experimenting with LSD and the effect it produced on their thought-processes — the invitation to the New Year's party required each guest to bring a painting done under the influenced of the drug — and either by accident or by design someone had slipped the couple what turned out to be an overdose.

Repeated requests to the BBI under the Freedom of Information Act asking for details of the work that Bogle would have been doing in the US have met with refusal on the grounds of national security. But the speculation is irresistible that it might have involved experiments in mind control similar to those that Olson had worked on.

The long-term aim of these experiments with mind-altering drugs is thought by those who have studied the MK-ULTRA programme to have been to ensure the dominance of Anglo-American civilisation in the "war of all against all — the key to evolutionary success." Brain-washing would be used not only to defeat the enemy but to ensure compliance and loyalty of one's own population.

Where did Dr. Olson fit into all this? A Harley Street psychiatrist, Dr. William Sargant, now dead, was sent by the British goverment in the early 1950s to evaluate MK-ULTRA. On his return he told a colleague and friend, former BBC television producer, Gordon Thomas, that what Cameron and Gottlieb were up to was as bad as anything going on in the Soviet gulags.

Thomas, whose books include a 1988 study of the CIA's forays into mind-control, Journey into Madness: Medical Torture and the Mind Controllers, says "Sargant told me that he had urged the British government to distance this country from it. He said it was blacker than black." According to Thomas, Sargant told him that Frank Olson had come to Britain between 1950-53 to work on attachment at Porton Down and had also made frequent visits to "an intelligence facility" in Sussex. This is confirmed by entries in the special passport that Olson used.

The stamps on the passport, which declare that the bearer was on "official business for the Department of the Army" indicate a pattern of travel that took Olson between various British military airfields, France, Occupied Germany, Scandanavia and the United States between May 1950 and August 1953. Prosecuting attorney Saracco believes that something happened on one of these trips that holds the key to Olson's death. Since the matter is still before a grand jury Saracco cannot talk about it but Gordon Thomas has his own idea of what it was. "The CIA was using German SS prisoners and Norwegian Quislings [collaborators] taken from jails and detention centres as guinea pigs to test Cameron's theories about mind control. The Agency preferred to conduct such clinical trials outside the United States because sometimes they were terminal — the human guinea pig ended up dead. Olson was accustomed to seeing lethal experiments done on animals but when human beings were used in this way it was too much for him. I believe that he wanted out."

Mike Miniccino, an American businessman and historical researcher who has spent 25 years studying the MK-ULTRA programme and developing a database on its activities says that if Olson expressed doubts about MK-ULTRA and its work then he would have done so to William Sargant, the Harley Street psychiatrist, who had evaluated MK-ULTRA's work and who had been a close colleague of Olson's.

And although — as we already know — Sargant wanted the British government to distance itself from the CIA's work with MK-ULTRA, Miniccino says he nevertheless was committed to the principle of mind control and became the link between the British Secret Intelligence Service and MK-ULTRA. Miniccino adds, "So if Frank Olson expressed serious doubts about the MK-ULTRA project to Sargant, then he signed his own death warrant."

What Miniccino is implying and what public prosecutor Saracco wants to prove is that the MK-ULTRA mind control project — with its clinical trials on unsuspecting human beings — was such a sensitive issue with the western intelligence community that it would go to any lengths to prevent an insider like Olson, from blowing the whistle.

Is this, then, what happened? Did Olson tell the British psychiatrist/SIS agent Sargant that he wanted out of the mind-control project, and that his conscience might compel him to reveal publicly what the intelligence services had been doing? Did Sargant then pass this on to SIS, who in turn told the CIA? Was a decision then taken to make certain that Olson never talked by destroying his memory with drugs and, when this failed, by murdering him and making it look like a suicide?

Apart from the evidence set out earlier, there is another compelling fact that supports this theory. Until Mrs Olson died in 1993, a regular visitor at her house was Olson's former boss in Special Operations, Vincent Ruwet. Ruwet would spend long daytime hours with Mrs Olson. The two would drink together at her house (Mrs. Olson became an alcoholic) while Ruwet listened to the problems she faced in bringing up her three fatherless children. Everyone considered him to be a sympathetic family friend. But newly-discovered documents reveal that Vincent Ruwet had been assigned by the CIA to "keep track of the wife." If Olson was a threat because of what he knew, and knowledge can be passed on, then the CIA would have to spy on all those who had been close to him in case he had told them the truth about MK-ULTRA. The CIA has always maintained as a matter of historical record that it has never murdered an American citizen on American soil. If, as a result of Eric Olson's persistence in trying to uncover what really happened to his father, and the investigating skills of public prosecutor Saracco, this turns out to be a lie, it could well be the beginning of the end of the Agency.

Eric Olson says, "The Cold War is over and there are now ongoing national debates about the future of the CIA and about unethical medical testing on humans. My father's case covers both. The use of hallucinogens, hypnosis, electroshock and other procedures in an attempt to control the way people behave was the CIA's equivalent of the Manhattan [atom bomb] Project. MK-ULTRA was secret, shocking and incredibly dangerous. They couldn't afford to take the risk of letting my father continue to be involved or, considering all he knew, allowing him to quit. So he was terminated instead. My father's murder crossed a line in the sand which the U.S. government has always publicly respected. The guilty ones will not be allowed to get away with it." Or as Fox Mulder would say, "The truth is out there."

© 1998 Kevin Dowling and Phillip Knightley

Published in Night and Day magazine, the Sunday supplement to The London Mail on August 23, 1998.

Reprinted June 12, 1999 in Dagens Nyheter (Sweden).

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The Frank Olson Legacy Project: How to Help
"It means this War was never political at all, the politics was all theatre, all just to keep the people distracted...."
"Proverbs for Paranoids 4: You hide, They seek."
"They are in Love. Fuck the War."

Gravity's Rainbow, Thomas Pynchon

"Ccollanan Pachacamac ricuy auccacunac yahuarniy hichascancuta."
The last words of the last Inka, Tupac Amaru, led to the gallows by men of god & dogs of war
Panama is a luverly place to mix up some potions:

Quote:US Army Tropic Test Site
As providers of equipment for use around the globe, it is frequently necessary for military materiel developers to meet the challenges posed by the world’s harsh climatic extremes. To ensure that humid tropic challenges are met, Army systems began to be tested systematically in the Panama Canal Zone in 1962, with the establishment of the Tropic Test Center (TTC) under the U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command. However, TTC history goes back much farther.

Several "crash" testing programs were instituted in Panama during World War II to ensure that military equipment deployed to tropical locations remained effective. Many years after the war, in 1962, the surviving activities were consolidated into one agency – the Tropic Test Center. Numbering well over 300 people during the Vietnam War days of the 1960’s, the organization has since been downsized and placed under the management of U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground.

The Tropic Test Center mission is to plan and conduct tropic environmental development tests on a wide variety of military systems, materials, weapons, and equipment of all conceivable types, sizes, configurations, and uses. The center’s laboratory facilities provide detailed information on tropic-induced failures and other environmental effects. All testing in Panama is conducted to the same stringent environmental protection standards as similar activities in the United States.

It all started with some covert Nazi business in the jungle:

Quote:The 5th Infantry left after WWI and returned to stay in Camp Paraiso from 1939 to 1943. The 2nd FA is the only other major US Army unit to be stationed at Clayton in those Pre WWII years. But we can claim the 33rd as our Canal Zone Reg. since it was born in the Zone.

The 33rd Infantry stayed in Clayton until December 7,1941 when virtually within hours they shipped out to Trinidad to set up the protection for the newly acquired Lend Lease Bases in Trinidad.

With German occupation of Holland the Dutch Queen had fled to Dutch Guiana and soon units of the 33rd Inf. came over to render protection for the queen and to thwart any attempt by Germany to move in more than was already happening. For secret Nazi bases had been set up in the jungles to supply U-Boats that would come up the river for provisions.

The troops of the 33rd Inf. battled hostile indians, the German camps and waylaid the U-Boats in ambush on the river. They were also there to insure the safe passage out of Bauxite ore which was so vital to our aircraft industry. These activities were kept a secret during the war and the 33rd Inf. returned home to Ft. Clayton in Feb.1946.

When the 33rd Inf. departed for war in 1941 they had at 25 years the longest record of continuous CZ service for any unit of the U.S. Army and were rightly considered the premier jungle trained unit in the Army. They were truly Zonians for no other unit like that had been born on the Zone.

Quote:More than 130 tests were conducted on San Jose Island between May 1944 and the end of 1947.36 Many of the tests were "drop tests" involving aircraft that dropped chemical munitions into target areas. Others required troops to fire chemical mortars into the test areas, and still others involved more controlled use of munitions. In a very few cases, project reports indicate the use of chemical simulants, but in most live agent was employed.

The project divided the island into eleven areas, six of which were laid in grids for target areas. The three largest target areas, made up of overlapping squares, were about one square mile each in size. The chemical agents tested (and their military codes) included: mustard gas and distilled mustard (H, HD), phosgene (CG), cyanogen chloride (CK), hydrogen cyanide (AC), and Butane.37 One participant remembers that Lewisite was also tested.38

From available documents, the number of munitions tested are known for 18 of the 130 tests conducted on San Jose Island. Some 4,397 chemical munitions were fired in these 18 tests, for an average of 244 munitions fired in each test. Most of the munitions fired - 3,816 - were 4.2" mortars charged with Cyanogen Chloride, mustard, or phosgene, but the chemical munitions also included bombs from 100 pounds to 1,000 pounds in weight and 105mm Howitzer shells.

The San Jose Project also tested chemical munitions on the sea off of Panama in order to determine whether chemical warfare could be effective against enemy ships.39 In addition, according to a military map drawn up in 1946, tests included chemical spray on Iguana Island, which was also used as a conventional bombing range.40

A later military summary stated that "no nerve agents were tested" in San Jose.41 One participant in the project, however, tentatively asserted that nerve agent was tested there. Eugene Reid, a professional chemist by training, was drafted into the Chemical Warfare Service and served in Florida, Dugway Proving Ground and Edgewood Arsenal, as well as on San Jose. "Besides mustard, they were also testing newer things. Nerve gases, that was the hot thing then," Reid said in 1997. When subsequently asked for confirmation, he was less certain whether nerve agents were tested on San Jose. "I suspect very much that they were, but I can't say for sure they were used," he said.42

While neither the United States nor Great Britain had developed nerve agents of its own by 1945, the Allies had captured significant quantities of nerve agent from the Nazis as Germany receded before advancing Allied troops in the Spring of 1945, which is when Reid arrived in San Jose. The British felt that some of the stocks of captured German nerve agent should be "retained for possible use in the Far East" should the Allies invade Japan, an eventuality for which the San Jose Project was preparing.43


One of the San Jose tests, carried out between August 9 and August 15, 1944, sought "to determine if any difference existed in the sensitivity of Puerto Rican and Continental U.S. Troops to H gas [mustard]." A preliminary test involved ten Puerto Rican troops and ten "continental" (i.e., Anglo-Saxon) troops, which was followed by a fuller test involving 45 Puerto Rican soldiers and 44 "continental" soldiers. The men, who were "unfamiliar with the use of chemical agents," were "given a stiff course in gas discipline and the significance of H [mustard] lesions to casualty production." The tests involved applying liquid mustard to the under-surface of the forearms of each subject, then observed for three days. A summary of the test produced by Defense Secretary William Cohen in April 1998 implied that some men were hospitalized after they "sustain[ed] severe body burns or eye lesions." Men with less severe burns were simply returned to their barracks and expected to meet company formations.

During World War II, the military developed an increased interest in biological warfare, both defensive and offensive. The first action of the War Research Service, which was established in 1942 to investigate a variety of unconventional weapons, was to set up antibiological warfare programs in the United States and abroad -- including the Canal Zone and Puerto Rico -- under the auspices of the Surgeon General's office. These programs instructed medical and military officers in defensive measures against biological weapons.99 (This and all subsequent endnotes can be found here.)

In late 1947, the British Navy proposed to use U.S. facilities on San Jose Island to support biological warfare trials at sea, beginning in October 1948. Under the plan, the United States would provide 20 technicians, care for animals used in the experiments, and "shore base facilities" for recreation and ship maintenance. The military's Joint Strategic Plans Committee favored the experiments because they would "facilitate the obtaining of essential basic research data in the BW [biological warfare] field." But with the evacuation of San Jose Island in January 1948, the plan for using that island was scuttled. The experiments may have been carried out instead on Parham Sound in Antigua, which was considered as an alternate site.100

Since plans for the military use of biological agents focused on their transmission through aerial spray techniques, studies of aerosol spray patterns in Panama may have been designed to explore how biological agents could be used there. Dugway Proving Ground's technical library lists a number of such studies.101 However, chemical sprays and smoke devices also rely on aerial and meteorological data.

The National Institutes of Health's Middle America Research Unit (MARU) actively used biological agents in Panama. MARU was established in the 1950s, and worked closely with the Gorgas Memorial Laboratory. Located in a building in Ancon Heights, MARU "handled some of the deadliest and most infectious diseases known to medicine at the time," according to Carl J. Peters, a scientist who worked there in the 1960s. Peters emphasized the measures taken to contain the agents that the MARU technicians were working on, but noted that one lab technician accidentally contracted Bolivian hemorrhagic fever at the lab and died within a few days.

One disease in particular that MARU worked with was Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE), a naturally-occurring virus which incapacitates but generally does not kill its human victims. Instead, VEE begins abruptly with high fever, chills and aches and an intense aversion to light, then typically is gone within a week or two. In Central America in the 1960s, VEE attacked horses and mules, leaving many dead, and MARU sought to stem the disease's migration toward the United States through development of a vaccine. But Peters writes:

Quote:Nobler designs aside, however, the U.S. government had other reasons to be interested in VEE. The symptoms in humans are so incapacitating that VEE had been seen as a potential biological weapon. The army wanted to develop different categories of biological warfare agents: incapacitators as well as killers. With a relatively short incubation period of two to three days, VEE could be an ideal incapacitator: neutralizing an enemy population right before a battle without risk of killing innocent civilians or committing wartime atrocities. With that as a plan, the army had developed a vaccine to protect our troops in case an enemy tried to use it on them, or presumably in case the wind blew the wrong way the day they tried to use it on someone else.102

The army authorized MARU to test a live-attenuated vaccine on horses in the field, and Peters describes such tests on Costa Rica's Pacific coast. The Gorgas Memorial Laboratory also studied VEE among humans in Almirante from 1960 to 1962 and in Darién and the urban communities of Patoistown and Zegla in 1968, as well as in laboratory animals during the same periods. The studies included testing live vaccines of VEE on animal subjects.103

Exercises to test the military usefulness of VEE were carried out in Vietnam in the 1960s and on deserted islands in the Pacific, according to one account, but were put aside because allied troops could not be protected.104

VEE has persisted for long periods in Panama. Troops training at Fort Sherman in 1981 contracted it, an exposure that was linked to VEE in 1970, when the military was actively experimenting with VEE. The Walter Reed Army Institute of Research reported:

Quote:An outbreak of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE) occurred in a unit of military personnel who had gone to Panama for jungle training in 1981. Exposure was linked to training in October in an area of Fort Sherman that was previously implicated over ten years ago. An intensive serological survey identified five cases presenting with fever, chills and headaches. VEE remains a threat to U.S. forces deployed to specific areas of Central America.105

In addition, 1977 news accounts cited intelligence sources who claimed that in 1971 U.S. intelligence agents brought Swine flu from Fort Gulick (Espinar) in Panama to Cuba, where the flu apparently contaminated a large number of pigs. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization called the epidemic of swine flu that hit Cuba in 1971 the "most alarming event" of that year. According to the accounts, an intelligence agent was given a sealed unmarked container and instructed to deliver it to an anti-Castro group in Panama. Cuban exiles interviewed for the report said they received the container off Bocas del Toro in Panama and brought it to contacts to the small island of Navassa, whence it was shipped to Cuba in late March 1971. The first Cuban pigs contracted the flu on about May 6.106 Cuban authorities slaughtered half a million pigs in order to contain the epidemic.107

Apart from the above information, however, we have not located documentation of current contamination by military biological agents in Panama. We also have not found documents indicating the testing or use of Agent Orange or other defoliants in Panama, though we do not discount the possibility that defoliants may have been tested there.

In November 1969, President Nixon issued an executive order renouncing the use of all biological warfare agents, effectively ending any lawful development of the agents. The declaration led to the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention, which outlawed efforts to "develop, produce, stockpile, or otherwise acquire or retain" any biological weapons. The United States became one of the first parties to the convention. The U.S. military subsequently converted stockpiled biological agents into harmless fertilizer.
"It means this War was never political at all, the politics was all theatre, all just to keep the people distracted...."
"Proverbs for Paranoids 4: You hide, They seek."
"They are in Love. Fuck the War."

Gravity's Rainbow, Thomas Pynchon

"Ccollanan Pachacamac ricuy auccacunac yahuarniy hichascancuta."
The last words of the last Inka, Tupac Amaru, led to the gallows by men of god & dogs of war
I've decided to highlight the following comments from my post above:

Quote:In addition, 1977 news accounts cited intelligence sources who claimed that in 1971 U.S. intelligence agents brought Swine flu from Fort Gulick (Espinar) in Panama to Cuba, where the flu apparently contaminated a large number of pigs. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization called the epidemic of swine flu that hit Cuba in 1971 the "most alarming event" of that year. According to the accounts, an intelligence agent was given a sealed unmarked container and instructed to deliver it to an anti-Castro group in Panama. Cuban exiles interviewed for the report said they received the container off Bocas del Toro in Panama and brought it to contacts to the small island of Navassa, whence it was shipped to Cuba in late March 1971. The first Cuban pigs contracted the flu on about May 6.106 Cuban authorities slaughtered half a million pigs in order to contain the epidemic.107

107 Alexander Cockburn, "From Pearls...", The Nation, March 9, 1998, p. 9.

Move along. Nothing to see here...

"It means this War was never political at all, the politics was all theatre, all just to keep the people distracted...."
"Proverbs for Paranoids 4: You hide, They seek."
"They are in Love. Fuck the War."

Gravity's Rainbow, Thomas Pynchon

"Ccollanan Pachacamac ricuy auccacunac yahuarniy hichascancuta."
The last words of the last Inka, Tupac Amaru, led to the gallows by men of god & dogs of war
Jan Klimkowski Wrote:I've decided to highlight the following comments from my post above:

Quote:In addition, 1977 news accounts cited intelligence sources who claimed that in 1971 U.S. intelligence agents brought Swine flu from Fort Gulick (Espinar) in Panama to Cuba, where the flu apparently contaminated a large number of pigs. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization called the epidemic of swine flu that hit Cuba in 1971 the "most alarming event" of that year. According to the accounts, an intelligence agent was given a sealed unmarked container and instructed to deliver it to an anti-Castro group in Panama. Cuban exiles interviewed for the report said they received the container off Bocas del Toro in Panama and brought it to contacts to the small island of Navassa, whence it was shipped to Cuba in late March 1971. The first Cuban pigs contracted the flu on about May 6.106 Cuban authorities slaughtered half a million pigs in order to contain the epidemic.107

107 Alexander Cockburn, "From Pearls...", The Nation, March 9, 1998, p. 9.

Move along. Nothing to see here...


Fascinating stuff Jan.

Maybe you should link this thread to the thread on the present apparently global "outbreak" of Swine flu?
The shadow is a moral problem that challenges the whole ego-personality, for no one can become conscious of the shadow without considerable moral effort. To become conscious of it involves recognizing the dark aspects of the personality as present and real. This act is the essential condition for any kind of self-knowledge.
Carl Jung - Aion (1951). CW 9, Part II: P.14
Quote:There's a very good German documentary on the murder of Dr Frank Olson by by American intelligence starting at the url below (it's in five parts, and the other parts can be easily found from this Part One link):

We have the German documentary in our You Tube channel. Eric Olsen also gave me the contact details of the producers for any one who wants to obtain a high quality version of the documentary of his father.
"The philosophers have only interpreted the world, in various ways. The point, however, is to change it." Karl Marx

"He would, wouldn't he?" Mandy Rice-Davies. When asked in court whether she knew that Lord Astor had denied having sex with her.

“I think it would be a good idea” Ghandi, when asked about Western Civilisation.
Magda Hassan Wrote:
Quote:There's a very good German documentary on the murder of Dr Frank Olson by by American intelligence starting at the url below (it's in five parts, and the other parts can be easily found from this Part One link):

We have the German documentary in our You Tube channel. Eric Olsen also gave me the contact details of the producers for any one who wants to obtain a high quality version of the documentary of his father.

Magda - sorry! :o
"It means this War was never political at all, the politics was all theatre, all just to keep the people distracted...."
"Proverbs for Paranoids 4: You hide, They seek."
"They are in Love. Fuck the War."

Gravity's Rainbow, Thomas Pynchon

"Ccollanan Pachacamac ricuy auccacunac yahuarniy hichascancuta."
The last words of the last Inka, Tupac Amaru, led to the gallows by men of god & dogs of war

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