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Clay Shaw’s “Centro Mondiale Commerciale” and its Israeli connections
Warning: this article of mine is for me the most difficult. It will also be the most important. It is, first of all, my tribute to the birth centenary of John Fitzgerald Kennedy, and to the anniversary of his assassination. It will sometimes contain personal accents. This in no way means that it will lack of objectivity. Quite the contrary. Please, more than ever I beg to read it to the end. Well, let's go.
I never ever doubted that one day I would have been narrating what I'm about to say. I was only looking for the right mean, and I think I found it: it's L'Antidiplomatico and its director  my director  Alessandro Bianchi, that  you must know it  never censures a dot or a comma of what I write.
Because of the content of the previous chapters of my CMC investigation, I can easily imagine some of my readers becoming surprised, if not even dazed, at reading the title. In all of those previous chapters, in fact, I did each time show the presence, in Centro Mondiale Commerciale, of individuals with a clearest fascist connotation. Speaking of Israel suddenly, might seem a contradiction. I answer that  and I stress unfortunately  it is not. And, before going to the enormous revelation on CMC I am about to give you, I will explain why it's not a contradiction thanks to a very concrete example. It is an example taken from another issue that I know very well: the History of Chile, a country that  in this case, it is not a stock phrase  everyone should visit at least once in their life. When Pinochet came to power there through a coup d'état supported by the US, a girl was kidnapped by the DINA, the regime's torture organization. She was only 23, her name was Diana Frida Arón Svigilsky, and she was born from a Jewish family. She was amazingly beautiful. In describing her, the language of poetry rises to your mouth: the face sprinkled by the spring of a conference of freckles; the hair crossed by obsidian; the height soaring like the rush of a hymn; the gait with something of the aerial proceeding of dreams. And just like her father Elias, Diana was a journalist. A journalist on Allende's side. That means, on the side of the legitimate President of Chile that Pinochet killed. Since Diana, because of her sensitivity so special that, among her friends, had given her the joking definition of Aliviol, the most famous Chilean brand of painkillers, immediately understood what her duty was: despite her profound economic prosperity, she instantly supported that socialist whose government priority was that the poor could stop being poor.
Therefore the DINA, on November 18, 1974, set up an ambush in which, in order to capture her, they even shot her. An ambush after which they led her forcibly to Villa Grimaldi, the main dictatorship detention center. A place where Diana, as witnesses later told, suffered the tortures of Miguel Krassnoff Martechenko, notorious tormentor. Tortures imparted despite that Diana was already copiously bleeding from the wounds received at the time of the seizure. Tortures imparted  please, pay attention  while mocking the religion of Diana; shouting at her a chilling infamous: "Not only a Jew, son of a bitch! No! You are even a communist!". Tortures given despite Diana's three and a half months of pregnancy. Tortures imparted until her heart ceased beating.
And all this, while Diana's parents, begging for the pity of a release, had sent their own rabbi, with the idea, thus, of being able to indirectly obtain compassion from the Hebrew Kissinger, the US Secretary of State and hidden mind of the coup. But the conversation between the rabbi and Manuel Contreras, the head of the DINA, produced only the extreme insult of the latter, who, despite knowing, of course, the true fate of Diana, denying, lying, had exclaimed: "Oh, please, please, come on! These girls! These girls! They go around, looking for adventures, and we have even to listen to you pointing at us your finger!"
Her parents did not understand that those like Kissinger, whose power is outside of any democratic definition, got that so incredible power because they simply do not consider their own ethnicity at all. Because if he had considered it, Kissinger would never have been the right-hand man of the deeply anti-Semitic Richard Nixon. If he had considered it, he would not have been maneuvering conspiracies from the White House. Instead, he would have been, for example, a member of one of the many Jewish Associations in the world that demand justice and equity for the Palestinians. If he had considered it, he would have realized that supporting someone like Pinochet, a madman surrounding himself with real Nazis like the Italian Stefano Delle Chiaie, is tantamount to twice killing the millions of Jews who were victims of Hitler's gas chambers.
In other words, Diana's parents did not understand that someone like Kissinger is incapable of finding inside himself and others that empathetic denominator of commonsense so wonderfully synthesized by JFK during his well-known June 1963 speech where the 35th President explained the absolute need to reach peace in the world by saying: "For, in the final analysis, our most basic common link is that we all inhabit this small planet. We all breathe the same air. We all cherish our children's future. And we are all mortal."
That said, here it is the revelation: Gershon Peres sat inside CMC, from 1967 to 1970. This is huge, because we are talking about the brother of Shimon Peres, the Israeli President from 2007 to 2014. During Shimon Peres' presidency, a white phosphorus attack against the Palestinians was perpetrated, killing hundreds of children.
But, on closer inspection, the CMC is impregnated everywhere with the presence of Israeli power. For example, its member Roberto Ascarelli was a prominent representative of the Roman Jewish community. Yet, just as with Kissinger, this status did not stop him, as he should have instead stopped, from being a fundamental pivot in the rise of Licio Gelli inside P2. To say it with Sergio Flamigni, someone who has dedicated his life to the study of this fascist lodge, it is thanks to Ascarelli that "Gelli's past as a fascist and a member of the Repubblica Sociale Italiana that have blocked his affiliation until that moment, becomes now rather an element of guarantee for the anticommunist function that he will be called to do." It is thanks to Ascarelli that some CMC Board of Directors meeting will be celebrated at his office in Piazza di Spagna 72/A, a place where, at the same time, P2 runs its first fundamental steps. Piazza di Spagna 72/A besides home of another secret lodge, Hod, headed by the very same Ascarelli. Hod described, by witnesses listened by the Italian Parliamentarian Commission on P2, as an antechamber, if not a real twin branch of P2. And in fact, before landing in P2, Gelli had been a Hod member. And again, just like Kissinger, his being Jewish had certainly not induced Ascarelli to find it absurd to add his name to that of Gutierez Spadafora, a fascist whose son was married with a daughter of Hjalmar Schacht, and one of Hitler's strongest collaborators; or to add his name to that of Giuseppe Pièche, one of Mussolini's strongest collaborators.
Also keep in mind that CMC member Dov Biegun, who worked for the British Intelligence during WWII, is connected to Israel. Biegun is the national secretary of the National Committee for Labor Israel. It's an institution whose goal is to solder bonds between Israel and the US. It was fundamental in creating and strengthening the State of Israel, through such actions as the purchase of Israeli bonds. A notable role within it, was taken by conservative Unions radically oriented towards the expansion of the war in Vietnam: which was the opposite of what Kennedy was preparing to do if he had not been killed. JFK, in fact, had already arranged for the withdrawal of US troops from the Asian country. Not to mention the fact that Philip Agee, a former CIA agent, accused the NCLI of connivance with the Central Intelligence Agency. An accusation that fits very well with today's NCLI relationship with Unions referred to as mongers of the attempted fascist coups d'état in Venezuela. Biegun, moreover, was part of the Jewish National Fund. The same JNF that, through dirty tricks, seizes land owned by Palestinian citizens and transfers them into Israeli hands.
Please consider that there were two other excellent reasons for which Israeli leaders saw Kennedy as smoke in their eyes. The first was the opposition of this US President to the Israeli nuclear arsenal. The second was that JFK was in favor of a fair policy towards the Arabs, as demonstrated by his support towards Mattei's oil policies and towards the end of colonialism. Something which necessarily leads us to the CMC member Alfredo Crocco. Crocco had a brother, Luigi, who was recruited by William Donovan, the head of the OSS, the CIA's forerunner. Luigi Crocco was a very long-standing friend and collaborator of the Jewish scientist Theodore von Kármán. The latter was the president of the AGARD, a special NATO structure whose aim was the direct coordination between scientists with the highest contributions to the Western war machine. The AGARD representative in Italy was Giuseppe Gabrielli, who is none other than the brother-in-law of Alfredo and Luigi Crocco. Theodore von Kármán was also among the fathers of the RAND Corporation: a fanatically anti-Communist think-tank, in osmosis with the Pentagon, responsible for the most senseless US escalations during the Cold War. But above all, Theodore von Kármán was president of the Department of Aeronautical Engineering at the Israel Institute of Technology in Haifa, which is the root of Israeli nuclear ballistic development.
Also, deeply tied to Israeli power is Louis Bloomfield, the founder of Permindex, the company from which the Italian CMC was born. Bloomfield decided, shortly before his death, to leave his papers to the Archives of Canada. It was where the researcher Maurice Phillips was able to find a letter, dated April 1, 1959, from Bloomfield to Abraham Friedman, a member of Israel Continental Oil. A letter in which Bloomfield refers to the desire to meet the famous Jewish banker Edmund Rothschild to discuss details about a CMC operation named Capocotta. An operation that was a mask devised by the CMC to buy off the holders of the Italian power. And, in fact, involved in Capocotta we find a right-wing General, Giovanni De Lorenzo, and an admiral, Giuseppe Pighini, who was at the top of the Mussolini's Navy under fascism, and then at the top of NATO ComNavSouth, the Headquarter of NATO Naval Forces in Southern Europe. Another Italian Commission of Inquiry  that on Michele Sindona, a member of P2 and Mafia  shows us the secret face of Pighini: according to the testimony of Carlo Bordoni, a long and very close friend of Sindona, Pighini, during the 70s, received millions of dollars from Sindona to establish in Italy a far-right military dictatorship.
As I demonstrated in my immediately preceding two articles for this newspaper, it is the very same Sindona who was deeply connected to CMC. The same Sindona about whom Peter Tompkins writes in his Strategy of Tension, a book that is a sort of concentrate of Tompkins' knowledge about the US abuses of power. Tompkins knows this kind of subject very well, since he had taken part in the activities of the OSS in Italy, so he really deserves a very special attention when he recalls that we can find the origins of Sindona's fortunes in what happened during the Landing in Sicily, in 1943, of the Allied Forces. A landing behind which there is a shameful agreement with the Mafia. A pact Sindona was involved in, and in which a strong role was also had by the member of the OSS Max Corvo. Circumstances  is always Tompkins to point it out  by Corvo admitted in an interview in the 80s to the Italian magazine Il Mondo. Admission as clear as to induce Il Mondo to comment with this very eloquent phrase: "Thanks to the connection between Sicilian mafia, the Italo-American, and the American secret services that had been created 35 years earlier, at the time of the Allied landing in Sicily, the former financier [Sindona] had made alliances that explain the rise of a young man without a penny, to the top of world finance." This means that Sindona had become an OSS trustee, and the head of the Italian section of the OSS was James Angleton. News that we must add to that kindly given to me, through his assistant Giulia Corradi, by the already mentioned Sergio Flamigni: once again during the Italian Liberation Campaign, Angleton recruited Licio Gelli.
Because of all the above, it then ceases to appear strange what the Italian historian Giuseppe Casarrubea discovered years ago: the commingling, in the shadow of Angleton, of fascism, mafia, and future citizens of Israel, in creating the Israeli army.
And it also ceases to appear strange the proposal of support Israel made to the Italian terrorist group Brigate Rosse. Proposals that would have resulted in concrete financial aid from the Mossad, the Israeli Intelligence, according to the testimony, on June 19, 2017, of Luigi Carli, former magistrate of Genoa, to the Italian Inquiry Commission on Moro assassination. Something to which add the words of Giovanni Galloni, a brave and honest man, former vice-president of the Italian Consiglio Superiore della Magistratura. In fact, as recorded by the journalist Saverio Occhiuto, in 2007 he said, "Then there is my sentence, something that I have always said without ever getting attention, on some confidences that Moro gave me a few months before being captured. He told me that he was worried because he believed that the US and the Israeli espionage had infiltrators in the Br [Brigate Rosse]."
It is really impossible, at this point, to avoid remembering that documents exist demonstrating the infiltration into Brigate Rosse made by the P2 member Edgardo Sogno through those who, very subtly, he baptized Committees of Democratic Resistance. Committees the CMC member Corrado Bonfantini was part of. Bonfantini that, what a coincidence, was a very strong trustee of Sindona. As much as it is impossible to avoid remembering what said by Giacomo Lauro on January 22, 2010, during the trial for the fascist massacre, connected to the Strategy of Tension, made in 1974 in the Italian city of Brescia. Lauro, who is one of the most reliable former members of a branch of the Italian mafia named 'ndrangheta, during his dense testimony specified that he had managed to become very close to one of the most powerful members of P2 ever: Francesco Cosentino. That's how Lauro was able to know that Cosentino was the true occult mind of the deviated P2 management of the seizure, and then execution, of Moro. Lauro added that, just in carrying out this role, Cosentino was constantly in touch with another Freemason: a doctor named Roberto Zamboni. Roberto Zamboni who, incidentally, is not only the protector of Franco Freda, the executor of the 1969 Piazza Fontana fascist massacre connected to the Italian Strategy of Tension, but also the doctor cited as Scientific Director of a so-called Press Information Agency under whose aegis a very peculiar document is issued: a document by the P2 member Aldo Semerari, and whose goal was to try to morally assassinate the very well-known Italian artist Pier Paolo Pasolini, as Pasolini himself repeatedly underlined. What does CMC have to do with it? It has to do with it because behind that document there was a lawyer, Giorgio Zeppieri, who was also a CMC member.

On that Zamboni's and Semerari's document there is also a telephone number and an address. When I revised them, I stumbled in a very special publisher: Giovanni Quattrucci, a Freemason at the head of a structure with masonic connotations. It's Great Italy, and Francesco Pazienza had quite a lot to do with it. It's the same Pazienza then condemned for another episode of the Italian Strategy of Tension: the Bologna massacre. And then perhaps we must also ask ourselves what was the true origin of both this massacre and that previously happened in San Benedetto Val di Sambro. Because about the latter  of which, coincidentally, Pasolini spoke, including in his posthumous Petrolio  it emerges that on that train exploded in 1974 because of a bomb placed on board, Aldo Moro was about to have a trip but was asked at the very last moment to get off to sign some important papers, the daughter of Moro in April 2004 revealed. Regarding the attack in Bologna, which took place at a short geographical distance from the other, someone said that it would have been necessary because that in San Benedetto was a message, and this message had not been understood; it was therefore indispensable to repeat it by a new explosion. From there, it has been speculated, even in the presence of very questionable evidence, that the act at the Bologna station was by Palestinians furious at the failure of the so-called Lodo Moro: a secret agreement, signed by Moro, and with the main clause to always turn a blind eye to Palestinian terrorism. In the light of what I have outlined above, I think it is more than reasonable to ask whether the terms of the question have not been reversed and, to say it very clear, if in this frightful affair there is instead an Israeli contribution, firmly stressing that no doubt exists that the executors are Mambro and Fioravanti.
I would like to conclude with a last personal note: anyone who wants to use what I wrote today to launch in their own voice claims like "Hitler was right", or "Death to Israelis" and similar, did not understand what I have explained here and, more generally, does not understand anything of life, and is not my friend.
On the contrary, I trust very much that this article may serve as a reflection for the many enlightened Jews who  to return to JFK  inhabit our little planet: to meditate, to ask themselves if they want their fate in the hands of a Kissinger or in those of a Diana Frida Arón Svigilsky. The question, all in all, is this one.

The last time you loaded that video up, this site crashed...

Thank you, very interesting. Is there proof that Angleton recruited Gelli? I had not heard about this before.

It is also interesting that some Belgians turn up on the list of World of Brotherhood members whom one also comes across when researching Gladio activities in Belgium not to mention Dutroux: Spaak, de Bonvoisin.
I have been reviewing Bloomfield's papers at Library and Archives Canada. Was told by them that his files will be closed in perpetuity. I have asked the Federal Court of Canada to overturn the archives decision. A story about this case is on Kennedys and King.
Mr. Maverde:

After carefully reading the article on "Centro" i can only comment as follows: too often, JFK research follows a pattern that is very, very common in JFK research. I call it the "pizza" approach. To me, presenting an argument about a JFK fact would ideally be like shooting an arrow at a target. Instead, much JFK research is merely put out there randomly. All too often, an author seems to be sprinkling words on the paper like sausages or mushrooms on a pizza.

That was done by the Warren Commission. They threw out evidence which at times seemed to be almost random. Now sometimes that can be valuable. This collection of information can be like a "mine" of evidence, from which a researcher can pick through and assemble a direct theory or establish the relevance or non-relevance of the information.

I have read the information on Centro fairly carefully. And for the life of me, I can't really discern what the author is trying to say. If one merely scatters together some Jewish names and some fascist names on the page, than can (to some readers) establish some kind of connection, or "guilt by association." Of course, that was the technique used by the McCarthy supporters to attempt to connect persons to Communism by merely listing their name on a page with Communists.

I don't mean to minimize the importance of "Centro" in the JFK case. What I mean to say is that, to establish the relevance of Centro, one would have to state when it started, say what its mission was to be, list the known members and then describe what it accomplished toward its goals and when and how it did so.

My takeaway from the Centro article was only this: that there were Jewish persons associating with fascist persons, and there was a massacre of people around 1974 in Italy and that the Red Brigade was also mentioned. That's all I took away from that entire article. I would gladly welcome any enlightenment to add to that takeway if someone could provide it in these pages.

My research has shown, to me, that Centro was an organization that was begun by Nazis left over from World War II, and that it involved the age-old conflict between Catholics, non-Catholics and secularists in Germany and Italy. It somehow also involved the Guelphs, an age-old Monarchist faction. This spilled over from the dregs of the Nazi party into Italy and the struggle to re-establish the Monarchy in Italy as a bulwark against Communism.

The battle lines for Centro followed the fault lines in Hitler's Nazi government itself which pitted Catholic oriented Nazis from Bavaria like Himmler against the Prussian-oriented people like Goring. Himmler wanted to re-establish the monarchy it Germany itself following an assassination of Hitler. Of course, the Protestants of Germany mostly wound up inside the Soviet zone of influence.

These Catholic-oriented people like Himmler were concentrated in the American zone of occupation since the US chose Catholic Bavaria as its zone (apparently for a reason). The OSS and the CIA apparently planned on teaming up with the Vatican to prevent a Communist take-over of Italy. Adenauer, of course, was a fervent Catholic politician in Germany who wanted to create a Catholic Europe which would be limited to West Germany, France, Italy and the low countries. This was the so-called "small Europe." he didn't want to include Protestant England, Sweden, Denmark, etc. etc. (This dynamic may have lasted up until others like Ludwig Erhardt and Willi Brandt came on the scene).

The Red Brigade was apparently a fake Communist organization that accomplished kidnappings and terrorism that could be blamed on Communists, even though the Red Brigades were set up by fascists and the CIA and others.

The presence of Jewish individuals in Centro means absolutely nothing since there were almost as many Jewish turn-coats at that time as there were legitimate Jews. Who knows about Bloomfield? Who knows about any intelligence-connected person for that matter? Their stories must be ignored because their mission is only to confuse people.

So, I think, everyone should pool their information about Centro and maybe someday this mystery will be solved.

James Lateer
John Kowalski Wrote:I have been reviewing Bloomfield's papers at Library and Archives Canada. Was told by them that his files will be closed in perpetuity. I have asked the Federal Court of Canada to overturn the archives decision. A story about this case is on Kennedys and King.

Very interesting John. Keep us informed of this rather extraordinary development.
"The philosophers have only interpreted the world, in various ways. The point, however, is to change it." Karl Marx

"He would, wouldn't he?" Mandy Rice-Davies. When asked in court whether she knew that Lord Astor had denied having sex with her.

“I think it would be a good idea” Ghandi, when asked about Western Civilisation.

Louis Mortimer Bloomfield

[Image: JFKbloomfield2.jpg]Louis Mortimer Bloomfield, the son of Harry Bloomfield, was born in Canada, about 1910. A Zionist, Bloomfield joined the British military and served in Palestine as an Intelligence Officer under General Charles Orde Wingate. Bloomfield was involved in training the Jewish army, Haganah (1936-1939).[/FONT]
President Franklin D. Roosevelt established the Office of Strategic Services in 1942. Bloomfield was recruited and given the rank of major. In 1947, the OSS evolved into the Central Intelligence Agency, and Bloomfield continued doing contract work for the new organization. He was a regular visitor to Israel and met the Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion on 4th May, 1949.[/FONT]
A successful lawyer he worked for years at the law firm of Phillips and Vineberg in Montreal. He was also a major stockholder of Permindex, a corporation based in Switzerland. He was also the author on several books on on international law including The British Hondurus Guatemala Dispute (1953) and Egypt, Israel and the Gulf of Aqaba (1957).[/FONT]
In Nomenclature of an Assassination Cabal (1970) William Torbitt claims that the assassination of John F. Kennedy was organized by Bloomfield and Permindex. Also involved included Defense Industrial Security Command, organized by J. Edgar Hoover and William Sullivan. Torbitt claims that Bloomfield was in control of the operation. DISC agents included Clay Shaw, Guy Banister, David Ferrie, Lee Harvey Oswald, and Jack Ruby.[/FONT]
According to the author Permindex was comprised of:[/FONT]
(1) Solidarists an Eastern European exile organization.[/FONT]
(2) American Council of Christian Churches led by Haroldson L. Hunt.[/FONT]
(3) Free Cuba Committee headed by Carlos Prio.[/FONT]
(4) The Syndicate headed by Clifford Jones, ex-lieutenant governor of Nevada. This group also included Bobby Baker, George Smathers, Roy Cohn, Fred Black and Lewis McWillie.[/FONT]
(5) Security Division of NASA headed by Wernher von Braun.[/FONT]
Louis Mortimer Bloomfield died in 1984. A few years before his death donated 31 boxes of documents to the Library and Archives Canada. This included correspondence with some well-known politicians such as George H. W. Bush. The one condition Bloomfield placed on the donation was that public access to the papers would be restricted for 20 years after his death. However, when researcher, Maurice Phillips, attempted to gain access to these materials in 2004 he found that Bloomfield's widow, Justine Stern Bloomfield Cartier, was still refusing permission for them to be released into the public domain.[/FONT]
"Let me issue and control a nation's money and I care not who writes the laws. - Mayer Rothschild
"Civil disobedience is not our problem. Our problem is civil obedience! People are obedient in the face of poverty, starvation, stupidity, war, and cruelty. Our problem is that grand thieves are running the country. That's our problem!" - Howard Zinn
"If there is no struggle there is no progress. Power concedes nothing without a demand. It never did and never will" - Frederick Douglass
I'd take a few things in this article with more than a grain of salt, but there are many truths in here too....too little research has been done on Permindex and Bloomfield/Shaw et al....and much too much chaff has been shot out by the disinformation machines of the intelligence agencies [several of them].


Montreal Permindex ties revealed to JFK murder, 1001 Club

Matthew Ehret / February 12, 2013

By Jeffrey Steinberg and Joseph Brewda

This year will mark the 50th anniversary of the assassination of President John F. Kennedy in Dallas, Texas on Nov. 22, 1963. Five decades after the "crime of the century," the Kennedy assassination is still shrouded in mystery and controversy.
Executive Intelligence Review's (EIR) own continuing investigation into the JFK murder recently turned up startling new evidence that not only strongly supports the late New Orleans District Attorney Jim Garrison's charges that there was a conspiracy to kill President Kennedy, and that New Orleans businessman Clay Shaw was guilty as charged of participating in the murder plot. The new documents reveal that the Permindex organization based out of Montreal Canada, identified by Garrison as the "assassination cabal" behind the JFK killing was never dismantled. Many of the culprits caught in Garrison's investigation, as well as parallel 1960s assassination probes by French and Italian authorities, later surfaced as members of a shadowy organization called the "1001 Club," founded by Prince Philip Mountbatten, the Duke of Edinburgh, and Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands in 1971. Prominent Canadians who played a key role in the forming of this club include Peter Munk, of the Munk School of Global Affairs and CEO of Barrick Gold, Lord Conrad Black, Maurice Strong, and Major Louis Mortimer Bloomfield.
The 1001 Club, a by-invitation-only organization, was nominally founded as a "Nature Trust" whose primary goal was to fund the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), now known as the World Wide Fund for Nature. However, as EIR reported on Oct. 28, 1994, the WWF-1001 apparatus is a vast secret intelligence network engaged for the past 53 years in a war of genocide against the population of Africa and other continents to further the political goals of the British House of Windsor and the Club of the Isles.
The idea that lurking under the WWF's well-known Panda logo is a contemporary Permindex assassination bureau is not only a chilling prospect. It has immediate implications for the security of world leaders!

Part I: Shaw could have been convicted

On March 1, 1967, New Orleans District Attorney Jim Garrison filed an arrest warrant against local businessman Clay Shaw, charging him with conspiracy to assassinate President John F. Kennedy in Dallas on Nov. 22, 1963. Shaw was tried on these charges and acquitted. Yet, but for a legal technicality, Shaw would have been found guilty and his conviction would have led the investigation of the Kennedy murder directly to the door of Major Louis Mortimer Bloomfield, who helped found Permindex, shattering the Warren Commission "lone assassin" cover-up and tying the greatest political crime of the second half of the 20th century to a conspiracy of unheard-of scale.
Almost immediately after the assassination of JFK, Garrison had opened a quiet probe of the "New Orleans" angle on the killing. Lee Harvey Oswald had been living in New Orleans on and off during the year leading up to the assassination in Dallas. Following his arrest, Oswald had been initially referred to New Orleans attorney Dean Andrews by a man using the name "Clay Bertrand." Garrison's investigation had established that "Clay Bertrand" was actually Clay Shaw.
The probe placed Shaw, the director of the New Orleans International Trade Mart and a board member of Perm index, in the orbit of Oswald, former FBI Division Five official Guy Banister, and David Ferrie. In the spring and summer of 1963, all these men had been in and out of Banister's private detective office at 544 Camp Street. That office had served as a covert operations center for the training and arming of Cuban exile mercenaries who continued to carry out military raids against Cuba after the failure of the Bay of Pigs invasion. Oswald was a regular visitor to Banister's office. The former U.S. Marine who had "defected" to the Soviet Union and returned unimpeded to the United States had used Banister's office as the address for a local chapter of the Fair Play for Cuba Committee, a pro-Castro outfit that was clearly out of sync with Banister's anti-communist crusade. Nevertheless, according to Banister's personal secretary Delphine Roberts, Banister had described Oswald as a part of the covert operation: "He's with us, he's associated with the office," he told Roberts, according to author Tony Summers.

A trail of corpses

By the time Garrison filed the arrest warrant against Clay Shaw, Oswald, Banister, and Ferrie were all dead. Oswald had been shot inside the Dallas police headquarters by local mobster Jack Ruby. Back in the 1950s in Chicago, Banister had been the Special Agent in Charge of the FBI office, and Ruby had been one of his informants. Banister apparently died of natural causes, but Ferrie's death was a mystery, ostensibly a suicide.
The opening statements in the trial against Shaw began on Feb. 6, 1969, following lengthy jury selection. Ultimately, the case came down to the question of whether it could be proven beyond a reasonable doubt that Clay Shaw was indeed the "Clay Bertrand" who had arrange for the New Orleans lawyer to represent Oswald moments after his arrest in Dallas.
Although a number of witnesses testified for the prosecution that they had seen Oswald, Ferrie, and Shaw together during 1963, and one witness, Perry Russo, had claimed he had been at a party where Ferrie and Shaw had discussed details of a plot to assassinate JFK, the Garrison case nevertheless lacked hard proof to convince the jury beyond a reasonable doubt that Shaw and Ferrie had been associates. Two crucial pieces of evidence, either one of which would have provided the "smoking gun," were never presented to the jury.
The first was the booking form that was filled out at New Orleans police headquarters the day Shaw was arrested. Police officer Aloysius Habighorst, a decorated veteran of the police department, had booked Shaw on March 1, 1967. When Habighorst asked Shaw if he ever used an alias, Shaw carelessly responded, "Clay Bertrand." However, for reasons that still remain murky, trial judge Edward Haggerty refused to allow the booking form to be presented to the jury, and he blocked Habighorst from testifying.
The other piece of hard evidence was a pair of photographs apparently taken at a 1949 house party for supporters of WDSU radio station, showing Clay Shaw and David Ferrie clowning around together. The pictures had been published in the May 1967 issue of The Councillor, a right-wing newsletter from Shreveport, Louisiana. Ironically, a reporter covering the Shaw trial had copies of the pictures in his briefcase in the courtroom, but the incriminating photos were never presented by Garrison's prosecution team.
At the close of the defense case, Clay Shaw had taken the witness stand and lied repeatedly, under oath, that he had never met David Ferrie. What would the jury have done had Garrison countered Shaw's denials by producing the pictures of him and Ferrie? Other witnesses had already testified that Ferrie had described Shaw as an "old friend." Old enough friends to have been partying together in 1949? In the wee hours of March 1, 1969-two years to the day after Clay Shaw's arrest and two years and one week to the day after David Ferrie's body was discovered at his dingy apartment-Judge Haggerty charged the jury. One hour later, they returned with their verdict: not guilty.
Interviewed after the acquittal, the majority of jurors had said that they had been convinced by Garrison's evidence that President Kennedy had been killed as the result of a conspiracy. However, they had not been convinced beyond a reasonable doubt that Shaw was part of the conspiracy with Banister, Oswald, Ferrie, and others. Shortly before his death, Judge Haggerty told WLAE-TV reporter Stephen Tyler that he was convinced that Shaw had committed perjury.
"Shaw lied through his teeth," he had told the reporter. Shaw "pulled a con job on the jury." Garrison himself was undeterred by the jury verdict. Shortly after the acquittal, Garrison indicted Clay Shaw again, on charges of perjury. Garrison had a damning case against Shaw. However, in a rare move, the U.S. District Court ruled that Garrison could not go ahead with the perjury prosecution, on the grounds that it constituted double jeopardy and was therefore unconstitutional.
Imagine the consequences of a Shaw conviction on March 1, 1969. An international spotlight would have been cast on New Orleans, and every facet of Shaw's life would have come under scrutiny. The day of his arrest, police had hauled off a collection of sado-masochistic paraphernalia, evidence of Shaw's bizarre homosexual lifestyle (yet another thing he shared in common with David Ferrie).
But the aspect of Shaw's life that would have drawn the greatest amount of attention was his relationship to Maj. Louis Mortimer Bloomfield and the Permindex outfit that Bloomfield established in Montreal and in Rome, Italy in the mid-1950s. On March 16, 1967, shortly after Clay Shaw's arrest, the Montreal daily Le Devoir published an expose of Permindex, linking the company to a 1962 assassination plot against French President Charles de Gaulle. Two Italian daily newspapers, Paese Sera and Corriere della Sera, had also covered the Permindex scandal, with Paese Sera running a six-part series on March 4, 11, 12, 14, 16, and 18, 1967.

Part II: Oswald and J. Edgar Hoover

Had the Shaw-Bloomfield connection to the JFK assassination become a subject of wide scrutiny in 1969 as the result of a conviction of Clay Shaw, another element of the cover-up would been exposed: Lee Harvey Oswald's relationship to FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover, particularly during the days leading up to Nov. 22, 1963.
"Defector" Oswald was allowed to return home to the United States in the summer of 1962 with his Soviet-born wife, Marina. Despite the fact that FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover had ordered a massive expansion of the Bureau's Security Index, its tracking of suspected subversives, Lee Harvey Oswald's name never appeared on the index. That is not to say that the Bureau had not taken an interest in Oswald. Not only had "retired" Division Five official Guy Banister brought Oswald into the 544 Camp Street apparatus, but Dallas FBI Special Agent Jules P. Hosty Jr. had been assigned to keep in touch with him, apparently as part of Oswald's understanding with the FBI that he would provide information about subversives. Some books on the Kennedy assassination have alleged that Oswald was a paid FBI informant during the period prior to the JFK murder.
On approximately Nov. 9, 1963, Lee Harvey Oswald paid a visit to the FBI's Dallas office, asking to speak with Special Agent Hosty. Hosty was not in the office, and Oswald left a handwritten note. According to the FBI version of the story, the note contained a threat against Hosty, demanding that he stop harassing his wife. However, other versions of the story suggest that Oswald's note contained a warning that there was a plot to assassinate the President. After his visit to the FBI office, Oswald fired off a telegram to J. Edgar Hoover in Washington, reportedly repeating his warning about a plot to kill the President.
Had Oswald begun to figure out that he might be being set up as a patsy in a presidential assassination? If Oswald were the assassin, he would not likely have paid a visit to the FBI just weeks before the killing, a visit certain to draw FBI attention to him. The content of Oswald's note to Hosty and the telegram to Hoover will never be known. Within two hours of Oswald's assassination, Hosty was called into the office of Special Agent in Charge J. Gordon Shanklin and ordered to destroy the note and a memorandum that Hosty had prepared on Oswald right after his arrest in Dallas on the afternoon of Nov. 22. Shanklin told Hosty: "Oswald's dead and there can't be a trial now." Hosty flushed the incriminating note down the toilet.
J. Edgar Hoover had suspended Hosty for 30 days without pay in 1964, charging him with "negligence" for failing to adequately monitor Oswald's activities in Dallas. Hosty was later transferred to Kansas City. In 1975, when Hosty tipped off reporters to the destroyed note, Rep. Don Edwards (D-Calif.) held House Judiciary Committee hearings on Oswald's relationship to the FBI. By that point, however, Hoover was dead, and all the relevant FBI files and notes had been long since destroyed.

Part III: Major Bloomfield, Permindex, and WWF

The late Maj. Louis Mortimer Bloomfield, the boss of Clay Shaw, oversaw the planning and direction of the murder of top targets of the British royal family in the postwar period. Permindex was a de facto subsidiary of Prince Philip's World Wildlife Fund, operating in collusion with J. Edgar Hoover.
Bloomfield's career begins in World War II when, as a major in the Royal Canadian Service Corps, he was detailed to the FBI to serve as the contract (recruitment) agent of its counterespionage division, Division Five. This curious arrangement, whereby a British subject could occupy a highly sensitive position in U. S. intelligence, was made possible by Churchill's personal emissary Sir William Stephenson, another Canadian. Stephenson oversaw the merging of certain limited wartime operations of British intelligence with the FBI and elements of U.S. military intelligence. Through such conniving the British effectively took over whole sections of U. S. intelligence and law enforcement, especially in the FBI, which had been set up under strong British influence in the first place just prior to World War I.
Stephenson oversaw all British Secret Intelligence Service operations in the Western Hemisphere from his base in New York City; Bloomfield was one of his agents. Stephenson had been part of Prime Minister Winston Churchill's prewar circle, and a protégé of Lord Beaverbrook, a fellow Canadian who became the British Minister of War Supply and Churchill's key adviser on propaganda and intelligence. This Beaverbrook apparatus is the mother of Permindex, and the World Wildlife Fund.
Following World War II, Bloomfield returned to Montreal to resume his law practice, but he continued to be Division Five's recruitment agent. His law firm, Philips and Vineberg, managed the Bronfman organized crime interests which emerged into prominence during Prohibition. The Bronfman syndicate has always functioned as a covert capability of British intelligence. The story of the Bronfman family's role in North American organized crime on behalf of the British Crown is detailed in the bestselling book Dope, Inc., by the editors of EIR.
To facilitate his operations, Bloomfield became the chairman of the Canadian subsidiary of Credit Suisse (a bank which Oliver North later used for the Reagan-Bush administration's Iran-Contra operations), and the representative of such corporations as Israeli Continental Corp. and Heineken Breweries. He also became the consul general for Liberia and director of the Israeli-Canadian Maritime League. In 1952, Bloomfield became an executive in the International Law Association, a British oligarchical intelligence apparatus whose leading families, the Wilberforces, Buxtons, and Cadburys, played an instrumental role in the creation of the WWF. Bloomfield used his position as chairman of its piracy and hijacking committee, and his emergence as a U.N.-linked expert in counter-terrorism, to build his network.

Bloomfield's WWF friends

Prince Philip created the World Wildlife Fund in 1961 to provide an umbrella for diverse privatized intelligence capabilities operating under the British royal family. According to his obituaries, Bloomfield was the co-founder of the WWF in Canada, and served as its vice president from 1970 to 1978, and as a director from 1978 until his death in 1984. Bloomfield was also a member of the 1001 Club, an organization created in 1971 to fund the WWF. The 1001 members of the club include Indian maharajas, Caribbean narcotics bankers, and dozens of European counts and princes.
The common characteristic of its members is that they are either officers of the British royal family or of European oligarchical families acting in collusion with the British royal family. This is the international capability which provided backup to Bloomfield's assassination bureau. Although the Permindex corporate front of Bloomfield was shut down before the end of the 1960s, the capability for organizing and covering up such high-level terrorism as the assassination of a popular American President was not dismantled along with the temporary corporate address. In fact, many of the pivotal players in Bloomfield's assassination bureau showed up in the early 1970s as charter members of the 1001 Club-along with Bloomfield himself. It is no stretch of the truth to say that the 1001 Club represents one line of continuity from Bloomfield's Permindex to the current generation of British Crown assassins.
Here are some of the most egregious cases of Permindex- 1001 Club overlap.
-Maurice Strong: Recruited from the private sector as Vice President of Power Corp (1963-1965), Strong became a leading figure heading the Department of External Affairs under Lester Pearson, and creator of the Canadian Investment Development Agency (CIDA) under Prime Minister Trudeau. In this function, Strong promoted the program of depopulation and "appropriate technologies" onto third world countries seeking foreign aid. Strong became a main recruiter of corporate Canada to the WWF agenda, becoming co-founder of the 1001 Club alongside Bloomfield in 1971, and taking over as Vice President for the WWF from Bloomfield from 1978-1981 (while Prince Philip was still serving as its President).
David Ogilvy: Founder of the advertising firm Ogilvy Mather, who worked out of Stephenson's New York City office as the British SOE (Special Operations Executive) liaison to OSS during the war. Ogilvy and Stephenson later established the British American Canadian Corp. It was out of that firm that Permindex was spawned. Ogilvy was the cousin of the Angus Ogilvy, the patron and partner of Tiny Rowland in Lonrho (London-Rhodesia Ltd.), the British intelligence proprietary responsible for orchestrating numerous civil wars in Africa in collusion with the WWF. Angus Ogilvy's wife, Princess Alexandra, is the cousin of the Queen. Princess Alexandra recently succeeded Prince Philip as president of WWF-U .K. Some of the WWF's first staff were drawn from Ogilvy and Mather.
Jean Riboud: Chairman of Schlumberger Ltd. Schlumberger is owned by Dominique Schlumberger de Menil of Houston, Texas. Her husband, Jean de Menil, was a Permindex board member and a close collaborator of Bloomfield since the war. Involved in oil diagnostics, the firm served as a cover for Permindex operations internationally. During World War II, de Menil had been the head of de Gaulle's Free French forces in Venezuela together with Jacques Soustelle. Soustelle later formed the OAS unit (Secret Army Organization) that attempted to kill de Gaulle.
James S. Schlesinger: Schlesinger was the owner of the only South African firm listed in the Permindex's internal phone directory (which is now in EIR's possession). In 1962, President Charles de Gaulle forced the Swiss and Italian governments to expel Permindex after it was caught orchestrating a failed attempt to kill him that year. Permindex moved to Johannesburg, South Africa. Schlesinger's firm was financed by, and was a partner with, Hambros Bank, the WWF bank.
Sir Max Aitken: Aitken was the son of Lord Beaverbrook, Stephenson's mentor. Beaverbrook's nephew, Howard Aitken, was one of Bloomfield's closest associates in the postwar period. He shared an office building with Bloomfield in Montreal.
Baron Alain de Gunzberg: The French husband of Minda Bronfman, sister of Seagram Corp. chairman Edgar Bronfman. Bloomfield was the Bronfman family's attorney from the pre-World War II period until his death.
Sir Brian Mountain: Chairman of Eagle Star Insurance, which has been the financial patron of the Bronfman interests for much of the postwar period. It has had more members of Britain's titled aristocracy on its board than any other British firm. Eagle Star was a majority owner of Edper, a Bronfman flagship firm. Mountain was also a partner with Schlesinger in South Africa Eagle.
Edward Plunkett Taylor: The founder of Argus Corp. (later the Hollinger Corp.), which had been formed as a postwar spinoff of the Beaverbrook-Sir William Stephenson network. The Hollinger apparatus and the Bloomfield network have infamously shared common personnel. For example, Hollinger Corp. had the Bronfman syndicate on its' board: Peter Bronfman, and Bronfman operatives Peter Reichmann, a leading real-estate speculator, and former Canadian ambassador to the United States, Alan Gottlieb. Daniel K. Ludwig, a partner of Taylor in real-estate ventures and horse racing, was another 1001 Club member. Ludwig ran the "Great Lakes navy" that shipped Bronfman whiskey to Moe Dalitz's Purple Gang during Prohibition. Dalitz was involved in the Kennedy assassination according to some investigations.
Lord Conrad Black: Former chairman of Hollinger and son of the Taylor subordinate who formed Argus/Hollinger. A recruit of Maurice Strong and co-founder of the 1001 Club, Black had taken a fall in 2006 when he was found guilty for fraud and sent to 17 months prison in Florida. Since his release, Lord Black has since retaken control of his powerful rightwing mouthpiece the National Post and is once again shaping leading popular opinion among Canadians.
Edmond Safra: The money man whose wife now sits on the WWF-International Board of Trustees, and who is part of the general Bronfman apparatus. Safra, one of the world's biggest dirty money managers, is the heir to the networks of 1001 Club member Tibor Rosenbaum, the first head of Israeli intelligence's financial department, who had been a heavy investor in Permindex. Rosenbaum's Banque de Credit International was used to launder Permindex money to finance the assassination of de Gaulle.

Part IV: How Permindex was created

In 1945, in the aftermath of World War II, the British monarchy ordered the privatization of several wartime intelligence agencies and networks. The purpose of this privatization was to obscure the British oligarchy's far-flung capabilities while facilitating its penetration of the corporate and oligarchical elite of the United States. Permindex was created as a stepchild of a combination of several of these privatized capabilities established in the immediate postwar period.
In May 1945, just a few days after the end of the war in Europe, Sir William Stephenson incorporated the British American Canadian Corp. in Panama, but with offices in New York. The firm was soon renamed the World Commerce Corp. According to Stephenson's wartime aide David Ogilvy, the purpose of the firm was to "form a profitable company of merchant adventurers" composed of British intelligence veterans. Ogilvy drafted the corporate papers and became vice president. John Pepper, the head of Stephenson's wartime staff in Washington, became the firm's president.
Stephenson's founding partners in the World Commerce Corp. included former SOE director Sir Charles Hambro, and Sir Rex Benson, who had been the resident British intelligence liaison to Washington during the war. Benson put up much of the money for the firm. Both had worked closely with Stephenson during the war. He was assisted by Col. Louis Franck, the banker who had been Hambro's wartime deputy.
Both Benson and Hambro later became founder-trustees of the WWF. Officials of their family banks, Kleinwort Benson and Hambros, have always served as WWF trustees since its creation. As for Franck: He became WWF treasurer. It was out of the World Commerce Corp. that Permindex was formed.
In order to provide himself a secure base of operations for this sensitive project, Stephenson moved to the British Crown Colony of Jamaica in 1946. He pioneered a property development in Montego Bay, which soon attracted several of his wartime colleagues as residents. Among these colleagues were Lord Beaverbrook; Ian Fleming, the famous "James Bond" spy novelist and SOE spy whose family later helped form the WWF; and Sir William Wiseman, the World War I British intelligence boss in New York whose networks had been taken over by Stephenson. Beaverbrook and Fleming were both closely associated with Stephenson's new firm.
From its inception, the World Commerce Corp. worked closely with the World Trade Mart of New Orleans, nominally to promote world trade. The founder and chairman of the World Trade Mart was Col. Clay Shaw, who had first hooked up with the British in World War II when he was an OSS liaison officer to Winston Churchill's headquarters. Shaw had considered renouncing his U. S. citizenship and remaining in London, but in 1945, he returned to the United States to establish the World Trade Mart.
Shortly after he had overseen the first phase of this privatization, Stephenson transformed his Jamaican property into the curiously named "Tryall Club." The elite British club became a watering hole for de Menil, Bloomfield, and others implicated in the JFK conspiracy.
While Stephenson and Shaw were establishing the World Commerce Corp. and the World Trade Mart, Edward Plunkett Taylor was setting up yet another firm dedicated to world trade. Taylor had been Winston Churchill's personal secret representative in wartime Washington. He had been detailed to the United States from Toronto in 1940 to obtain war supplies for Britain at a when such purchases were still illegal under the U. S. law. Taylor worked directly under fellow Canadian Lord Beaverbrook in close coordination with Stephenson.
In 1945, Taylor was ordered to form Argus Corp. as a private, postwar continuation of his wartime procurement and intelligence staff. The firm had been renamed Hollinger Corp., grew rapidly, perhaps through funds acquired outside legal channels during the war, and certainly through British oligarchical patronage. Among Hollinger's key figures have included Rupert Hambro from the SOE banking family; Sir James Goldsmith, a top British intelligence officer and leading controller of the World Wildlife Fund, and Sir Henry Keswick whose Hong Kong banking family has always played a dominant role in the WWF.
Simultaneously, Stephenson's agent, Major Bloomfield, was detailed back to Montreal to oversee the postwar expansion of the Bronfman syndicate. In 1956, Bloomfield incorporated Permanent Industrial Expositions, Inc., Permindex merging the capabilities of the World Commerce Corp. (which soon formally dissolved) and Clay Shaw's World Trade Mart. In 1959, Permindex formed the Centro Mondiale Commerciale, the World Commerce Center, in Rome, as its subsidiary.
In 1962, the Secret Army Organization (OAS) of Permindex board member Jacques Soustelle, a decades-long partner of Permindex board member Jean de Menil, oversaw an assassination attempt against French President Charles de Gaulle financed by Clay Shaw's FBI crony Guy Banister.
De Gaulle forced Switzerland and Italy to expel Permindex's offices from their territories as a result. In 1962, the Permindex networks were implicated in the sudden death, in a mysterious plane crash, of Italian state oil industrialist Enrico Mattei, who was working on a political track parallel to de Gaulle's.
"Let me issue and control a nation's money and I care not who writes the laws. - Mayer Rothschild
"Civil disobedience is not our problem. Our problem is civil obedience! People are obedient in the face of poverty, starvation, stupidity, war, and cruelty. Our problem is that grand thieves are running the country. That's our problem!" - Howard Zinn
"If there is no struggle there is no progress. Power concedes nothing without a demand. It never did and never will" - Frederick Douglass
Mr. Lemkin:

Like most JFK researchers, I have read most of the "information" about Louis Bloomfield, Permindex, etc.
I can't claim any special knowledge of this--all I can add are the limited conclusions I have tentatively reached about the type of stuff in the above article:

(1) Louis Mortimer Bloomfield was one of about 20 Jewish millionaires who established the Sonneborg Group in New York City. Although located in New York, it was called [as part of its title] "International." The list of its members has never been made public. But we know that one of them was General Julius Klein. In my opus compendium on this subject, we see that General Klein was [per Der Spiegel magazine] the "Shadow Ambassador" from West Germany to the US and was the bagman who carried the money to bribe the Senators like Thomas Dodd who backed the assassination of JFK.

(2) The known reason the Sonneborg Group was formed was to finance the Israeli Dimona [atom bomb] project. That was the only function of the Sonneborg group that I have come across.

(3) In his book about Lyndon LaRouche, author Dennis King makes it pretty clear that LaRouche [who owned Executive Intelligence Review, EIR] was a branch functionary of US intelligence. Apparently the Torbitt file and the similar info from EIR was intel disinformation. According to author King, LaRouche salted his disinformation with accusations (a) against the "British" and (b) against Israel and the "Zionists". So if you take the Permindex information and strip out anything to do with Britain and Israel, then you have something that is possibly sound.

(4) Jaques Soustelle was actually an old political ally of DeGaulle who played a key role in Algeria in helping de Gaulle solve the Algerian crisis. He was actually a public official. He was in no way an assassin trying to kill de Gaulle. This seems to be more disinformation. Soustelle was also supported by Italian Intelligence at one point and had a history of connection to UK intelligence as well.

(5) Jim Garrison mentions Permindex in his book "On the Trail of the Assassins" which was published in [i think] sometime in the 1980's. However, in "Heritage of Stone", published in the late 1960's, there is no mention of Perminex in the index. Garrison apparently "bought" the Permindex information by way of Lyndon Larouche, not through his investigation.

(6) The Canadian-American organization formed by Sir William Stephenson and others in Jamaica was actually a legitimate business group which was seeking ordinary business in various countries and was not an assassination or spy organization.

(7) If Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands was involved with Lord Montbatten in setting up anything, then we know that the Prince was (a) CEO of the Bilderberg Group and (b) a former SS Officer. Since Prince Bernhard was also Prince of the Netherlands as well as CEO of the Bilderberg Group, it's unlikely that he would have the time, the interest or the priority of conspiring with the British Monarchy do carry out anything of importance independent of his other connections.

(8) As I have posted elsewhere, and as mentioned by author Joan Mellen in Farewell To Justice, Permindex included ex-Nazis. Considering the role of certain people in Italy like Bishop Hudal and the Croation Ustashi in running the Nazi ratlines through Italy in this period, not even to mention the Vatican, that any fascist subversive activity in Italy in the 1950's could not be very far away from the Vatican and ex-Nazis. But this last point is only a gut feeling on my part. I am still seeking more information about Italian politics in the 1950's to the 1970's. Maybe I can further clarify this issue in the future.

James Lateeer
Quote:I am still seeking more information about Italian politics in the 1950's to the 1970's.

James, not sure if you saw these posted about in another thread but there may be some info here for you. I typically post these links together as there's an interesting thread running between them.

Jeffrey Bale's 1994 thesis on Valerio Borghese is here. It's very long and covers a lot of the period you referenced. Bale's thesis was just re-released as a longer, more expensive book and is reviewed in the latest issue of Robin Ramsey's LOBSTER magazine, but this is the original version.

Also of tangential interest - this oral history with FSO Peter Bridges. From page 13, he makes a note of his department head at Middlebury College in 1953.

The Dartmouth Russian department was headed by a Russian-American with the name of Dmitri von Mohrenschildt,
who came from a family of Baltic Germans in pre-1917 St. Petersburg. I told him that I wanted to go on to graduate studies in Russian at Harvard. He had gotten his Ph.D. at Columbia and he convinced me that Columbia was somehow more serious and a better place to study than Harvard. So I went to Columbia in the fall of 1953 and was working ultimately toward a Ph.D. in Slavic languages and Russian literature, but I was also a student in what was then the Russian Institute, and is now called the Harriman Institute thanks to Averell Harriman's gift of several million dollars. So while I took courses in Russian literature and Slavic languages, I also took courses through the Russian Institute in other fields having to do with Russia and the Soviet Union - law, history, economics and so forth.

Bridges later served at various embassies, and was the Ambassador to Somalia from 1984 to 1986. He also worked for some oil companies on the side. All fair enough. Then Wikileaks published this leaked embassy cable a few years ago. It implicated Bridges in the Gladio activities that were ongoing in Italy through the early 70's. Though he isn't mentioned in the below cable, Borghese popped up in and around the Gladio story in Italy, and the aborted Golpe Borghese government coup of December 1970 was named after him. The domestic investigations into Gladio conducted years after the event all made a point of acknowledging the role that NATO and US intelligence played in stirring things up through the period.



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