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Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798-2009 Congressional Report
#1
CRS Report for Congress
Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress
Instances of Use of United States Armed
Forces Abroad, 1798-2009
Richard F. Grimmett
Specialist in International Security
January 27, 2010
Congressional Research Service
7-5700
http://www.crs.gov
RL32170
Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798-2009
Congressional Research Service
Summary
This report lists hundreds of instances in which the United States has used its armed forces abroad
in situations of military conflict or potential conflict or for other than normal peacetime purposes.
It was compiled in part from various older lists and is intended primarily to provide a rough
survey of past U.S. military ventures abroad, without reference to the magnitude of the given
instance noted. The listing often contains references, especially from 1980 forward, to continuing
military deployments especially U.S. military participation in multinational operations associated
with NATO or the United Nations. Most of these post-1980 instances are summaries based on
Presidential reports to Congress related to the War Powers Resolution. A comprehensive
commentary regarding any of the instances listed is not undertaken here.
The instances differ greatly in number of forces, purpose, extent of hostilities, and legal
authorization. Eleven times in its history the U.S. has formally declared war against foreign
nations. These eleven U.S. war declarations encompassed five separate wars: the war with Great
Britain declared in 1812; the war with Mexico declared in 1846; the war with Spain declared in
1898; the First World War, during which the U.S. declared war with Germany and with Austria-
Hungary during 1917; and World War II, during which the U.S. declared war against Japan,
Germany, and Italy in 1941, and against Bulgaria, Hungary, and Rumania in 1942.
Some of the instances were extended military engagements that might be considered undeclared
wars. These include the Undeclared Naval War with France from 1798 to 1800; the First Barbary
War from 1801 to 1805; the Second Barbary War of 1815; the Korean War of 1950-1953; the
Vietnam War from 1964 to 1973; the Persian Gulf War of 1991; global actions against foreign
terrorists after the September 11, 2001, attacks on the United States; and the war with Iraq in
2003. With the exception of the Korean War, all of these conflicts received Congressional
authorization in some form short of a formal declaration of war. Other, more recent instances
often involve deployment of U.S. military forces as part of a multinational operation associated
with NATO or the United Nations.
The majority of the instances listed prior to World War II were brief Marine or Navy actions to
protect U.S. citizens or promote U.S. interests. A number were actions against pirates or bandits.
Covert actions, disaster relief, and routine alliance stationing and training exercises are not
included here, nor are the Civil and Revolutionary Wars and the continual use of U.S. military
units in the exploration, settlement, and pacification of the western part of the United States. This
report will be updated as warranted.
Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798-2009
Congressional Research Service
Contents
Introduction ...............................................................................................................................1
Listing of Notable Deployments of U.S. Military Forces Overseas, 1798-2008............................1
Contacts
Author Contact Information ......................................................................................................30
Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798-2009
Congressional Research Service 1
Introduction
The following list reviews hundreds of instances in which the United States has utilized military
forces abroad in situations of military conflict or potential conflict to protect U.S. citizens or
promote U.S. interests. The list does not include covert actions or numerous instances in which
U.S. forces have been stationed abroad since World War II in occupation forces or for
participation in mutual security organizations, base agreements, or routine military assistance or
training operations. Because of differing judgments over the actions to be included, other lists
may include more or fewer instances.1
The instances vary greatly in size of operation, legal authorization, and significance. The number
of troops involved range from a few sailors or Marines landed to protect American lives and
property to hundreds of thousands in Korea and Vietnam and millions in World War II. Some
actions were of short duration and some lasted a number of years. In some instances a military
officer acted without authorization; some actions were conducted solely under the President’s
powers as Chief Executive or Commander in Chief; other instances were authorized by Congress
in some fashion. In eleven separate cases (listed in bold-face type) the United States formally
declared war against foreign nations. For most of the instances listed, however, the status of the
action under domestic or international law has not been addressed. Most instances listed since
1980, are summaries of U.S. military deployments reported to Congress by the President as a
result of the War Powers Resolution. Several of these Presidential reports are summaries of
activities related to an on-going operation previously reported. It is important to note that
inclusion in this list does not connote either legality or level of significance of the instance
described. This report covers uses of U.S. military force abroad from 1798 through mid-
December 2009. It will be revised as circumstances warrant.
Listing of Notable Deployments of U.S. Military
Forces Overseas, 1798-2008
1798-1800 Undeclared Naval War with France. This contest included land actions, such as that in
the Dominican Republic, city of Puerto Plata, where marines captured a French
privateer under the guns of the forts. Congress authorized military action through a
series of statutes.
1801-05 Tripoli. The First Barbary War included the U.S.S. George Washington and Philadelphia
affairs and the Eaton expedition, during which a few marines landed with United States
Agent William Eaton to raise a force against Tripoli in an effort to free the crew of the
Philadelphia. Tripoli declared war but not the United States, although Congress
authorized U.S. military action by statute.
1 Other lists include Goldwater, Senator Barry. War Without Declaration. A Chronological List of 199 U.S. Military
Hostilities Abroad Without a Declaration of War. 1798-1972. Congressional Record, V. 119, July 20, 1973: S14174-
S14183; U.S. Department of State. Armed Actions Taken by the United States Without a Declaration of War, 1789-
1967. Research Project 806A. Historical Studies Division. Bureau of Public Affairs; Collins, John M. America’s Small
Wars. New York, Brassey’s, 1990. For a discussion of the evolution of lists of military actions and legal authorization
for various actions, see Wormuth, Francis D. and Edwin B. Firmage, To Chain the Dog of War; the War Power of
Congress in History and Law. Dallas, Southern Methodist University Press, 1986. p. 133-149.
Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798-2009
Congressional Research Service 2
1806 Mexico (Spanish territory). Capt. Z. M. Pike, with a platoon of troops, invaded Spanish
territory at the headwaters of the Rio Grande on orders from Gen. James Wilkinson.
He was made prisoner without resistance at a fort he constructed in present day
Colorado, taken to Mexico, and later released after seizure of his papers.
1806-10 Gulf of Mexico. American gunboats operated from New Orleans against Spanish and
French privateers off the Mississippi Delta, chiefly under Capt. John Shaw and Master
Commandant David Porter.
1810 West Florida (Spanish territory). Gov. Claiborne of Louisiana, on orders of the President,
occupied with troops territory in dispute east of the Mississippi River as far as the
Pearl River, later the eastern boundary of Louisiana. He was authorized to seize as far
east as the Perdido River.
1812 Amelia Island and other parts of east Florida, then under Spain. Temporary possession was
authorized by President Madison and by Congress, to prevent occupation by any
other power; but possession was obtained by Gen. George Matthews in so irregular a
manner that his measures were disavowed by the President.
1812-15 War of 1812. On June 18, 1812, the United States declared war between
the United States and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Among the issues leading to the war were British interception of neutral ships and
blockades of the United States during British hostilities with France.
1813 West Florida (Spanish territory). On authority given by Congress, General Wilkinson
seized Mobile Bay in April with 600 soldiers. A small Spanish garrison gave way. The
U.S. advanced into disputed territory to the Perdido River, as projected in 1810. No
fighting.
1813-14 Marquesas Islands. U.S. forces built a fort on the island of Nukahiva to protect three
prize ships which had been captured from the British.
1814 Spanish Florida. Gen. Andrew Jackson took Pensacola and drove out the British with
whom the United States was at war.
1814-25 Caribbean. Engagements between pirates and American ships or squadrons took place
repeatedly especially ashore and offshore about Cuba, Puerto Rico, Santo Domingo,
and Yucatan. Three thousand pirate attacks on merchantmen were reported between
1815 and 1823. In 1822 Commodore James Biddle employed a squadron of two
frigates, four sloops of war, two brigs, four schooners, and two gunboats in the West
Indies.
1815 Algiers. The second Barbary War was declared against the United States by the Dey of
Algiers of the Barbary states, an act not reciprocated by the United States. Congress
did authorize a military expedition by statutes. A large fleet under Decatur attacked
Algiers and obtained indemnities.
1815 Tripoli. After securing an agreement from Algiers, Decatur demonstrated with his
squadron at Tunis and Tripoli, where he secured indemnities for offenses during the
War of 1812.
1816 Spanish Florida. United States forces destroyed Nicholls Fort, called also Negro Fort,
which harbored raiders making forays into United States territory.
1816-18 Spanish Florida - First Seminole War. The Seminole Indians, whose area was a haven for
escaped slaves and border ruffians, were attacked by troops under Generals Jackson
and Gaines and pursued into northern Florida. Spanish posts were attacked and
occupied, British citizens executed. In 1819 the Floridas were ceded to the United
States.
1817 Amelia Island (Spanish territory off Florida). Under orders of President Monroe, United
States forces landed and expelled a group of smugglers, adventurers, and freebooters.
1818 Oregon. The U.S.S. Ontario, dispatched from Washington, landed at the Columbia River
and in August took possession of Oregon territory. Britain had conceded sovereignty
but Russia and Spain asserted claims to the area.
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1820-23 Africa. Naval units raided the slave traffic pursuant to the 1819 act of Congress.
1822 Cuba. United States naval forces suppressing piracy landed on the northwest coast of
Cuba and burned a pirate station.
1823 Cuba. Brief landings in pursuit of pirates occurred April 8 near Escondido; April 16
near Cayo Blanco; July 11 at Siquapa Bay; July 21 at Cape Cruz; and October 23 at
Camrioca.
1824 Cuba. In October the U.S.S. Porpoise landed bluejackets near Matanzas in pursuit of
pirates. This was during the cruise authorized in 1822.
1824 Puerto Rico (Spanish territory). Commodore David Porter with a landing party attacked
the town of Fajardo which had sheltered pirates and insulted American naval officers.
He landed with 200 men in November and forced an apology. Commodore Porter
was later court-martialed for overstepping his powers.
1825 Cuba. In March cooperating American and British forces landed at Sagua La Grande to
capture pirates.
1827 Greece. In October and November landing parties hunted pirates on the islands of
Argenteire, Miconi, and Androse.
1831-32 Falkland Islands. Captain Duncan of the U.S.S. Lexington investigated the capture of
three American sealing vessels and sought to protect American interests.
1832 Sumatra. February 6 to 9. A naval force landed and stormed a fort to punish natives of
the town of Quallah Battoo for plundering the American ship Friendship.
1833 Argentina. October 31 to November 15. A force was sent ashore at Buenos Aires to
protect the interests of the United States and other countries during an insurrection.
1835-36 Peru. December 10, 1835, to January 24, 1836, and August 31 to December 7, 1836.
Marines protected American interests in Callao and Lima during an attempted
revolution.
1836 Mexico. General Gaines occupied Nacogdoches (Tex.), disputed territory, from July to
December during the Texan war for independence, under orders to cross the
“imaginary boundary line” if an Indian outbreak threatened.
1838-39 Sumatra. December 24, 1838, to January 4, 1839. A naval force landed to punish
natives of the towns of Quallah Battoo and Muckie (Mukki) for depredations on
American shipping.
1840 Fiji Islands. July. Naval forces landed to punish natives for attacking American exploring
and surveying parties.
1841 Drummond Island, Kingsmill Group. A naval party landed to avenge the murder of a
seaman by the natives.
1841 Samoa. February 24. A naval party landed and burned towns after the murder of an
American seaman on Upolu Island.
1842 Mexico. Commodore T.A.C. Jones, in command of a squadron long cruising off
California, occupied Monterey, Calif., on October 19, believing war had come. He
discovered peace, withdrew, and saluted. A similar incident occurred a week later at
San Diego.
1843 China. Sailors and marines from the St. Louis were landed after a clash between
Americans and Chinese at the trading post in Canton.
1843 Africa. November 29 to December 16. Four United States vessels demonstrated and
landed various parties (one of 200 marines and sailors) to discourage piracy and the
slave trade along the Ivory coast, and to punish attacks by the natives on American
seamen and shipping.
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1844 Mexico. President Tyler deployed U.S. forces to protect Texas against Mexico, pending
Senate approval of a treaty of annexation. (Later rejected.) He defended his action
against a Senate resolution of inquiry.
1846-48 Mexican War. On May 13, 1846, the United States recognized the
existence of a state of war with Mexico. After the annexation of Texas in 1845,
the United States and Mexico failed to resolve a boundary dispute and President Polk
said that it was necessary to deploy forces in Mexico to meet a threatened invasion.
1849 Smyrna. In July a naval force gained release of an American seized by Austrian officials.
1851 Turkey. After a massacre of foreigners (including Americans) at Jaffa in January, a
demonstration by the Mediterranean Squadron was ordered along the Turkish
(Levant) coast.
1851 Johanns Island (east of Africa). August. Forces from the U.S. sloop of war Dale exacted
redress for the unlawful imprisonment of the captain of an American whaling brig.
1852-53 Argentina. February 3 to 12, 1852; September 17, 1852 to April 1853. Marines were
landed and maintained in Buenos Aires to protect American interests during a
revolution.
1853 Nicaragua. March 11 to 13. U.S. forces landed to protect American lives and interests
during political disturbances.
1853-54 Japan. Commodore Perry and his naval expedition made a display of force leading to
the “opening of Japan.”
1853-54 Ryukyu and Bonin Islands. Commodore Perry on three visits before going to Japan and
while waiting for a reply from Japan made a naval demonstration, landing marines
twice, and secured a coaling concession from the ruler of Naha on Okinawa; he also
demonstrated in the Bonin Islands with the purpose of securing facilities for
commerce.
1854 China. April 4 to June 15 to 17. American and English ships landed forces to protect
American interests in and near Shanghai during Chinese civil strife.
1854 Nicaragua. July 9 to 15. Naval forces bombarded and burned San Juan del Norte
(Greytown) to avenge an insult to the American Minister to Nicaragua.
1855 China. May 19 to 21. U.S. forces protected American interests in Shanghai and, from
August 3 to 5 fought pirates near Hong Kong.
1855 Fiji Islands. September 12 to November 4. An American naval force landed to seek
reparations for depredations on American residents and seamen.
1855 Uruguay. November 25 to 29. United States and European naval forces landed to
protect American interests during an attempted revolution in Montevideo.
1856 Panama, Republic of New Grenada. September 19 to 22. U.S. forces landed to protect
American interests during an insurrection.
1856 China. October 22 to December 6. U.S. forces landed to protect American interests at
Canton during hostilities between the British and the Chinese, and to avenge an
assault upon an unarmed boat displaying the United States flag.
1857 Nicaragua. April to May, November to December. In May Commander C.H. Davis of
the United States Navy, with some marines, received the surrender of William
Walker, who had been attempting to get control of the country, and protected his
men from the retaliation of native allies who had been fighting Walker. In November
and December of the same year United States vessels Saratoga, Wabash, and Fulton
opposed another attempt of William Walker on Nicaragua. Commodore Hiram
Paulding’s act of landing marines and compelling the removal of Walker to the United
States, was tacitly disavowed by Secretary of State Lewis Cass, and Paulding was
forced into retirement.
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1858 Uruguay. January 2 to 27. Forces from two United States warships landed to protect
American property during a revolution in Montevideo.
1858 Fiji Islands. October 6 to 16. A marine expedition chastised natives for the murder of
two American citizens at Waya.
1858-59 Turkey. The Secretary of State requested a display of naval force along the Levant after
a massacre of Americans at Jaffa and mistreatment elsewhere “to remind the
authorities (of Turkey) of the power of the United States.”
1859 Paraguay. Congress authorized a naval squadron to seek redress for an attack on a
naval vessel in the Parana River during 1855. Apologies were made after a large display
of force.
1859 Mexico. Two hundred United States soldiers crossed the Rio Grande in pursuit of the
Mexican bandit Cortina.
1859 China. July 31 to August 2. A naval force landed to protect American interests in
Shanghai.
1860 Angola, Portuguese West Africa. March 1. American residents at Kissembo called upon
American and British ships to protect lives and property during problems with natives.
1860 Colombia (Bay of Panama). September 27 to October 8. Naval forces landed to protect
American interests during a revolution.
1863 Japan. July 16. The U.S.S. Wyoming retaliated against a firing on the American vessel
Pembroke at Shimonoseki.
1864 Japan. July 14 to August 3. Naval forces protected the United States Minister to Japan
when he visited Yedo to negotiate concerning some American claims against Japan,
and to make his negotiations easier by impressing the Japanese with American power.
1864 Japan. September 4 to 14. Naval forces of the United States, Great Britain, France, and
the Netherlands compelled Japan and the Prince of Nagato in particular to permit the
Straits of Shimonoseki to be used by foreign shipping in accordance with treaties
already signed.
1865 Panama. March 9 and 10. U.S. forces protected the lives and property of American
residents during a revolution.
1866 China. From June 20 to July 7, U.S. forces punished an assault on the American consul
at Newchwang.
1866 Mexico. To protect American residents, General Sedgwick and 100 men in November
obtained surrender of Matamoras. After three days he was ordered by U.S.
Government to withdraw. His act was repudiated by the President.
1867 Nicaragua. Marines occupied Managua and Leon.
1867 Formosa. June 13. A naval force landed and burned a number of huts to punish the
murder of the crew of a wrecked American vessel.
1868 Japan (Osaka, Hiolo, Nagasaki, Yokohama, and Negata). February 4 to 8, April 4 to May
12, June 12 and 13. U.S. forces were landed to protect American interests during the
civil war in Japan.
1868 Uruguay. February 7 and 8, 19 to 26. U.S. forces protected foreign residents and the
customhouse during an insurrection at Montevideo.
1868 Colombia. April. U.S. forces protected passengers and treasure in transit at Aspinwall
during the absence of local police or troops on the occasion of the death of the
President of Colombia.
1870 Mexico. June 17 and 18. U.S. forces destroyed the pirate ship Forward, which had been
run aground about 40 miles up the Rio Tecapan.
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1870 Hawaiian Islands. September 21. U.S. forces placed the American flag at half mast upon
the death of Queen Kalama, when the American consul at Honolulu would not
assume responsibility for so doing.
1871 Korea. June 10 to 12. A U.S. naval force attacked and captured five forts to punish
natives for depredations on Americans, particularly for murdering the crew of the
General Sherman and burning the schooner, and for later firing on other American
small boats taking soundings up the Salee River.
1873 Colombia (Bay of Panama). May 7 to 22, September 23 to October 9. U.S. forces
protected American interests during hostilities between local groups over control of
the government of the State of Panama.
1873-96 Mexico. United States troops crossed the Mexican border repeatedly in pursuit of
cattle thieves and other brigands. There were some reciprocal pursuits by Mexican
troops into border territory. Mexico protested frequently. Notable cases were at
Remolina in May 1873 and at Las Cuevas in 1875. Washington orders often supported
these excursions. Agreements between Mexico and the United States, the first in
1882, finally legitimized such raids. They continued intermittently, with minor disputes,
until 1896.
1874 Hawaiian Islands. February 12 to 20. Detachments from American vessels were landed
to preserve order and protect American lives and interests during the coronation of a
new king.
1876 Mexico. May 18. An American force was landed to police the town of Matamoras
temporarily while it was without other government.
1882 Egypt. July 14 to 18. American forces landed to protect American interests during
warfare between British and Egyptians and looting of the city of Alexandria by Arabs.
1885 Panama (Colon). January 18 and 19. U.S. forces were used to guard the valuables in
transit over the Panama Railroad, and the safes and vaults of the company during
revolutionary activity. In March, April, and May in the cities of Colon and Panama, the
forces helped reestablish freedom of transit during revolutionary activity.
1888 Korea. June. A naval force was sent ashore to protect American residents in Seoul
during unsettled political conditions, when an outbreak of the populace was expected.
1888 Haiti. December 20. A display of force persuaded the Haitian Government to give up
an American steamer which had been seized on the charge of breach of blockade.
1888-89 Samoa. November 14, 1888, to March 20, 1889. U.S. forces were landed to protect
American citizens and the consulate during a native civil war.
1889 Hawaiian Islands. July 30 and 31. U.S. forces protected American interests at Honolulu
during a revolution.
1890 Argentina. A naval party landed to protect U.S. consulate and legation in Buenos Aires.
1891 Haiti. U.S. forces sought to protect American lives and property on Navassa Island.
1891 Bering Strait. July 2 to October 5. Naval forces sought to stop seal poaching.
1891 Chile. August 28 to 30. U.S. forces protected the American consulate and the women
and children who had taken refuge in it during a revolution in Valparaiso.
1893 Hawaii. January 16 to April 1. Marines were landed ostensibly to protect American
lives and property, but many believed actually to promote a provisional government
under Sanford B. Dole. This action was disavowed by the United States.
1894 Brazil. January. A display of naval force sought to protect American commerce and
shipping at Rio de Janeiro during a Brazilian civil war.
1894 Nicaragua. July 6 to August 7. U.S. forces sought to protect American interests at
Bluefields following a revolution.
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1894-95 China. Marines were stationed at Tientsin and penetrated to Peking for protection
purposes during the Sino-Japanese War.
1894-95 China. A naval vessel was beached and used as a fort at Newchwang for protection of
American nationals.
1894-96 Korea. July 24, 1894 to April 3, 1896. A guard of marines was sent to protect the
American legation and American lives and interests at Seoul during and following the
Sino-Japanese War.
1895 Colombia. March 8 to 9. U.S. forces protected American interests during an attack on
the town of Bocas del Toro by a bandit chieftain.
1896 Nicaragua. May 2 to 4. U.S. forces protected American interests in Corinto during
political unrest.
1898 Nicaragua. February 7 and 8. U.S. forces protected American lives and property at San
Juan del Sur.
1898 The Spanish-American War. On April 25, 1898, the United States declared
war with Spain. The war followed a Cuban insurrection against Spanish rule and the
sinking of the U.S.S. Maine in the harbor at Havana.
1898-99 China. November 5, 1898 to March 15, 1899. U.S. forces provided a guard for the
legation at Peking and the consulate at Tientsin during contest between the Dowager
Empress and her son.
1899 Nicaragua. American and British naval forces were landed to protect national interests
at San Juan del Norte, February 22 to March 5, and at Bluefields a few weeks later in
connection with the insurrection of Gen. Juan P. Reyes.
1899 Samoa. February-May 15. American and British naval forces were landed to protect
national interests and to take part in a bloody contention over the succession to the
throne.
1899-1901 Philippine Islands. U.S. forces protected American interests following the war with
Spain and conquered the islands by defeating the Filipinos in their war for
independence.
1900 China. May 24 to September 28. American troops participated in operations to
protect foreign lives during the Boxer rising, particularly at Peking. For many years
after this experience a permanent legation guard was maintained in Peking, and was
strengthened at times as trouble threatened.
1901 Colombia (State of Panama). November 20 to December 4. U.S. forces protected
American property on the Isthmus and kept transit lines open during serious
revolutionary disturbances.
1902 Colombia - April 16 to 23. U.S. forces protected American lives and property at Bocas
del Toro during a civil war.
1902 Colombia (State of Panama). September 17 to November 18. The United States placed
armed guards on all trains crossing the Isthmus to keep the railroad line open, and
stationed ships on both sides of Panama to prevent the landing of Colombian troops.
1903 Honduras. March 23 to 30 or 31. U.S. forces protected the American consulate and
the steamship wharf at Puerto Cortez during a period of revolutionary activity.
1903 Dominican Republic. March 30 to April 21. A detachment of marines was landed to
protect American interests in the city of Santo Domingo during a revolutionary
outbreak.
1903 Syria. September 7 to 12. U.S. forces protected the American consulate in Beirut when
a local Moslem uprising was feared.
1903-04 Abyssinia. Twenty-five marines were sent to Abyssinia to protect the U.S. Consul
General while he negotiated a treaty.
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1903-14 Panama. U.S. forces sought to protect American interests and lives during and
following the revolution for independence from Colombia over construction of the
Isthmian Canal. With brief intermissions, United States Marines were stationed on the
Isthmus from November 4, 1903, to January 21, 1914, to guard American interests.
1904 Dominican Republic. January 2 to February 11. American and British naval forces
established an area in which no fighting would be allowed and protected American
interests in Puerto Plata and Sosua and Santo Domingo City during revolutionary
fighting.
1904 Tangier, Morocco. “We want either Perdicaris alive or Raisula dead.” A squadron
demonstrated to force release of a kidnapped American. Marines were landed to
protect the consul general.
1904 Panama. November 17 to 24. U.S. forces protected American lives and property at
Ancon at the time of a threatened insurrection.
1904-05 Korea. January 5, 1904, to November 11, 1905. A guard of Marines was sent to
protect the American legation in Seoul during the Russo-Japanese War.
1906-09 Cuba. September 1906 to January 23, 1909. U.S. forces sought to restore order,
protect foreigners, and establish a stable government after serious revolutionary
activity.
1907 Honduras. March 18 to June 8. To protect American interests during a war between
Honduras and Nicaragua, troops were stationed in Trujillo, Ceiba, Puerto Cortez, San
Pedro, Laguna and Choloma.
1910 Nicaragua. May 19 to September 4. U.S. forces protected American interests at
Bluefields.
1911 Honduras. January 26. American naval detachments were landed to protect American
lives and interests during a civil war in Honduras.
1911 China. As the nationalist revolution approached, in October an ensign and 10 men
tried to enter Wuchang to rescue missionaries but retired on being warned away, and
a small landing force guarded American private property and consulate at Hankow.
Marines were deployed in November to guard the cable stations at Shanghai; landing
forces were sent for protection in Nanking, Chinkiang, Taku and elsewhere.
1912 Honduras. A small force landed to prevent seizure by the government of an Americanowned
railroad at Puerto Cortez. The forces were withdrawn after the United States
disapproved the action.
1912 Panama. Troops, on request of both political parties, supervised elections outside the
Canal Zone.
1912 Cuba. June 5 to August 5. U.S. forces protected American interests on the Province of
Oriente, and in Havana.
1912 China. August 24 to 26, on Kentucky Island, and August 26 to 30 at Camp Nicholson.
U.S. forces protected Americans and American interests during revolutionary activity.
1912 Turkey. November 18 to December 3. U.S. forces guarded the American legation at
Constantinople during a Balkan War.
1912-25 Nicaragua. August to November 1912. U.S. forces protected American interests
during an attempted revolution. A small force, serving as a legation guard and seeking
to promote peace and stability, remained until August 5, 1925.
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1912-41 China. The disorders which began with the overthrow of the dynasty during
Kuomintang rebellion in 1912, which were redirected by the invasion of China by
Japan, led to demonstrations and landing parties for the protection of U.S. interests in
China continuously and at many points from 1912 on to 1941. The guard at Peking
and along the route to the sea was maintained until 1941. In 1927, the United States
had 5,670 troops ashore in China and 44 naval vessels in its waters. In 1933 the
United States had 3,027 armed men ashore. The protective action was generally based
on treaties with China concluded from 1858 to 1901.
1913 Mexico. September 5 to 7. A few marines landed at Ciaris Estero to aid in evacuating
American citizens and others from the Yaqui Valley, made dangerous for foreigners by
civil strife.
1914 Haiti. January 29 to February 9, February 20 to 21, October 19. Intermittently U.S.
naval forces protected American nationals in a time of rioting and revolution.
1914 Dominican Republic. June and July. During a revolutionary movement, United States
naval forces by gunfire stopped the bombardment of Puerto Plata, and by threat of
force maintained Santo Domingo City as a neutral zone.
1914-17 Mexico. Undeclared Mexican-American hostilities followed the Dolphin affair and
Villa’s raids and included capture of Vera Cruz and later Pershing’s expedition into
northern Mexico.
1915-34 Haiti. July 28, 1915, to August 15, 1934. U.S. forces maintained order during a period
of chronic political instability.
1916 China. American forces landed to quell a riot taking place on American property in
Nanking.
1916-24 Dominican Republic. May 1916 to September 1924. American naval forces maintained
order during a period of chronic and threatened insurrection.
1917 China. American troops were landed at Chungking to protect American lives during a
political crisis.
1917-18 World War I. On April 6, 1917, the United States declared war with
Germany and on December 7, 1917, with Austria-Hungary. Entrance of the
United States into the war was precipitated by Germany’s submarine warfare against
neutral shipping.
1917-22 Cuba. U.S. forces protected American interests during an insurrection and subsequent
unsettled conditions. Most of the United States armed forces left Cuba by August
1919, but two companies remained at Camaguey until February 1922.
1918-19 Mexico. After withdrawal of the Pershing expedition, U.S. troops entered Mexico in
pursuit of bandits at least three times in 1918 and six times in 1919. In August 1918
American and Mexican troops fought at Nogales.
1918-20 Panama. U.S. forces were used for police duty according to treaty stipulations, at
Chiriqui, during election disturbances and subsequent unrest.
1918-20 Soviet Russia. Marines were landed at and near Vladivostok in June and July to protect
the American consulate and other points in the fighting between the Bolshevik troops
and the Czech Army which had traversed Siberia from the western front. A joint
proclamation of emergency government and neutrality was issued by the American,
Japanese, British, French, and Czech commanders in July. In August 7,000 men were
landed in Vladivostok and remained until January 1920, as part of an allied occupation
force. In September 1918, 5,000 American troops joined the allied intervention force
at Archangel and remained until June 1919. These operations were in response to the
Bolshevik revolution in Russia and were partly supported by Czarist or Kerensky
elements.
1919 Dalmatia. U.S. forces were landed at Trau at the request of Italian authorities to police
order between the Italians and Serbs.
Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798-2009
Congressional Research Service 10
1919 Turkey. Marines from the U.S.S. Arizona were landed to guard the U.S. Consulate
during the Greek occupation of Constantinople.
1919 Honduras. September 8 to 12. A landing force was sent ashore to maintain order in a
neutral zone during an attempted revolution.
1920 China. March 14. A landing force was sent ashore for a few hours to protect lives
during a disturbance at Kiukiang.
1920 Guatemala. April 9 to 27. U.S. forces protected the American Legation and other
American interests, such as the cable station, during a period of fighting between
Unionists and the Government of Guatemala.
1920-22 Russia (Siberia). February 16, 1920, to November 19, 1922. A Marine guard was sent to
protect the United States radio station and property on Russian Island, Bay of
Vladivostok.
1921 Panama - Costa Rica. American naval squadrons demonstrated in April on both sides of
the Isthmus to prevent war between the two countries over a boundary dispute.
1922 Turkey. September and October. A landing force was sent ashore with consent of both
Greek and Turkish authorities, to protect American lives and property when the
Turkish Nationalists entered Smyrna.
1922-23 China. Between April 1922 and November 1923 marines were landed five times to
protect Americans during periods of unrest.
1924 Honduras. February 28 to March 31, September 10 to 15. U.S. forces protected
American lives and interests during election hostilities.
1924 China. September. Marines were landed to protect Americans and other foreigners in
Shanghai during Chinese factional hostilities.
1925 China. January 15 to August 29. Fighting of Chinese factions accompanied by riots and
demonstrations in Shanghai brought the landing of American forces to protect lives
and property in the International Settlement.
1925 Honduras. April 19 to 21. U.S. forces protected foreigners at La Ceiba during a political
upheaval.
1925 Panama. October 12 to 23. Strikes and rent riots led to the landing of about 600
American troops to keep order and protect American interests.
1926-33 Nicaragua. May 7 to June 5, 1926; August 27, 1926 to January 3, 1933. The coup d’etat
of General Chamorro aroused revolutionary activities leading to the landing of
American marines to protect the interests of the United States. United States forces
came and went intermittently until January 3, 1933.
1926 China. August and September. The Nationalist attack on Hankow brought the landing
of American naval forces to protect American citizens. A small guard was maintained
at the consulate general even after September 16, when the rest of the forces were
withdrawn. Likewise, when Nationalist forces captured Kiukiang, naval forces were
landed for the protection of foreigners November 4 to 6.
1927 China. February. Fighting at Shanghai caused American naval forces and marines to be
increased. In March a naval guard was stationed at the American consulate at Nanking
after Nationalist forces captured the city. American and British destroyers later used
shell fire to protect Americans and other foreigners. Subsequently additional forces of
marines and naval vessels were stationed in the vicinity of Shanghai and Tientsin.
1932 China. American forces were landed to protect American interests during the Japanese
occupation of Shanghai.
1933 Cuba. During a revolution against President Gerardo Machado naval forces
demonstrated but no landing was made.
1934 China. Marines landed at Foochow to protect the American Consulate.
Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798-2009
Congressional Research Service 11
1940 Newfoundland, Bermuda, St. Lucia, Bahamas, Jamaica, Antigua, Trinidad, and British Guiana.
Troops were sent to guard air and naval bases obtained by negotiation with Great
Britain. These were sometimes called lend-lease bases.
1941 Greenland. Greenland was taken under protection of the United States in April.
1941 Netherlands (Dutch Guiana). In November the President ordered American troops to
occupy Dutch Guiana, but by agreement with the Netherlands government in exile,
Brazil cooperated to protect aluminum ore supply from the bauxite mines in Surinam.
1941 Iceland. Iceland was taken under the protection of the United States, with consent of
its government, for strategic reasons.
1941 Germany. Sometime in the spring the President ordered the Navy to patrol ship lanes
to Europe. By July U.S. warships were convoying and by September were attacking
German submarines. In November, the Neutrality Act was partly repealed to protect
U.S. military aid to Britain.
1941-45 World War II. On December 8, 1941, the United States declared war with
Japan, on December 11 with Germany and Italy, and on June 5, 1942, with
Bulgaria, Hungary and Rumania. The United States declared war against Japan
after the surprise bombing of Pearl Harbor, and against Germany and Italy after those
nations, under the dictators Hitler and Mussolini, declared war against the United
States. The U.S. declared war against Bulgaria, Hungary and Rumania in response to
the declarations of war by those nations against the United States.
1945 China. In October 50,000 U.S. Marines were sent to North China to assist Chinese
Nationalist authorities in disarming and repatriating the Japanese in China and in
controlling ports, railroads, and airfields. This was in addition to approximately 60,000
U.S. forces remaining in China at the end of World War II.
1946 Trieste. President Truman ordered the augmentation of U.S. troops along the zonal
occupation line and the reinforcement of air forces in northern Italy after Yugoslav
forces shot down an unarmed U.S. Army transport plane flying over Venezia Giulia.
Earlier U.S. naval units had been dispatched to the scene.
1948 Palestine. A marine consular guard was sent to Jerusalem to protect the U.S. Consul
General.
1948 Berlin. After the Soviet Union established a land blockade of the U.S., British, and
French sectors of Berlin on June 24, 1948, the United States and its allies airlifted
supplies to Berlin until after the blockade was lifted in May 1949.
1948-49 China. Marines were dispatched to Nanking to protect the American Embassy when
the city fell to Communist troops, and to Shanghai to aid in the protection and
evacuation of Americans.
1950-53 Korean War. The United States responded to North Korean invasion of South Korea
by going to its assistance, pursuant to United Nations Security Council resolutions.
U.S. forces deployed in Korea exceeded 300,000 during the last year of the conflict.
Over 36,600 U.S. military were killed in action.
1950-55 Formosa (Taiwan). In June 1950 at the beginning of the Korean War, President Truman
ordered the U.S. Seventh Fleet to prevent Chinese Communist attacks upon Formosa
and Chinese Nationalist operations against mainland China.
1954-55 China. Naval units evacuated U.S. civilians and military personnel from the Tachen
Islands.
1956 Egypt. A marine battalion evacuated U.S. nationals and other persons from Alexandria
during the Suez crisis.
1958 Lebanon. Marines were landed in Lebanon at the invitation of its government to help
protect against threatened insurrection supported from the outside. The President’s
action was supported by a Congressional resolution passed in 1957 that authorized
such actions in that area of the world.
Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798-2009
Congressional Research Service 12
1959-60 The Caribbean. 2d Marine Ground Task Force was deployed to protect U.S. nationals
during the Cuban crisis.
1962 Thailand. The 3d Marine Expeditionary Unit landed on May 17, 1962 to support that
country during the threat of Communist pressure from outside; by July 30 the 5,000
marines had been withdrawn.
1962 Cuba. On October 22, President Kennedy instituted a “quarantine” on the shipment of
offensive missiles to Cuba from the Soviet Union. He also warned the Soviet Union
that the launching of any missile from Cuba against any nation in the Western
Hemisphere would bring about U.S. nuclear retaliation on the Soviet Union. A
negotiated settlement was achieved in a few days.
1962-75 Laos. From October 1962 until 1975, the United States played an important role in
military support of anti-Communist forces in Laos.
1964 Congo. The United States sent four transport planes to provide airlift for Congolese
troops during a rebellion and to transport Belgian paratroopers to rescue foreigners.
1964-73 Vietnam War. U.S. military advisers had been in South Vietnam for a decade, and their
numbers had been increased as the military position of the Saigon government became
weaker. After citing what he termed were attacks on U.S. destroyers in the Tonkin
Gulf, President Johnson asked in August 1964 for a resolution expressing U.S.
determination to support freedom and protect peace in Southeast Asia. Congress
responded with the Tonkin Gulf Resolution, expressing support for “all necessary
measures” the President might take to repel armed attack against U.S. forces and
prevent further aggression. Following this resolution, and following a Communist
attack on a U.S. installation in central Vietnam, the United States escalated its
participation in the war to a peak of 543,000 military personnel by April 1969.
1965 Dominican Republic. The United States intervened to protect lives and property during
a Dominican revolt and sent more troops as fears grew that the revolutionary forces
were coming increasingly under Communist control.
1967 Congo. The United States sent three military transport aircraft with crews to provide
the Congo central government with logistical support during a revolt.
1970 Cambodia. U.S. troops were ordered into Cambodia to clean out Communist
sanctuaries from which Viet Cong and North Vietnamese attacked U.S. and South
Vietnamese forces in Vietnam. The object of this attack, which lasted from April 30 to
June 30, was to ensure the continuing safe withdrawal of American forces from South
Vietnam and to assist the program of Vietnamization.
1974 Evacuation from Cyprus. United States naval forces evacuated U.S. civilians during
hostilities between Turkish and Greek Cypriot forces.
1975 Evacuation from Vietnam. On April 3, 1975, President Ford reported U.S. naval vessels,
helicopters, and marines had been sent to assist in evacuation of refugees and U.S.
nationals from Vietnam.2
1975 Evacuation from Cambodia. On April 12, 1975, President Ford reported that he had
ordered U.S. military forces to proceed with the planned evacuation of U.S. citizens
from Cambodia.
1975 South Vietnam. On April 30, 1975, President Ford reported that a force of 70
evacuation helicopters and 865 marines had evacuated about 1,400 U.S. citizens and
5,500 third country nationals and South Vietnamese from landing zones near the U.S.
Embassy in Saigon and the Tan Son Nhut Airfield.
2 This and subsequent mentions of Presidential reports or notifications refer to reports the President has submitted to
Congress related to the War Powers Resolution (P.L. 91-148, November 7, 1973). For a discussion of the War Powers
Resolution and various types of reports required under it, see CRS Report RL33532, War Powers Resolution:
Presidential Compliance, by Richard F. Grimmett.
Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798-2009
Congressional Research Service 13
1975 Mayaguez incident. On May 15, 1975, President Ford reported he had ordered military
forces to retake the SS Mayaguez, a merchant vessel en route from Hong Kong to
Thailand with a U.S. citizen crew which was seized by Cambodian naval patrol boats in
international waters and forced to proceed to a nearby island.
1976 Lebanon. On July 22 and 23, 1974, helicopters from five U.S. naval vessels evacuated
approximately 250 Americans and Europeans from Lebanon during fighting between
Lebanese factions after an overland convoy evacuation had been blocked by hostilities.
1976 Korea. Additional forces were sent to Korea after two American soldiers were killed
by North Korean soldiers in the demilitarized zone between North and South Korea
while cutting down a tree.
1978 Zaire. From May 19 through June 1978, the United States utilized military transport
aircraft to provide logistical support to Belgian and French rescue operations in Zaire.
1980 Iran. On April 26, 1980, President Carter reported the use of six U.S. transport planes
and eight helicopters in an unsuccessful attempt to rescue American hostages being
held in Iran.
1981 El Salvador. After a guerilla offensive against the government of El Salvador, additional
U.S. military advisers were sent to El Salvador, bringing the total to approximately 55,
to assist in training government forces in counterinsurgency.
1981 Libya. On August 19, 1981, U.S. planes based on the carrier U.S.S. Nimitz shot down
two Libyan jets over the Gulf of Sidra after one of the Libyan jets had fired a heatseeking
missile. The United States periodically held freedom of navigation exercises in
the Gulf of Sidra, claimed by Libya as territorial waters but considered international
waters by the United States.
1982 Sinai. On March 19, 1982, President Reagan reported the deployment of military
personnel and equipment to participate in the Multinational Force and Observers in
the Sinai. Participation had been authorized by the Multinational Force and Observers
Resolution, P.L. 97-132.
1982 Lebanon. On August 21, 1982, President Reagan reported the dispatch of 80 marines
to serve in the multinational force to assist in the withdrawal of members of the
Palestine Liberation force from Beirut. The Marines left September 20, 1982.
1982-1983 Lebanon. On September 29, 1982, President Reagan reported the deployment of 1200
marines to serve in a temporary multinational force to facilitate the restoration of
Lebanese government sovereignty. On Sept. 29, 1983, Congress passed the
Multinational Force in Lebanon Resolution (P.L. 98-119) authorizing the continued
participation for eighteen months.
1983 Egypt. After a Libyan plane bombed a city in Sudan on March 18, 1983, and Sudan and
Egypt appealed for assistance, the United States dispatched an AWACS electronic
surveillance plane to Egypt.
1983-89 Honduras. In July 1983 the United States undertook a series of exercises in Honduras
that some believed might lead to conflict with Nicaragua. On March 25, 1986,
unarmed U.S. military helicopters and crewmen ferried Honduran troops to the
Nicaraguan border to repel Nicaraguan troops.
1983 Chad. On August 8, 1983, President Reagan reported the deployment of two AWACS
electronic surveillance planes and eight F-15 fighter planes and ground logistical
support forces to assist Chad against Libyan and rebel forces.
1983 Grenada. On October 25, 1983, President Reagan reported a landing on Grenada by
Marines and Army airborne troops to protect lives and assist in the restoration of law
and order and at the request of five members of the Organization of Eastern
Caribbean States.
Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798-2009
Congressional Research Service 14
1984 Persian Gulf. On June 5, 1984, Saudi Arabian jet fighter planes, aided by intelligence
from a U.S. AWACS electronic surveillance aircraft and fueled by a U.S. KC-10 tanker,
shot down two Iranian fighter planes over an area of the Persian Gulf proclaimed as a
protected zone for shipping.
1985 Italy. On October 10, 1985, U.S. Navy pilots intercepted an Egyptian airliner and
forced it to land in Sicily. The airliner was carrying the hijackers of the Italian cruise
ship Achille Lauro who had killed an American citizen during the hijacking.
1986 Libya. On March 26, 1986, President Reagan reported to Congress that, on March 24
and 25, U.S. forces, while engaged in freedom of navigation exercises around the Gulf
of Sidra, had been attacked by Libyan missiles and the United States had responded
with missiles.
1986 Libya. On April 16, 1986, President Reagan reported that U.S. air and naval forces had
conducted bombing strikes on terrorist facilities and military installations in Libya.
1986 Bolivia. U.S. Army personnel and aircraft assisted Bolivia in anti-drug operations.
1987-88 Persian Gulf. After the Iran-Iraq War resulted in several military incidents in the Persian
Gulf, the United States increased U.S. joint military forces operations in the Persian
Gulf and adopted a policy of reflagging and escorting Kuwaiti oil tankers through the
Gulf. President Reagan reported that U.S. Navy ships had been fired upon or struck
mines or taken other military action on September 23, October 10, and October 20,
1987 and April 19, July 4, and July 14, 1988. The United States gradually reduced its
forces after a cease-fire between Iran and Iraq on August 20, 1988.
1988 Panama. In mid-March and April 1988, during a period of instability in Panama and as
pressure grew for Panamanian military leader General Manuel Noriega to resign, the
United States sent 1,000 troops to Panama, to “further safeguard the canal, U.S. lives,
property and interests in the area.” The forces supplemented 10,000 U.S. military
personnel already in Panama.
1989 Libya. On January 4, 1989, two U.S. Navy F-14 aircraft based on the U.S.S. John F.
Kennedy shot down two Libyan jet fighters over the Mediterranean Sea about 70 miles
north of Libya. The U.S. pilots said the Libyan planes had demonstrated hostile
intentions.
1989 Panama. On May 11, 1989, in response to General Noriega’s disregard of the results
of the Panamanian election, President Bush ordered a brigade-sized force of
approximately 1,900 troops to augment the estimated 11,000 U.S. forces already in
the area.
1989 Andean Initiative in War on Drugs. On September 15, 1989, President Bush announced
that military and law enforcement assistance would be sent to help the Andean
nations of Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru combat illicit drug producers and traffickers. By
mid-September there were 50-100 U.S. military advisers in Colombia in connection
with transport and training in the use of military equipment, plus seven Special Forces
teams of 2-12 persons to train troops in the three countries.
1989 Philippines. On December 2, 1989, President Bush reported that on December 1 U.S.
fighter planes from Clark Air Base in the Philippines had assisted the Aquino
government to repel a coup attempt. In addition, 100 marines were sent from the U.S.
Navy base at Subic Bay to protect the U.S. Embassy in Manila.
1989-90 Panama. On December 21, 1989, President Bush reported that he had ordered U.S.
military forces to Panama to protect the lives of American citizens and bring General
Noriega to justice. By February 13, 1990, all the invasion forces had been withdrawn.
1990 Liberia. On August 6, 1990, President Bush reported that a reinforced rifle company
had been sent to provide additional security to the U.S. Embassy in Monrovia, and that
helicopter teams had evacuated U.S. citizens from Liberia.
Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798-2009
Congressional Research Service 15
1990 Saudi Arabia. On August 9, 1990, President Bush reported that he had ordered the
forward deployment of substantial elements of the U.S. armed forces into the Persian
Gulf region to help defend Saudi Arabia after the August 2 invasion of Kuwait by Iraq.
On November 16, 1990, he reported the continued buildup of the forces to ensure an
adequate offensive military option.
1991 Iraq. On January 18, 1991, President Bush reported that he had directed U.S. armed
forces to commence combat operations on January 16 against Iraqi forces and military
targets in Iraq and Kuwait, in conjunction with a coalition of allies and U.N. Security
Council resolutions. On January 12 Congress had passed the Authorization for Use of
Military Force against Iraq Resolution (P.L. 102-1). Combat operations were
suspended on February 28, 1991.
1991 Iraq. On May 17, 1991, President Bush stated in a status report to Congress that the
Iraqi repression of the Kurdish people had necessitated a limited introduction of U.S.
forces into northern Iraq for emergency relief purposes.
1991 Zaire. On September 25-27, 1991, after widespread looting and rioting broke out in
Kinshasa, U.S. Air Force C-141s transported 100 Belgian troops and equipment into
Kinshasa. U.S. planes also carried 300 French troops into the Central African Republic
and hauled back American citizens and third country nationals from locations outside
Zaire.
1992 Sierra Leone. On May 3, 1992, U.S. military planes evacuated Americans from Sierra
Leone, where military leaders had overthrown the government.
1992 Kuwait. On August 3, 1992, the United States began a series of military exercises in
Kuwait, following Iraqi refusal to recognize a new border drawn up by the United
Nations and refusal to cooperate with U.N. inspection teams.
1992 Iraq. On September 16, 1992, President Bush stated in a status report to Congress
that he had ordered U.S. participation in the enforcement of a prohibition against Iraqi
flights in a specified zone in southern Iraq, and aerial reconnaissance to monitor Iraqi
compliance with the cease-fire resolution.
1992 Somalia. On December 10, 1992, President Bush reported that he had deployed U.S.
armed forces to Somalia in response to a humanitarian crisis and a U.N. Security
Council Resolution determining that the situation constituted a threat to international
peace. This operation, called Operation Restore Hope, was part of a U.S.-led United
Nations Unified Task Force (UNITAF) and came to an end on May 4, 1993. U.S. forces
continued to participate in the successor United Nations Operation in Somalia
(UNOSOM II), which the U.N. Security Council authorized to assist Somalia in
political reconciliation and restoration of peace.
1993 Iraq. On January 19, 1993, President Bush said in a status report that on December 27,
1992, U.S. aircraft had shot down an Iraqi aircraft in the prohibited zone; on January
13 aircraft from the United States and coalition partners had attacked missile bases in
southern Iraq; and further military actions had occurred on January 17 and 18.
Administration officials said the United States was deploying a battalion task force to
Kuwait to underline the continuing U.S. commitment to Kuwaiti independence.
1993 Iraq. On January 21, 1993, shortly after his inauguration, President Clinton said the
United States would continue the Bush policy on Iraq, and U.S. aircraft fired at targets
in Iraq after pilots sensed Iraqi radar or anti-aircraft fire directed at them.
1993 Bosnia. On February 28, 1993, the United States began an airdrop of relief supplies
aimed at Muslims surrounded by Serbian forces in Bosnia.
1993 Bosnia. On April 13, 1993, President Clinton reported U.S. forces were participating in
a NATO air action to enforce a U.N. ban on all unauthorized military flights over
Bosnia-Hercegovina.
1993 Iraq. In a status report on Iraq of May 24, President Clinton said that on April 9 and
April 18 U.S. planes had bombed or fired missiles at Iraqi anti-aircraft sites that had
tracked U.S. aircraft.
Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798-2009
Congressional Research Service 16
1993 Somalia. On June 10, 1993, President Clinton reported that in response to attacks
against U.N. forces in Somalia by a factional leader, the U.S. Quick Reaction Force in
the area had participated in military action to quell the violence. On July 1 President
Clinton reported further air and ground military operations on June 12 and June 17
aimed at neutralizing military capabilities that had impeded U.N. efforts to deliver
humanitarian relief and promote national reconstruction, and additional instances
occurred in the following months.
1993 Iraq. On June 28, 1993, President Clinton reported that on June 26 U.S. naval forces
had launched missiles against the Iraqi Intelligence Service’s headquarters in Baghdad in
response to an unsuccessful attempt to assassinate former President Bush in Kuwait in
April 1993.
1993 Iraq. In a status report of July 22, 1993, President Clinton said on June 19 a U.S.
aircraft had fired a missile at an Iraqi anti-aircraft site displaying hostile intent. U.S.
planes also bombed an Iraqi missile battery on August 19, 1993.
1993 Macedonia. On July 9, 1993, President Clinton reported the deployment of 350 U.S.
soldiers to the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia to participate in the U.N.
Protection Force to help maintain stability in the area of former Yugoslavia.
1993 Haiti. On October 20, 1993, President Clinton reported that U.S. ships had begun to
enforce a U.N. embargo against Haiti.
1994 Bosnia. On February 17, 1994, President Clinton reported that the United States had
expanded its participation in United Nations and NATO efforts to reach a peaceful
solution to the conflict in former Yugoslavia and that 60 U.S. aircraft were available for
participation in the authorized NATO missions.
1994 Bosnia. On March 1, 1994, President Clinton reported that on February 28 U.S. planes
patrolling the “no-fly zone” in former Yugoslavia under the North Atlantic Treaty
Organization (NATO) shot down 4 Serbian Galeb planes.
1994 Bosnia. On April 12, 1994, President Clinton reported that on April 10 and 11, U.S.
warplanes under NATO command had fired against Bosnian Serb forces shelling the
“safe” city of Gorazde.
1994 Rwanda. On April 12, 1994, President Clinton reported that combat-equipped U.S.
military forces had been deployed to Burundi to conduct possible non-combatant
evacuation operations of U.S. citizens and other third-country nationals from Rwanda,
where widespread fighting had broken out. By September 30, 1994, all U.S. troops had
departed from Rwanda and surrounding nations. In the Defense Appropriations Act
for FY1995 (P.L. 103-335, signed September 30, 1994), Congress barred use of funds
for U.S. military participation in or around Rwanda after October 7, 1994, except for
any action necessary to protect U.S. citizens.
1994 Macedonia. On April 19, 1994, President Clinton reported that the U.S. contingent in
the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia had been augmented by a reinforced
company of 200 personnel.
1994 Haiti. On April 20, 1994, President Clinton reported that U.S. naval forces had
continued enforcement of the U.N. embargo in the waters around Haiti and that 712
vessels had been boarded since October 20, 1993.
1994 Bosnia. On August 22, 1994, President Clinton reported the use on August 5 of U.S.
aircraft under NATO to attack Bosnian Serb heavy weapons in the Sarajevo heavy
weapons exclusion zone upon request of the U.N. Protection Forces.
1994 Haiti. On September 21, 1994, President Clinton reported the deployment of 1,500
troops to Haiti to restore democracy in Haiti. The troop level was subsequently
increased to 20,000.
1994 Bosnia. On November 22, 1994, President Clinton reported the use of U.S. combat
aircraft on November 21, 1994, under NATO, to attack bases used by Serbs to attack
the town of Bihac in Bosnia.
Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798-2009
Congressional Research Service 17
1994 Macedonia. On December 22, 1994, President Clinton reported that the U.S. Army
contingent in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia continued its peacekeeping
mission and that the current contingent would soon be replaced by about 500 soldiers
from the 3rd Battalion, 5th Cavalry Regiment, 1st Armored Division from Kirchgons,
Germany.
1995 Somalia. On March 1, 1995, President Clinton reported that on February 27, 1995,
1,800 combat-equipped U.S. armed forces personnel began deployment into
Mogadishu, Somalia, to assist in the withdrawal of U.N. forces assigned there to the
United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM II). This mission was completed on
March 3, 1995.
1995 Haiti. On March 21, 1995, President Clinton reported that U.S. military forces in Haiti
as part of a U.N. Multinational Force had been reduced to just under 5,300 personnel.
He noted that as of March 31, 1995, approximately 2,500 U.S. personnel would
remain in Haiti as part of the U.N. Mission in Haiti (UNMIH).
1995 Bosnia. On May 24, 1995, President Clinton reported that U.S. combat-equipped
fighter aircraft and other aircraft continued to contribute to NATO’s enforcement of
the no-fly zone in airspace over Bosnia-Herzegovina. U.S. aircraft, he noted, were also
available for close air support of U.N. forces in Croatia. Roughly 500 U.S. soldiers
continued to be deployed in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as part of the
U.N. Preventive Deployment Force (UNPREDEP). U.S. forces continued to support
U.N. refugee and embargo operations in this region.
1995 Bosnia. On September 1, 1995, President Clinton reported that “U.S. combat and
support aircraft” had been used beginning on August 29, 1995, in a series of NATO air
strikes against Bosnian Serb Army (BSA) forces in Bosnia-Herzegovina that were
threatening the U.N.-declared safe areas of Sarajevo, Tuzla, and Gorazde. He noted
that during the first day of operations, “some 300 sorties were flown against 23
targets in the vicinity of Sarajevo, Tuzla, Gorazde and Mostar.”
1995 Haiti. On September 21, 1995, President Clinton reported that currently the United
States had 2,400 military personnel in Haiti as participants in the U.N. Mission in Haiti
(UNMIH). In additio...
"The philosophers have only interpreted the world, in various ways. The point, however, is to change it." Karl Marx

"He would, wouldn't he?" Mandy Rice-Davies. When asked in court whether she knew that Lord Astor had denied having sex with her.

“I think it would be a good idea” Ghandi, when asked about Western Civilisation.
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